Genocide in Rwanda

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					Genocide in Rwanda: The Basics

              Mr. Fritz
       Westview Global Studies
Where is Rwanda?
           Small country in the
            middle of Africa

           Capital city is Kigali

           Bordered by
            Democratic Republic
            of the Congo,
            Uganda, Tanzania,
            and Burundi
       Basic Facts About Rwanda
   About the size of
    Maryland with the
    population of Michigan
    (about 10.19 million)
   Infant mortality rate of
   5.1% of adult population
    has HIV/AIDS
   70.4% over the age of 15
    can read and write
   90% of population makes
    a living through
   5.3 children born per
   Culture of Rwandans
                      Two major ethnic groups: The
                       Hutu (about 84%) and the
                       Tutsi (about 15%)
                      Religion: some form of
                       Christianity – 93.6% (Catholic
                       56%, Protestant 26%,
                       Adventist 11.1%), Muslim –
                       4.6%, none or other – 1.8%
                      Official languages:
                       Kinyarwanda, French, English -
                       Swahili also spoken
                      Democratically elected (in
Rwandan Students
                       theory) government
                       (parliament required to be at
                       least 1/3 female)
      What happened and when?

                         In 100 days in 1994,
                          from April 6th to mid
Time Magazine              July, approximately
 May 16, 1994            800,000 to 1,000,000
                             Rwandans died
       Lead Up to Conflict in 1994
   Tutsi monarchy had been
    overthrown in 1961 – many
    clashes/purges since
   “Hutu” previously meant anyone
    who was conquered – not really
    an ethnic group, more of a social
   Ethnic tensions between Hutus
    and Tutsis explode when
    President Habyarimana’s plane
    shot down on April 6, 1994
   Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF),
    dominated by Tutsis in Uganda,
   Mass killings begin of Tutsis and
    moderate Hutus – anyone who
    was against the Hutu government       Anti-Tutsi Propaganda in 1993. The title reads
                                            “Tutsi: Race of God” and the left box says:
                                        “Which weapons will we use to beat the cockroaches
                                            for good?” – From the Kangura newspaper
                                                 Organized throughout Rwanda,
                                                  with first major incidents in
                                                 Majority of killings done by
                                                  machete – people hacked to
                                                 Neighbors encouraged to kill
Rwandan skulls – a legacy still part of the       neighbors – those who did not
            country today                         were frequently killed
                                                 Systematic rape of Tutsi
                                                  women, used as a weapon
                                                 Killings on the largest
                                                  sustained frequency in human
               End to the Genocide
   U.N. (led by France) initially
    sends in peacekeepers to
    maintain Hutu control
    (Operation Turquoise)
   RPF forces, waging a civil war
    with the Hutus at the same
    time as the genocide is
    occurring, finally controlling the
    entire control of the entire
    country on August 21.
   RPF (and Tutsis) still control
    Rwanda today
                                            A Hutu man who did not support
   Many Hutus flee to Congo,
                                          the genocide. He managed to survive
    other surrounding countries
                                         in a concentration camp until the Red
    where they remain today
                                                      Cross came.
                 Why is this important?

                                      Ongoing conflicts
                                      around the world
Time Magazine                         show that genocide
August 1, 1994                        continues to
                                      happen. Why?
                                      What can we do
                                      about it? Why don’t
                                      we know more?