ORWRDP Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Management

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					Olifants River Water Resources Development Project                                                     II
Environmental Impact Assessment
De Hoop Dam Environmental Management Plan




                                 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLANS


      Pursuant to the Environmental Impact Assessment carried out for the Olifants River Water Resources
      Development Project are Environmental Management Plans that will guide the construction and
      operation of the infrastructure. Due to the nature and extent of the proposed ORWRDP, and the
      proposed mitigation measures, a suite of Environmental Management Plans is required [ROD: Clause
      3.2.5.1], as listed below:



                Pre-Construction Environmental Management Plan.
                Construction Environmental Management Plans.
                      De Hoop Dam (this document).
                      R555 Realignment (P169 Provincial Road).
                      Steelpoort River Weirs.
                National Bulk Water Distribution Infrastructure.
                      De Hoop Dam or Steelpoort Abstraction Weir to Olifantspoort Weir Pipeline and
                      Associated Infrastructure.
                      De Hoop Dam to Jane Furse Pipeline and Associated Infrastructure.
                      Flag Boshielo Dam to Mokopane Pipeline and Associated Infrastructure.
                Post Construction Environmental Management Plan.
                Operational Environmental Management Plan.




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                                                             TABLE OF CONTENTS


ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLANS................................................................................................ II
TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................................................................... III
ACRONYMS              ............................................................................................................................................VI
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................................................VI
DEFINITIONS ...........................................................................................................................................VII
1.       INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 1
         1.1 Purpose of this document ............................................................................................................1
         1.2 Environmental authorisation ........................................................................................................1
         1.3 Scope of this document ...............................................................................................................1
         1.4 Application of this document ........................................................................................................2
         1.5 Context of this document in terms of the overall ORWRDP .........................................................2
2.       DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT.................................................................................................... 5
         2.1 Project components .....................................................................................................................5
         2.2 Sensitive environments................................................................................................................5
         2.3 Potential issues and impacts .......................................................................................................6
3.       ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE ................................................................................................... 11
         3.1 Reporting relationships ..............................................................................................................11
         3.2 Roles and responsibilities ..........................................................................................................11
             3.2.1 Employer .........................................................................................................................11
             3.2.2 Environmental Monitoring Committee ..............................................................................12
             3.2.3 Authorities Co-ordinating Committee ...............................................................................12
             3.2.4 Engineer ..........................................................................................................................12
             3.2.5 Engineer’s Environmental Representative .......................................................................12
             3.2.6 Environmental Control Officer..........................................................................................13
             3.2.7 Contractor........................................................................................................................15
             3.2.8 Contractor’s Environmental Representative.....................................................................15
4.       ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLES AND LEGAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................. 17
         4.1 Environmental principles............................................................................................................17
         4.2 Compliance with Legislation and Regulations............................................................................17
         4.3 Required environmental permits, licences and authorisations ...................................................17
5.       PRE-CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATION ........................................................................................ 19
         5.1 General......................................................................................................................................19
         5.2 Environmental Site Management and Rehabilitation Plan .........................................................20
         5.3 Access and landowners.............................................................................................................22
              5.3.1 Access/haul roads ...........................................................................................................22
              5.3.2 Landowner access...........................................................................................................22
              5.3.3 General disturbance and nuisance to surrounding landowners .......................................22
              5.3.4 Liaison with landowners...................................................................................................23
         5.4 Environmental Awareness .........................................................................................................23
6.       CONSTRUCTION/IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATION ................................................................ 24
         6.1 Site establishment .....................................................................................................................24
             6.1.1 Demarcation of the site....................................................................................................24
             6.1.2 Protection of vegetation and natural features ..................................................................25



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                6.1.3 Protection of fauna ..........................................................................................................25
                6.1.4 Protection of cultural historical aspects............................................................................26
                6.1.5 Topsoil conservation........................................................................................................26
                6.1.6 De-bushing and de-stumping...........................................................................................26
      6.2       Site infrastructure.......................................................................................................................26
                6.2.1 Structures and accommodation .......................................................................................26
                6.2.2 Contractors camp and lay-down areas ............................................................................27
                6.2.3 Batching plants ................................................................................................................27
                6.2.4 Crusher plants .................................................................................................................28
                6.2.5 Sand washing plants........................................................................................................28
                6.2.6 Off-site Mitigation and Plant Rescue................................................................................29
                6.2.7 Roads and access ...........................................................................................................29
                6.2.8 Gates and fences ............................................................................................................30
      6.3       Site operations...........................................................................................................................30
                6.3.1 Rubble and waste rock ....................................................................................................30
                6.3.2 Solid waste ......................................................................................................................31
                6.3.3 Liquid waste.....................................................................................................................31
                6.3.4 Hazardous waste.............................................................................................................31
                6.3.5 Pollution control ...............................................................................................................32
                6.3.6 Implements and equipment .............................................................................................34
                6.3.7 Blasting............................................................................................................................34
                6.3.8 Air quality.........................................................................................................................34
                6.3.9 Noise control....................................................................................................................34
                6.3.10 Fire control ......................................................................................................................34
                6.3.11 Health and Safety ............................................................................................................35
      6.4       Borrow areas .............................................................................................................................35
                6.4.1 Borrow pits and rock quarries ..........................................................................................35
                6.4.2 Sand mining.....................................................................................................................36
      6.5       Earthworks.................................................................................................................................36
                6.5.1 Excavations and trenches................................................................................................36
                6.5.2 Cut and fill .......................................................................................................................36
                6.5.3 Shaping and trimming......................................................................................................36
      6.6       Stockpiles, storage and handling ...............................................................................................37
                6.6.1 Topsoil.............................................................................................................................37
                6.6.2 Spoil ................................................................................................................................37
                6.6.3 Vehicles and equipment ..................................................................................................38
                6.6.4 Fuel .................................................................................................................................38
                6.6.5 Hazardous substances ....................................................................................................38
      6.7       Erosion control...........................................................................................................................39
                6.7.1 Water use and management ...........................................................................................39
                6.7.2 Erosion control and protection .........................................................................................39
      6.8       Control of alien plants ................................................................................................................40
7.    REHABILITATION SPECIFICATION ................................................................................................ 41
      7.1 Removal of structures and infrastructure ...................................................................................41
      7.2 Inert waste and rubble ...............................................................................................................41
      7.3 Hazardous waste and pollution control ......................................................................................41
      7.4 Final shaping .............................................................................................................................42
      7.5 Topsoil replacement and soil amelioration.................................................................................42
      7.6 Ripping and scarifying ...............................................................................................................43
      7.7 Planting .....................................................................................................................................43
          7.7.1 Transplanted plants .........................................................................................................43



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                 7.7.2 Nursery plants .................................................................................................................44
                 7.7.3 Seeds and seedlings .......................................................................................................45
        7.8      Grassing ....................................................................................................................................45
                 7.8.1 Sods ................................................................................................................................46
                 7.8.2 Runners...........................................................................................................................46
                 7.8.3 Hand seeding ..................................................................................................................46
        7.9      Maintenance ..............................................................................................................................47
8.      REGISTERS..................................................................................................................................... 48
9.      MONITORING, AUDITING AND REPORTING................................................................................. 49
        9.1 Roles and responsibilities ..........................................................................................................49
            9.1.1 Construction compliance monitoring................................................................................49
        9.2 Penalties....................................................................................................................................50
10.     PUBLIC COMMUNICATION............................................................................................................. 51
APPENDIX 1 : DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS AND TOURISM -
             RECORD OF DECISION.................................................................................................... 52
APPENDIX 2: ENVIRONMENTAL SITE MANAGEMENT AND REHABILITATION PLAN.......................... 53
APPENDIX 3: PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF REHABILITATION AND STABILIZATION..................... 54
APPENDIX 4: PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF ALIEN PLANT CONTROL ............................................ 62




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                                              ACRONYMS

CER               Contractor’s Environmental Representative
DEAT              Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism
DME               Department of Minerals and Energy
DWAF              Department of Water Affairs and Forestry
ECO               Environmental Control Officer
EER               Engineer’s Environmental Representative
EIA               Environmental Impact Assessment
EMC               Environmental Monitoring Committee
EMP               Environmental Management Plan
EMPR              Environmental Management Plan Report
ENG               Engineer
ER                Engineer’s Representative
ESM&R Plan        Environmental Site Management and Rehabilitation Plan
I&AP              Interested and Affected Party
ORWRDP            Olifants River Water Resources Development Project
PSP               Professional Service Provider
RoD               Record of Decision
WM                Water Management




                                       ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ACER (Africa)/CSIR Environmentek would like to acknowledge the contribution and work done by the
authors of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry’s series titled: Integrated Environmental
Management Sub-Series No. IEMS 1.6 Third Edition, Environmental Best Practice Specifications:
Construction. These best practise specifications were developed in consultation with the Provincial
Environmental Authorities over a period of three years. These specifications have formed the basis of this
project-specific Environmental Management Plan.




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                                                DEFINITIONS

Auditing
A systematic and objective assessment of an organisation’s activities and services conducted and
documented on a periodic basis.

Catchment
All the land area from mountaintop to seashore, which is drained by a single river and its tributaries.

Debushing
Clearing of the site of bush and undergrowth vegetation, but not including the removal of tree stumps.

Environment
The surroundings in which humans exist and which comprise:
      The land, water and atmosphere of the earth.
      Micro-organisms, plant and animal life.
      Any part or combination of a) and b) and the interrelationships among and between them.
      The physical, chemical, aesthetic and cultural properties and conditions of the foregoing that can
      influence human health and well-being.

Environmental aspect
Those components of the company’s activities, products and services that are likely to interact with the
environment.

Environmental awareness training course
A presentation given to the Contractor and its Sub-contractors to raise environmental awareness and ensure
that all staff, Contractor(s) and Sub-contractor(s) are familiar with or made aware of the contents of the
Record of Decision (RoD) and the Environmental Management Plan (EMP).

Environmental impact
The change to the environment resulting from an environmental aspect (an activity) on the environment,
whether desirable or undesirable. An impact may be the direct or indirect consequence of an activity.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
The process of examining the environmental effects of a development in terms of the Environment
Conservation Act (No 73 of 1989), the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Regulations of September
1997 (as amended) and EIA Regulations Guideline Document of April 1998.

Environmental Management Plan
A detailed plan of action prepared to ensure that recommendations for enhancing positive impacts and/or
limiting or preventing negative environmental impacts are implemented during the life-cycle of a project.

Environmental Management Programme Report (EMPR)
The report required to be prepared for all mining activities pursuant to the Minerals and Petroleum
Resources Development Act (No 28 of 2002).

Environmental performance certificate
The certificate issued by the Environmental Control Officer at the end of a Contract confirming that all
environmental specifications applicable to the Contractor have been met.




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Environmental specification
Instructions and guidance for specific construction activities designed to help prevent, reduce and/or control
the potential environmental implications of these activities.

Evaporation
The change by which any substance (such as water) is converted from a liquid state into and carried off in
vapour.

Floodplain
A flat expanse of land bordering a river channel, formed through sediment deposition and other alluvial
processes, and often characterized by frequent flooding as a result of bank overspill from the river channel.

Groundwater
Subsurface water in the zone in which permeable rocks, and often the overlying soil, are saturated under
pressure equal to or greater than atmospheric.

Heritage resource
Any place or object of cultural significance including buildings, structures, landscapes, graves and
geological, archaeological and palaeontological sites.

Landscape
Land modified for human use and occupation, embracing both the natural (wilderness) environment and the
urban.

Landscape architecture
The science, art and technique of planning and design of integrated man-made and natural elements and
spaces to improve the quality of life.

Monitoring
A systematic and objective observation of an organisation’s activities and services conducted and reported
on regularly.

Natural vegetation
All existing vegetation species, indigenous or otherwise, of trees, shrubs, groundcover, grasses and all other
plants found growing on the site.

Overburden
The soil overlying desirable material extracted during borrowing or quarrying.

Pollution
Any change in the environment caused by substances, radioactive or other waves, or noise, odours, dust or
heat, emitted from any activity, including the storage or treatment of waste or substances, construction and
the provision of services, whether engaged in by any person or an organ of state, where that change has an
adverse effect on human health or well-being or on the composition, resilience and productivity of natural or
managed ecosystems, or on materials useful to people, or will have such an effect in the future.

Progressive reinstatement
Reinstatement of disturbed areas to topsoil profile on an ongoing basis immediately after selected
construction activities (e.g. backfilling of a trench) are completed. This allows for passive rehabilitation (i.e.
natural recolonisation by vegetation) to commence.




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Protected plants
Plant species officially listed on the Protected Plants List (each province has one), and which may not be
removed or transported without a permit to do so from the relevant provincial authority.

Red Data species
Plant and animal species officially listed in the Red Data Lists as being rare, endangered or threatened.

Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation is defined as the return of a disturbed area to a state, which approximates the state (where
possible), which it was before disruption. Rehabilitation for the purposes of this specification is aimed at
post-reinstatement revegetation of a disturbed area and the assurance of a stable land surface.
Revegetation should aim to accelerate the natural succession processes so that the plant community
develops in the desired way, i.e. promote rapid vegetation establishment.

Riparian vegetation
Vegetation occurring on the banks of a river or a stream (i.e. vegetation fringing a water body).

Record of Decision
The written statement from the relevant environmental authority in terms of the Environment Conservation
Act (No 73 of 1989), with or without conditions, that records its approval of a planned activity and the
implementation thereof and the mitigating measures required to prevent or reduce the effects of
environmental impacts during the life of a contract.

Runoff
The total water yield from a catchment including surface and subsurface flow.

Subsoil
The soil horizons between the topsoil horizon and the underlying parent rock.

Topsoil
This is defined as the A horizon of the soil profile. Topsoil is the upper layer of soil from which plants obtain
their nutrients for growth. It is often darker in colour, due to the organic (humic) fraction, but regardless of
the fertility appearance, structure, agriculture potential, this profile constitutes the topsoil.

Transplanting
The removal of plant material and replanting the same plants in another designated position.

Veld
Unimproved areas of natural vegetation.

Wastewater
Means water contaminated by the project activities.

Watercourse
A geomorphological feature characterized by the presence of a streamflow channel, a floodplain and a
transitional upland fringe seasonally or permanently conveying surface water.

Waterlogged
Soil or land saturated with water long enough for anaerobic conditions to develop.




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Weeds and invader plants
Weeds and invader plants are defined as undesirable plant growth that shall include, but not be limited to all
declared category 1, 2 and 3 listed invader species as set out in the Conservation of Agricultural Resources
Act (No 43 of 1983) regulations. Other vegetation deemed to be invasive should be those plant species that
show the potential to occupy in number, any area within the defined construction area.

Wetland
A seasonally, temporarily or permanently wet area, often exhibiting a specific vegetation community, for
example, sedges, rushes, reeds, hydrophilic grasses, ground-covers and trees.




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1.    INTRODUCTION

1.1   Purpose of this document

      This Environmental Management Plan (EMP) applies to the contract issued for the construction of the
      De Hoop Dam, as well as two weirs that form part of the Olifants River Water Resources Development
      Project (ORWRDP) – Dam Contract. The ORWRDP entails the construction of a large storage dam on
      the Steelpoort River plus associated National Bulk Water Distribution Infrastructure (pipelines, pump
      stations, balancing dams, off-takes and reservoirs) in the Limpopo Province of South Africa.

      This EMP has been compiled by ACER (Africa)/CSIR Environmentek for the Department of Water
      Affairs and Forestry and is based on the Department’s Environmental Best Practice Specifications for
      Construction1.

      In addition to its function as a site specification for use by tendering contractors, the EMP will be
      utilised by the Environmental Control Officer (ECO) as well as the Engineer’s and Contractor’s
      Environmental Representatives (EER and CER) as a Monitoring and Auditing Reference Tool,
      addressing the various construction and/or implementation stages of a project in terms of specific
      deliverables, requirements and monitoring and auditing procedures.


1.2   Environmental authorisation

      In terms of the Environment Conservation Act (No 73 of 1989), the Department of Water Affairs and
      Forestry applied to the National Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) for
      environmental authorisation. Authorisation has been granted by DEAT as per the Record of Decision
      (RoD) (Appendix 1). The RoD contains a number of conditions of authorisation, including the
      compilation and approval of this EMP for construction phase of the project.

      Importantly, should there be a conflict of interpretation between this EMP and the RoD, the stipulations
      in the RoD shall prevail over that of the EMP. Similarly, any provisions in current legislation overrule
      any provisions or interpretations within this EMP.


1.3   Scope of this document

      This EMP covers environmental actions associated with the civil components of projects, which are
      considered pertinent to proper environmental management and control in terms of relevant legislation.

      This manual is considered a complete specification, and the contractor will be legally bound to all
      aspects thereof, unless specifically agreed otherwise in the final contract.

      A specific condition of every contract will include, as a minimum requirement, a specified
      Environmental Awareness Course (Section 5.4) to be undertaken by every person in the Contractor’s
      employ who will be accessing the site, as well as every sub-contractor for which the main Contractor is
      responsible.




1
      Department of Water Affairs and Forestry; Integrated Environmental Management Sub-Series No. IEMS 1.6 Third Edition,
      Environmental Best Practice Specifications: Construction; Republic South Africa, 2005



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      Procedures and standards for monitoring and auditing, covering the requirements for the construction
      and rehabilitation phases are included, as are issues of non-compliance and non-performance, and
      the requirement for environmental awareness training.


1.4   Application of this document

      In order to ensure a systematic and robust approach to the management of environmental impacts
      during the construction and rehabilitation phases of the De Hoop Dam contract and to prevent long-
      term or permanent environmental degradation as a result thereof, this EMP does the following:

                Assigns roles and responsibilities to the parties charged with its implementation.
                Sets out environmental specifications that are applicable to the project and its associated
                activities and provides guidance in order to achieve these environmental specifications.
                Defines corrective actions, which must be taken in the event of non-compliance with these
                environmental specifications.
                Specifies requirements and procedures for monitoring, auditing and reporting.
                Specifies requirements and procedures for record keeping.
                Fulfils certain conditions of environmental authorisation (as contained within the RoD).
                Makes provision for the fulfilment of other relevant conditions of environmental authorisation (as
                contained within the RoD).
                Makes provision for the fulfilment of other relevant legal requirements pertaining to the
                environment.
                Acts as a Monitoring and Auditing Reference Tool for ensuring compliance with the provisions of
                the EMP.
                Makes provision for review of EMP.

      This document contains management actions, given as Specifications, addressing the various
      components of the Work Site. These specifications will apply to all phases of a construction or
      implementation project unless reference is made to a specific phase. Rehabilitation of the Work Site is
      addressed in the form of Specifications, which apply to all environments unless reference is made to a
      special environment.

      The ESM&R plan is essentially a schematic displaying the preferred extent, location and relationship
      of the various components of the anticipated Work Site, bearing in mind the environmental parameters
      explored and highlighted in the EMP. The Contractor may propose alterations to the ESM&R plan.
      Such changes will be considered by the Engineer with input from the Environmental Control Officer
      (ECO).

      Environmental Monitoring (for compliance) will be carried out throughout the construction and
      rehabilitation phases of the project.


1.5   Context of this document in terms of the overall ORWRDP

      As highlighted in Section 1.1 this document only deals with one component of the ORWRDP, namely
      the construction of the De Hoop Dam. It aims to highlight specific actions for the attention of the
      contractor responsible for the construction of the De Hoop Dam, against which the contractor’s
      performance can be monitored.




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      In order to link this document within in the broader context of the ORWRDP and associated
      environmental studies and management plans, a summary table is provided in Section 2.3 of the
      impacts identified during the assessment, mitigation measures recommended and responsibilities for
      implementation.

      Important aspects to note are as follows:

                Impacts identified and mitigation measures proposed.
                Twelve specialist studies were undertaken during the environmental assessment of the
                ORWRDP, which considered the potential impacts of the ORWRDP and associated
                infrastructure on the receiving environment.

                The findings of all the specialist studies were distilled and examined in the Environmental
                Impact Report (EIR) and the key issues and associated impacts are discussed in Section 9 of
                the EIR, whilst Section 10 recommends mitigation measures to be implemented.

                These mitigation measures have been incorporated into the relevant EMPs depending on the
                source of the impact and the roleplayer responsible for implementing the mitigation measure.

                During the compilation of this construction EMP, the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry’s
                Environmental Best Practice Specifications for Construction, developed in consultation with the
                Provincial Environmental Authorities over a period of three years, where used as the basis for
                stipulating actions required during implementation.

                Importantly, where mitigation recommendations made in the EIR, were adequately or in more
                detail addressed in the Best Practice Specifications, the wording of the Best Practice
                Specification remains. Where site-specific aspects needed to be referred to, the wording of the
                EIR was carried across.

                Responsibility for implementation and monitoring procedures.
                The implementation of mitigation measures associated with the ORWRDP will involve a wide
                range of roleplayers over approximately a decade, dealing with both site-specific construction
                impacts and impacts of a more strategic nature.

                As stated in Section 3.2.1, the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry will be the Employer
                for all components of the work related to the ORWRDP and, thus, ultimately the liability
                associated with environmental non-compliance rests with this Department.

                However, in order to practically assign responsibilities during the implementation of each
                component of the ORWRDP, separate EMPs were prepared to guide the roleplayers when
                dealing with these individual components.

                Thus, this De Hoop Dam EMP deals with management measures required during the
                construction of the dam that the Contractor appointed for this component must address.

                Mitigation measures associated with the construction of other components of the ORWRDP, the
                establishment of a conservation area or the planning and implementation of a strategic water
                conservation and demand management strategy, for example, remain the responsibility of the
                Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (and other contractors appointed) and, thus, are
                better placed in the other EMPs.




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                Structure of this EMP.
                As highlighted in Section 1.4, the application of this document is to ensure a systematic and
                robust approach to the management of environmental impacts during the construction of the De
                Hoop Dam contract.

                It is for this reason that the structure of the report records the environmental requirements
                systematically in the phases of the contract rather than structuring the contract phases under
                the different issues identified during the assessment phase.

                Thus, in summary, this report outlines for the contractor and those responsible for monitoring
                the following:

                      The context of the document.
                      The activities to be undertaken.
                      The reporting and organisational relationships and responsibilities.
                      Overarching environmental principles and legal requirements.
                      Construction Specifications that address the environmental requirements during on-site
                      activities and operations.
                      Rehabilitation Specifications that address the environmental requirements once
                      construction has been completed.
                      Information registers to be kept on site.
                      Monitoring and reporting requirements for the duration of the contract.




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2.    DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT

2.1   Project components

      This contract entails the construction of De Hoop Dam and includes the following activities as
      authorised by DEAT in its RoD:

                The construction of a large storage dam and the associated spillway on the Steelpoort River at
                De Hoop.
                Clearing, establishment and operation of a site camp with offices, storerooms and workshops,
                overnight accommodation for security and emergency staff, powerlines and facilities for power
                generation, ablutions, washbays, emergency health facilities, abstraction of water, supply of
                potable water, facilities for waste water management, and facilities for the storage of explosives.
                Construction of various temporary access roads, low level river crossings and haul roads.
                Construction and operation of batching plants.
                Construction and operation of a crusher and a steel-bending yard.
                Construction of permanent housing on site and local construction accommodation off-site as
                specified.
                Construction of office blocks, parking bays and a taxi rank.
                Installation of communication networks infrastructure.
                Construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment and small-scale sewage treatment
                plant.
                Construction and operation of small-scale waste collection and disposal facility.
                Facilities for the bulk storage and dispensing of fuel (e.g. diesel and petrol) for construction
                vehicles.
                Stockpiling of construction materials for the construction of the dam, including the batching
                plants.
                Construction of cofferdams and/or river diversions.
                Storage and handling of hazardous substances including diesel, engine oils and other listed
                substances.
                Construction of temporary access tracks.
                Establishment and operation of quarries, borrow pits and spoil sites.
                Excavation of borrow areas from which construction materials will be sourced.
                Construction of two weirs:
                        One weir upstream of the De Hoop Dam basin, approximately 2 m above riverbed level
                        and 30-50 m long.
                        One weir upstream of the confluence of the Steelpoort and Olifants Rivers, approximately
                        2 m above riverbed level and 60-80 m long.


2.2   Sensitive environments

      Sensitive environments are any aspects of the surrounding biophysical or social environment that
      should be provided additional care, protection or respect by the Contractor and his staff. For this
      contract the following are considered sensitive environments:

                The Steelpoort, Klip and Maseketi Rivers and associated riparian vegetation.
                The area on the right flank of the De Hoop Dam that is being investigated for purposes of off-
                site mitigation.



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                The water quality in the Steelpoort River downstream of the construction site.
                All flora outside the demarcated construction area and camp site perimeters (dam and two
                weirs).
                Any gravesites or sites of cultural heritage located within the construction area and adjacent to it
                (dam and two weirs).


2.3   Potential issues and impacts

      The project components outlined in Section 2.1 will give rise to certain impacts on the environment.
      Sensitive environments in terms of the De Hoop Dam construction contract are highlighted in Section
      2.2.

      Table 1 provides a link between these activities and impacts that may result, to the mitigation
      measures and those responsible for implementation.




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     Table 1         Summary of impacts identified, mitigation measures and responsibility

   Potential impacts                Reason for possible impact                 Mitigation measures                 Reference        Responsibility   Notes
  identified in the EIR
which will be associated
 with the De Hoop Dam
Impact on the quantity and     Interruption of flow of water in a stressed   Implementation of the Reserve     The Reserve must    DWAF
quality of river flows         catchment can impact on both water            in the Steelpoort River           be implemented
                               quantity and quality                                                            as prescribed by
                                                                                                               the Minister of
                                                                             Implementation of the Reserve     Water Affairs and
                                                                             in the Olifants Catchment         Forestry


                               Increased mining facilitated by an enabling   All mining developments must      Operational EMP     DWAF / DME
                               environment can impact on the water           comply with best practice in      Section 2
                               quality of the Olifants Catchment (post-      terms of waste and pollution
                               construction)                                 management.

                                                                             Protocols developed by the
                                                                             Department of Water Affairs       Operational EMP     DWAF / DME
                                                                             and Forestry (concerning          Section 2
                                                                             Water Quality and Cumulative
                                                                             Effects Assessments) need to
                                                                             be actioned for the anticipated
                                                                             new mining developments in
                                                                             the Middle Olifants.
Impact on terrestrial and      Construction occurs in an ecological          Implement Off-Site Mitigation     Pre Construction    DWAF
aquatic ecosystems             region of endemism                            and Plant Rescue                  EMP 5.1/5.2

                                                                             Contractor to remain within       De Hoop Dam         De Hoop Dam
                                                                             demarcated construction areas     EMP Sections        Contractor
                                                                                                               6.1.1/6.1.2/6.1.3




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   Potential impacts               Reason for possible impact                  Mitigation measures             Reference          Responsibility             Notes
  identified in the EIR
which will be associated
 with the De Hoop Dam
                              The dam and weirs will be constructed in      Water quality and aquatic       Pre Construction    DWAF
                              the Steelpoort River.                         ecosystem monitoring            EMP 5.3/5.4



                              Construction activities have the potential    Contractor to maintain          De Hoop Dam         De Hoop Dam
                              to release pollutants into the environment    effective pollution control                         Contractor
                                                                                                            EMP
                                                                                                            6.1.1/6.1.2/6.1.3
Influx of people and social   Construction activities will result in job-   Appoint Social PSP or           Pre Construction    DWAF
problems during               seekers coming to the area                    Directorate to coordinate and   EMP 7.1
construction                                                                monitor labour and social
                                                                            issues

                                                                                                            De Hoop Dam         De Hoop Dam
                                                                            Maintain liaison with           EMP 5.1
                                                                            Department Social PSP                               Contractor
Road traffic and safety       Dam construction near the existing R555       Construction will need to       De Hoop Dam         Contractor
                              and traffic safety around the site must be    implement adequate road         Contract
                              controlled                                    construction, signage and       Documents
                                                                            safety procedures
                                                                            Safety and access onto site     De Hoop Dam
                                                                            must be monitored and           EMP 6.2.7           Contractor
                                                                            controlled
Dust and noise                Dust and noise will be generated during       Contractor to comply with EMP   De Hoop Dam         De Hoop Dam        Due to the relative
                              construction                                  Specifications                  EMP                 Contractor/
                                                                                                                                                   remoteness of this site,
                                                                                                            5.3.3 and 6.3.8     ECO
                                                                                                                                                   dust and noise impacts on
                                                                                                                                                   surrounding landowners
                              The proposed crusher and batching plants      Contractor to comply with EMP   De Hoop Dam 5.2/ De Hoop Dam
                              and other site infrastructure may result in   Specifications                  5.3.3/5.3.4      Contractor            were considered of low
                              unpleasant odours to surrounding                                                                                     significance, particularly
                              landowners.                                                                                                          since many will have their
                                                                                                                                                   farms purchased. The ECO
                              In areas where dust is expected to be                                                                                and Engineer should
                                                                            Contractor to comply with EMP   De Hoop Dam
                              problematic, enforce a maximum speed of
                                                                            Specifications                  EMP                                    request a method
                              40 km/h for passenger and 20 km/hr for
                              heavy construction vehicles                                                   5.3.3/ 6.3.8,                          statement from the
                                                                                                                                                   Contractor to address dust

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   Potential impacts               Reason for possible impact                 Mitigation measures                Reference         Responsibility              Notes
  identified in the EIR
which will be associated
 with the De Hoop Dam
                                                                            Apply watering as an              De Hoop Dam                           issues if required
                                                                            additional means of controlling   EMP 5.3.3
                                                                            dust

Employment creation           Construction activities will result in        The Department will establish     Pre Construction   DWAF
                              employment                                    labour desks and facilitate       EMP 7.1
                                                                            coordinated employment of
                                                                            unskilled labour

                                                                            Maintain liaison with
                                                                            Department Social PSP             De Hoop Dam 5.1    Contractor
Loss of private and trust     Dam construction impacts upon both            Negotiated agreement must be Pre Construction        DWAF
land (including possible      private and Trust land that will need to be   reached within the prescripts EMP 3.2 & 3.3
land claims)                  acquired.                                     of Government policies and
                                                                            the availability of severance
                                                                            land


Grave relocation, including   The construction of the dam will require      A cultural heritage specialist    Pre Construction   DWAF               Section 6.1.4 specifies that
exhumation and reburial       that graves are relocated                     will be appointed to address      EMP 4.1                               if graves are discovered
                                                                            grave relocation in accordance                                          during the contract, the
                                                                            with the ROD and legislative                                            contractor must cease work
                                                                            requirements                                                            in this area and inform the
                                                                            De Hoop Dam contract work         De Hoop Dam        Contractor         Engineer. Thereafter, the
                                                                            must not disturb or damage        6.1.1/6.1.4                           communication process
                                                                            any graves                                                              outlined will ensure that the
                                                                                                                                                    Cultural Heritage PSP
                                                                                                                                                    returns to site to address
                                                                                                                                                    the grave, prior to
                                                                                                                                                    construction proceeding




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   Potential impacts             Reason for possible impact                Mitigation measures              Reference        Responsibility              Notes
  identified in the EIR
which will be associated
 with the De Hoop Dam
Impact upon                 The construction of the dam will impact     A cultural heritage specialist   Pre Construction   DWAF              Section 6.1.4 specifies that
archaeological and          upon cultural heritage sites                must be appointed to             EMP 4.2                              if cultural artefacts are
cultural heritage sites                                                 undertake the necessary                                               discovered during the
                                                                        investigations required to                                            contract, the contractor
                                                                        obtain destruction permits       De Hoop Dam        De Hoop Dam       must cease work in this
                                                                                                         EMP 6.1.1/6.1.4    Contractor        area and inform the
                                                                                                                                              Engineer. Thereafter, the
                                                                                                                                              communication process
                                                                                                                                              outlined will ensure that the
                                                                                                                                              Cultural Heritage PSP
                                                                                                                                              returns to site to address
                                                                                                                                              the site, prior to
                                                                                                                                              construction proceeding
Control of the spread of    Disturbance during construction has the     Rehabilitation and monitoring    De Hoop Dam        De Hoop Dam
alien plant species         potential to promote the growth of alien    must be undertaken               EMP 6.8/7.9        Contractor
                            plant species
Dam safety                  The risk of dam failure, although slight,   Ongoing dam safety               DWAF protocols     DWAF
                            always exists                               inspections according to the
                                                                        provisions of legislation as
                                                                        ordinarily undertaken by the
                                                                        Dam Safety Sub-Directorate
                                                                        within the Department of
                                                                        Water Affairs and Forestry.




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3.    ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

      Efficient implementation of the Specifications, effective Monitoring, as well as clear Responsibility and
      Accountability allocation requires that various role-players be defined for the implementation of the
      project.

      Therefore, for the purpose of this document, the following role-players are defined, based purely on
      responsibility and accountability allocation.


3.1   Reporting relationships

      Figure 1 is a depiction of the role-players and their reporting relationships for the ORWRDP
      Implementation Phase. This figure depicts the practical reporting relationship, not necessarily the
      contractual or institutional relationships. All official communication and reporting lines related to the
      EMP (including instructions, directives and information) shall be channelled according to this
      organisational structure.


3.2   Roles and responsibilities


3.2.1 Employer

      The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry will be the Employer for all components of the work
      related to the ORWRDP.

      Ultimately, the liability associated with environmental non-compliance rests with the Employer. In
      terms of the ROD, the Department is responsible for the following:

                Compilation and submission of an EMP for the construction of the project to National DEAT for
                approval prior to commencement of construction.
                Implementation of the approved EMP.
                Submission of any substantial changes, updates or amendments to the EMP to National DEAT.
                Ensuring that the provisions of the EMP are binding on all Contractors operating on the site
                during construction of the project.
                Ensuring that monthly environmental inspections are conducted during construction to establish
                how well the Contractor is complying with conditions of authorisation and the EMP.
                Ensuring that compliance/non-compliance records are kept in good order and made available
                on request by the authorities.
                Ensuring that a copy of the RoD and the approved EMP is available at the construction site at
                all times and all staff, Contractors and Sub-contractors are familiar with or made aware of the
                contents of the environmental authorisation.
                Complying with all applicable environmental legislation, regulations and guidelines, and
                ensuring that Contractors undertake responsibility to do the same.
                Being committed to the principles contained within NEMA, including the prevention of pollution
                and sustainable development.




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3.2.2 Environmental Monitoring Committee

      A condition of the RoD is that the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry establishes an
      Environmental Monitoring Committee (EMC). This committee must be established before
      commencement of any construction activities. This EMC must meet on a bi-monthly basis from the
      inception of the project. This EMC must report to the Director-General of DEAT on a bi-monthly basis.
      The purpose of the EMC is to execute the following:

                To monitor and audit project compliance to the specific conditions of the ROD, environmental
                legislation and specific measures stipulated in the environmental impact report and the
                Environmental Management Plans.
                To make recommendations to the Director-General: DEAT on issues related to the monitoring
                and auditing of the project.
                The EMC shall meet at least four times a year.
                The EMC will be disbanded at a time to be determined by DEAT in consultation with the
                Department of Water Affairs and Forestry.


3.2.3 Authorities Co-ordinating Committee

      A condition of the ROD is that the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry establishes an Authorities
      Co-ordinating Committee. The responsibilities of this committee shall include but not necessarily be
      limited to the following:

                To oversee that all commitments in the ROD and the EMP are met.
                To provide guidance for the functioning of the EMC.
                To take into account all relevant information and issues raised by stakeholders when making
                project decisions.
                Evaluate the reports and correspondence received from the independent Chairperson of the
                EMC.


3.2.4 Engineer

      The Employer (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry) appoints an Engineer as its responsible
      agent to ensure that the Contractor adheres to construction specifications, the ROD and the EMP. It is
      noted that in terms of the construction contract, the Engineer may delegate certain authorities and
      responsibilities to the Engineer’s Representative.

      The Contractor may only take instructions from the Engineer, whilst all major decisions, affecting
      programme or costs, regarding environmental procedures or protocols are to also be approved by the
      Employer, via the Engineer. The Engineer also has the power to stop any construction activity in
      contravention of this specification. When the direction is given by the Engineer to the Contractor in
      terms of the EMP, it is deemed to be after due consultation with the ECO.


3.2.5 Engineer’s Environmental Representative

      The Engineer’s Environmental Representative (EER), employed by the Engineer, is responsible for the
      day-to-day monitoring of the Environmental Specifications. In addition, the EER must act as liaison
      and advisor on all environmental and related issues, give advice to the Contractors Environmental
      Representative (CER) when necessary and ensure that any complaints received from the public are
      duly recorded and forwarded to the Engineer and the Employer.


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      The Engineer’s Environmental Representative should:

                Be well versed in environmental matters.
                Understand the relevant environmental legislation and processes.
                Understand the hierarchy of Environmental Compliance Reporting, and the implications of Non-
                Compliance.
                Know the background of the project and understand the implementation programme.
                Be able to resolve conflicts and make recommendations on site in terms of the requirements of
                the Specifications.
                Keeping accurate and detailed records of all EMP-related activities on site.
                Report to the ECO on monitoring of environmental issues.



3.2.6 Environmental Control Officer

      The Environmental Control Officer (ECO) is an independent representative appointed by the
      Employer, who on behalf of the EMC and will:

                On a daily basis, via the Engineer, monitor specifications on site and project compliance with
                the conditions of the ROD, environmental legislation and recommendations of the EMP.
                Monitoring and verifying compliance with the EMP and RoD, and keeping a register of
                compliance/non-compliance.
                Identifying and assessing previously unforeseen, actual or potential impacts of the project on
                the environment.
                Ensure the maintenance of the on-site public complaints register.
                Ensure that a monthly environmental performance audit is undertaken, verifying the monitoring
                reports submitted by the Engineer’s and Contractor’s Environmental Representative and
                maintain a register of these audits.
                Conducting site inspections during the defects liability period, and bringing any environmental
                concerns to the attention of the Employer.
                Recommending to the Engineer and Employer that the Contractor suspend any or all works on
                site if the third parties who carry out all or part of the Contractor’s obligations fail to comply with
                the environmental specifications.
                Advising on the rectification of any pollution, contamination or damage to the project site, rights
                of way and adjacent land.
                Attending site meetings (scheduled and ad hoc).
                Maintaining a filing system meeting the Projects Quality Management Plan.
                Arranging the presentation of the environmental awareness training course to all staff,
                Contractors and Sub-contractors and monitoring the undertaking by the Contractor(s) of
                environmental awareness training for all new personnel on-site.
                Ensuring that a copy of the RoD and latest version of the EMP are available on site at all times.
                Ensuring that the Employer and Engineer are made aware of all applicable DEAT-approved
                changes to the EMP.




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Figure 1        Organogram showing reporting relationships for the ORWRDP




                      DME                                                                                  DEAT




                         DWAF: Business Management                             Authorities Co-ordinating    EMC
                                                                                      Committee            & ECO
                                  (Employer)




                  DWAF: Civil Engineering &                 DWAF: Construction
                           MEE
                                                                (Contractor)
                        (Engineer)




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      The role of the ECO will be fulfilled by an appointed PSP, well versed in environmental aspects related
      to large construction projects, who is able to make meaningful and workable recommendations as
      required.

      The ECO provides feedback to both DEAT and the Engineer, who in turn reports back to the Employer
      and I&APs, as required. The ECO will also submit monthly reports to DEAT. Issues of non-
      compliance raised by the ECO must be taken up by the Employer, and resolved with the Contractor,
      via the Engineer, as per the conditions of the contract.

      Decisions regarding environmental procedures, specifications and requirements, which have a cost
      implication (i.e. those that are deemed to be a variation, not allowed for in the Specification) must be
      endorsed by the Employer, and conveyed to the contractor via the Engineer.

      As per the RoD, the ECO shall provide a secretariat service to the EMC, which shall include convening
      meetings, preparing agendas in cooperation with the EMC Chairperson, taking, compiling and
      distributing minutes and or/any other relevant information to the EMC members.


3.2.7 Contractor

      The Contractor will be the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. It is the responsibility of the
      Contractor to do whatever is necessary to ensure that he and his appointed advisor (Contractor’s
      Environmental Representative) are well versed in environmental matters so that they may accurately
      and efficiently carry out the requirements of this Specification.

      The Contractor shall:

                Be responsible for the implementation of the applicable environmental specifications in
                accordance with the requirements and provisions of this EMP.
                Ensure that all third parties who carry out all or part of the Contractor’s obligations comply with
                the requirements and provisions of this EMP.
                Report any non-compliance to the Engineer within 12 hours of the event occurring.
                Report any non-compliance event that constitutes an emergency immediately and in line with
                the protocol applicable to that particular emergency event.
                Ensure that all employees and sub-contactors attend the environmental awareness training
                course and are familiar with or are made aware of the contents of the RoD.

      The Contractor is liable for any and all remedial work required in terms of this Specification, resulting
      from his environmental negligence, mismanagement and/or non-compliance.


3.2.8 Contractor’s Environmental Representative

      The Contractor’s Environmental Representative (CER), employed by the Contractor, is responsible for
      managing the day-to-day on-site implementation of this Specification, and for the compilation of
      regular (usually weekly) Monitoring Reports. In addition, the CER must act as liaison and advisor on all
      environmental and related issues, seek advice from the EER when necessary and ensure that any
      complaints received from the public are duly recorded and forwarded to the Engineer.




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      The Contractor’s Environmental Representative should:

                Be well versed in environmental matters.
                Understand the relevant environmental legislation and processes.
                Understand the hierarchy of Environmental Compliance Reporting, and the implications of Non-
                Compliance.
                Know the background of the project and understand the implementation programme.
                Be able to resolve conflicts and make recommendations on site in terms of the requirements of
                this Specification.
                Keeping accurate and detailed records of all EMP-related activities on site.




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4.    ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLES AND LEGAL REQUIREMENTS


4.1   Environmental principles

      The following principles should be considered at all times during the pre-construction and construction
      phase activities.

                The environment is considered to be composed of both biophysical and social components.
                Construction is a disruptive activity and all due consideration must be given to the environment,
                including the social environment, during the execution of a project to minimise the impact on
                affected parties.
                Minimisation of areas disturbed by construction activities (i.e. the footprint of the construction
                area) should minimise many of the construction related environmental impacts of the project
                and reduce rehabilitation requirements and costs.
                As minimum requirements, all relevant standards relating to international, national, provincial
                and local legislation, as applicable, shall be adhered to. This includes requirements relating to
                waste emissions (e.g. hazardous, airborne, liquid and solid), waste disposal practices, noise
                regulations, road traffic ordinances, etc.
                Every effort should be made to minimise, reclaim and/or recycle “waste” material.


4.2   Compliance with Legislation and Regulations

      In terms of the Conditions of Contract, the Contractor is required to comply with all relevant legislation
      and regulations.


4.3   Required environmental permits, licences and authorisations

      The following are required prior to the activity commencing:

                Blasting. Blasting permits are required from the Department of Minerals and Energy in
                accordance with the Explosives Act (Act No 26 of 1956).
                Asphalt plants. Tar and macadam preparation processes are scheduled in terms of the
                Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act (Act No 45 of 1965). The necessary permits are required
                from DEAT as per of Sections 9 to 13 and the contract will need to comply with any conditions
                attached thereto.
                Waste disposal. All wastes (general and hazardous) generated during the construction may
                only be disposed of at appropriately licensed sites (in terms of Section 20 of the Environment
                Conservation Act (Act No 73 of 1989). Cognisance must also be taken of the relevant provincial
                legislation in this regard. It should also be noted that all controlling authority and regulations
                pertaining to litter in terms of the Environment Conservation Act (sections 19, 19A and 24A)
                have been delegated to the provinces.
                Storage of hazardous substances. Hazardous substances must be stored and handled in
                accordance with the appropriate legislation and standards, which may include the Hazardous
                Substances Act, the Occupational Health and Safety Act, relevant associated Regulations, and
                applicable SABS and international standards.
                Health and safety of work teams. Construction Regulations (2003) published under the
                Occupational Health and Safety Act (Act No 85 of 1993) apply to construction activities including



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                “the moving of earth, clearing of land, the making of an excavation, piling, or any similar type of
                work”. A “health and safety plan” which addresses hazards identified, and includes safe work
                procedures to mitigate, reduce or control the hazards identified, is required under this Act. A
                risk assessment must also be undertaken by an appropriately qualified person(s) and the
                Contractor shall ensure that all employees under his or her control are informed, instructed and
                trained by a competent person regarding any hazard and the related work procedures before
                any work commences, and thereafter at such times as may be determined in the risk
                assessment.




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5.    PRE-CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATION

      The Pre-Construction Phase refers to the period following final project planning and the tender phase,
      leading up to, but not including, the establishment on site by the appointed contractor. Pre-
      construction activities are the responsibility of the Employer.


5.1   General

      Certain items, of a pre-construction nature, are the responsibility of the Employer who shall also be
      responsible for ensuring that the Contractor is made fully aware of these requirements:

                An item for environmental issues will be provided for on the Construction Site Meeting Agenda,
                which will be conducted by the Engineer.
                Maintain professional conduct at all times, addressing all role-players with respect and refrain
                from foul language and abuse.
                Understand the interaction and relationship of between affected landowners and communities.
                The Employer, through its appointed PSP, will deal with social issues, conflicts and other
                aspects of the project.
                The Employer will establish a protocol agreement with relevant scientific research and botanical
                institutions for the collection of valuable plant species and the harvesting of seed during
                construction, in particular, from the left bank of the basin area. This protocol should contain the
                condition that a certain percentage of the plants harvested are returned towards the end of the
                project period for utilisation in the rehabilitation of construction areas and for re-population in the
                off-site mitigation area. The operation will be over a number of years required for construction in
                order that plant species can be collected over different seasons.
                Understand the procedures for appointing labour through the established Labour Desk.
                Any disputes and complaints by stakeholders or the public must immediately be brought to the
                attention of the Engineer and ECO for further action.
                All persons employed by the Contractor or his sub-contractors must abide by the requirements
                of this Specification as it applies to the Works.
                Any employees of the Contractor or his sub-contractors found to be in breach of any of this
                Specification may be ordered to leave the site forthwith. The order may be given orally or in
                writing by the Engineer. Confirmation of an oral order will be given as soon as practicable but
                lack of confirmation in writing shall not be a cause for the offender to remain on site.
                Supervisory staff of the Contractor or his sub-contractor may not direct any person to undertake
                any activities that would place such person in contravention of this Specification.
                The Contractor is deemed not to have complied with this Specification if:
                        There is evidence of wilful or accidental contravention of any specification included in the
                        Specification.
                        There is evidence of the Contractor carrying out activities not permitted in terms of the
                        Contract and/or the Specification.
                        There is evidence of environmental negligence and/or mismanagement resulting in
                        negative impacts on the environment.
                        The Contractor has failed to meet with the requirements of the approved schedule.
                The Contractor will be informed via Monitoring and Auditing Reports as well as by means of
                direct instruction by the Engineer as to what corrective actions are required in terms of
                Environmental Compliance.




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                Disregard for instruction, and failure to respond, note and report adequately complaints from the
                public will be construed as non-compliance.
                Non-compliance may lead to the Contractor forfeiting his Environmental Retention or being
                penalised (Section 9). In more serious cases, the Employer, via the Engineer, may give notice,
                and then halt construction Works until such a time that the Contractor has upgraded his site to
                comply with the Specifications. Resultant delays may not be claimed, and will be for the
                Contractor’s own cost.
                In prolonged cases of persistent non-compliance, the Contractor may be evicted from site. Only
                the Employer, via the Engineer, may issue such instruction, retaining any costs required to
                remedy situations perpetuated by environmental negligence, mismanagement and/or non-
                compliance.


5.2   Environmental Site Management and Rehabilitation Plan

      The specifications listed hereunder are preparation actions ahead of the Construction and
      Rehabilitation phases. Adherence thereto is the responsibility of the Contractor. These specifications
      are relevant for the entire period of the construction contract:

                Draw up and submit for approval an amended Environmental Site Management and
                Rehabilitation (ESM&R) Plan, based on the Provisional ESM&R Plan issued during the tender
                phase (see Appendix 2). Construction site yards, concrete batching plants, asphalt batching
                plants and other noisy fixed facilities should be located well away from noise sensitive areas
                such as any accommodation quarters or offices situated on site. This plan must show the final
                positions and extent of all permanent and temporary site structures and infrastructure, including
                (as relevant):
                       Buildings and structures.
                       Contractors’ accommodation.
                       Contractors’ camp and laydown areas.
                       Site offices.
                       Site laboratories.
                       Batching plants.
                       Crusher plants.
                       Sand washing plants.
                       Roads and access routes.
                       Gates and fences.
                       Essential services (permanent and temporary water, electricity and sewage).
                       Rubble and waste rock storage and disposal sites.
                       Solid waste storage and disposal sites.
                       Site toilets and ablutions.
                       Hazardous waste storage and disposal sites.
                       Firebreaks.
                       Borrow areas.
                       Excavations and trenches.
                       Cut and fill areas.
                       Sand extraction points.
                       Topsoil stockpiles.
                       Spoil areas.
                       Sludge dams.
                       Construction materials stores.


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                        Vehicle and equipment stores.
                        Workshops.
                        Wash bays.
                        Fuel stores.
                        Hazardous substance stores.
                        Features and plants to be conserved.
                The construction programme prepared in terms of the Conditions of Contract shall take into
                account any limitations of the environment such as the seasonality of water bodies.
                Indicate that the rehabilitation will immediately be executed, per phase, upon the completion of
                the civil works.
                Ensure that the Construction Programme and the amended ESM&R Plan relate to one another.
                Inform the Engineer of any changes to the approved Construction Programme as submitted.
                The Construction Programme must afford the local community and affected landowners the
                opportunity to harvest medicinal plants, firewood and other resources ahead of debushing.
                Where necessary, the Construction Programme must allow for harvesting of seeds and
                seedlings for future use during rehabilitation. These harvested plants must be kept under
                nursery conditions (refer Section 6.2.6).
                Draw up and submit for approval a Water Management (WM) Plan. This plan must show the
                positions, extent and specifications of all temporary and permanent water management
                structures and infrastructure, including:
                        Taps, pipelines and irrigation systems.
                        Underground drains.
                        Grass drains.
                        French drains.
                        Trench and berm systems.
                        Deflection berm systems.
                        Bunds and sumps.
                        Settlement ponds.
                        Water discharge points (including energy dissipation specifications).
                        Water testing points.
                        Sewage water management systems.
                        Grey water management systems.
                The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry will stipulate the acceptable and unacceptable
                levels of sedimentation in the Steelpoort River downstream of the construction area (dam and
                two weirs).
                Keep both the ESM&R and the Water Management Plans updated throughout the construction
                period. Changes to either approved Plan must be approved by the ECO, via the Engineer.
                Make provision for monitoring and auditing as specified. Ensure that the ECO has access to the
                site at all times.
                Ensure that the relevant Environmental Awareness Training Courses are presented before the
                commencement of construction.
                Ensure that a Safety Officer (compulsory) and Contractor’s Environmental Representative
                (compulsory) are appointed before the commencement of construction.




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5.3   Access and landowners


5.3.1 Access/haul roads

                The Drawings detail all access/haul roads that are required to be used during the construction
                phase of the proposed project. This shall include access to farmlands. Access roads shall be
                capable of accommodating the type of vehicles and/or mechanical plant using the routes, i.e.
                livestock transport, tractors and trailers, etc.. Any changes to the routes shown on the Drawings
                shall be to the prior approval of the Engineer.
                In determining the location and extent of access/haul roads, cognisance must be taken of
                sensitive and no-go areas (Section 2.2).
                As far as possible, use must be made of existing roads in the area, or temporary haul/access
                roads should be established within the boundaries of the demarcated works area. Any clearing
                for access or haul roads necessary outside the demarcated works area, shall only be
                undertaken after approval from the Engineer.


5.3.2 Landowner access

                The Employer will identify the access requirements which will be shown on the Drawings. The
                design will address the disturbance of access to landowners and their employees during the
                construction phase, and will make provisions for maintaining access.
                If after commencement of the final design phase, the Contractor is approached by any
                landowners who claim to access being hindered, the Contractor must immediately inform the
                Engineer.


5.3.3 General disturbance and nuisance to surrounding landowners

                Dust control management practices and procedures will be specified by the Engineer, by
                implementing one or more of the following methods depending on site specific circumstances:
                       A maximum speed of 60 km/h for passenger and light commercial vehicles and 40 km/h
                       for heavy vehicles and equipment must be strictly enforced to minimise dust generation in
                       or nearby residential areas.
                       In areas where dust is expected to be problematic, particularly nearby residential areas,
                       reduce this maximum speed to 40 km/h.
                       Apply watering or alternative chemical stabilisation as an additional means of controlling
                       dust.
                The Engineer must ensure appropriate mitigation measures in order to ensure noise levels are
                within their lawfully acceptable levels.
                During construction it is important that selective and sensitive location and design of the lighting
                requirements for the construction camp are developed. Strategies include reducing the height
                from which floodlights are fixed, identifying zones of high and low lighting requirements with the
                focus of the lights being inward, rather than outward, avoid uplighting of structures but rather
                direct the light downwards and focussed on the object to be illuminated, avoid directing the light
                towards the direction from where it would be most visible, unless otherwise requested by the
                community.




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5.3.4 Liaison with landowners

                Any complaint or liaison with landowners with regard to environmental aspects, compensation
                or disturbance to economic activities or animals, must not be handled by the Contractor. The
                Contractor must immediately inform the Engineer on site, who will in turn involve the Employer
                and/or ECO for further action.


5.4   Environmental Awareness

      Proper environmental awareness training is a requirement for all construction crews working not only
      in natural environments, but all urban environments as well. This not only ensures the safety of the
      personnel, but also helps to protect the integrity of the environment during construction.

      The Employer will be responsible for coordinating arrangements for these training courses, in
      consultation with the ECO.

      The Contractor must arrange, through the ECO, that all of his employees and those of his sub-
      contractor go through these project specific environmental awareness training courses before the
      commencement of construction and as and when new staff or sub-contractors are brought on site.

      An awareness course is compulsory for all employees and structured in accordance with their relevant
      rank, level and responsibility, in order that these employees:

                Acquire a basic understanding of the environment and the environmental features pertaining to
                the Work Site and environs.
                Are familiar with the requirements of the Environmental Specifications as they apply to the
                Works.
                Are made aware of any site-specific environmental matters, which are deemed to be necessary
                by the ECO.

      It may also be necessary to present the Project EMP to employees, highlighting specific requirements
      and sensitivities.

      The Skills Development Act and Levy can be utilised to claim back a significant portion of training
      costs and, in terms of that act, the learners receive credits for the training received.




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6.    CONSTRUCTION/IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATION

      The Construction Phase refers to the period of the project during which the actual Works are carried
      out, deemed to include site establishment and Site Works.


6.1   Site establishment

      When establishing the site, the environmental objective is to minimise the footprint of disturbance and
      to minimise the extent of soil erosion, loss of vegetation and the potential for pollution of soils and
      water resources.


6.1.1 Demarcation of the site

                The Contractor’s right to access any portion of the Site is governed by the terms and conditions
                of the Conditions of Contract.
                Identify and demarcate the extent of the site and associated Works Areas as indicated on the
                approved ESM&R Plan2 using danger tape with steel droppers or other methods approved by
                the ECO, in consultation with the Engineer.
                Minimise the extent of the Works Site footprint as much as is possible.
                In sensitive environments, or where unauthorised access into no-go areas (Section 2.2) may
                take place, then a perimeter fence (if practical) must be erected around the works area, the
                specification (also refer to Particular Specification 60 and 61) of which must be adequate to
                address the problem.
                Maintain site demarcations in position until the cessation of construction works.
                Maintain animal movement corridors as indicated on the Master Plan and ESM&R Plan, and/or
                as specified on site by the Engineer.
                In sensitive environments such as pristine or valuable vegetation and sensitive social
                environments, this working servitude may be reduced3.
                Maintain the demarcation line, and ensure that no personnel or construction materials move
                outside the designated site.
                Do not use the site for any other purpose other than for the proper carrying out of the Works
                under the Contract.
                Do not establish any Site Works besides those specified and allowed for in the successful
                tender, unless specifically agreed upon by the Engineer.
                Do not establish any activities or operations that, in the opinion of the ECO are likely to
                adversely affect the aesthetic quality of the environment.
                In the event that such activities and operations are deemed to be necessary, then ameliorative
                actions to reduce the adverse effects must be taken. Actions will be specified by the ECO, via
                the Engineer.
                Do not paint or mark any natural feature. Marking for surveying and other purposes must be
                done using pegs, beacons or rope and droppers.




2
      The ECO will be available to aid the Contractor with the demarcation of this area
3
      To be indicated by the ECO



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6.1.2 Protection of vegetation and natural features

                All plants and natural features to be protected during construction must be identified in the
                demarcated construction area prior to the Contractor commencing with land clearing. Any
                permits or licences required for the removal or pruning of protected tree species as per the
                Government Gazette Notice 1012 of 27 August 2004 and the National Forests Act (Act No 84 of
                1998) must be obtained.
                The Contractor may clear only the vegetation within the construction area, unless specifically
                marked, and must take special care not to disturb plants outside the construction area during
                this process.
                Any plants or trees of value, close to the construction area that will remain, shall be marked
                clearly and must not be disturbed, defaced, destroyed or removed for the duration of the
                Contractor’s presence on site, unless otherwise specified by the Engineer.
                Maintain plant demarcations in position until the cessation of construction works.
                Do not disturb, deface, destroy or remove plants or natural features outside of the construction
                area, whether fenced or not, for the duration of the Contractor’s presence on site, unless
                otherwise specified by the Engineer.
                The Contractor will be held liable for the replacement of any plant or feature under the
                protection of these specifications that is removed or damaged by the Contractor’s negligence or
                mismanagement.
                No open fires are permitted under trees.
                No material storage or laydown is permitted under trees.
                No vegetative matter may be removed for firewood.
                The ECO may add to this list, as long as motivation for doing so is consistent with the criteria
                used to initially identify the plant or feature (during the Environmental Impact Assessment).


6.1.3 Protection of fauna

                No wild animal may under any circumstance be handled, removed or be interfered with.
                No wild animal may under any circumstance be hunted, snared, captured, injured or killed. This
                includes animals perceived to be vermin. The penalty clause associated with the needless
                destruction of wildlife is stated later in this document.
                The Contractor must regularly undertake checks of the surrounding natural vegetation, in fences
                and along game paths to ensure no traps have been set. Remove and dispose of any snares or
                traps found on or adjacent to the site.
                Ensure that the Work Site is kept clean, tidy and free of rubbish that would attract animal pests.
                Ensure that bins and waste storage facilities are scavenger-proof.
                The Contractor must report problem animals and vermin to the Engineer who will facilitate any
                removal by the relevant organization or authority.
                Ensure that domesticated animals belonging to the local community are kept away and are safe
                from any unprotected Works.
                Do not make use of any pesticides, unless approved by the ECO.




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6.1.4 Protection of cultural historical aspects

                A PSP appointed specifically to identify, locate and map all features and sites of social and/or
                cultural historical significance to be protected during construction4 must have completed their
                task prior to the Contractor disturbing any areas where important sites have been identified.
                Some sites near the construction area may be marked for protection using danger tape and
                steel droppers.
                Maintain demarcations in position until the cessation of construction works.
                Do not disturb deface, destroy or remove protected features and sites, whether fenced or not,
                for the duration of the Contractor’s presence on site, unless otherwise specified by the
                Engineer.
                If any chance archaeological finds, graves or skeletal material are unearthed, halt Works in that
                area immediately and inform the Engineer5.
                Do not resume Works in the area in question without permission from the Engineer6.


6.1.5 Topsoil conservation

                The stripping and stockpiling of topsoil is covered by the Technical Specifications.
                In the absence of a recognizable topsoil layer, strip the uppermost 300 mm of soil.
                Co-ordinate Works to limit unnecessarily prolonged exposure of stripped areas and stockpiles.
                Retain vegetation and soil in position for as long as possible, removing it immediately ahead of
                construction/earthworks in that area.
                Strip and stockpile herbaceous vegetation, overlying grass and other fine organic matter along
                with the topsoil.
                Do not strip topsoil when it is wet.
                Do not mix topsoil obtained from different sites, unless the ECO gives permission.


6.1.6 De-bushing and de-stumping

                Obtain permission from the Engineer to proceed with debushing. Only debush areas specified
                on the ESM&R Plan.



6.2   Site infrastructure


6.2.1 Structures and accommodation

                Locate all buildings and structures, including offices, workshops, stores, site laboratories as well
                as the weather station within predetermined zones as per the approved ESM&R Plan.
                Locate all temporary and permanent labour housing within predetermined sites as per the
                approved ESM&R Plan and/or relevant Sketch Plans.

4
      To be indicated by the ECO as referenced in the Environmental Impact Assessment.
5
      The Engineer must contact the Employer who will contact the Cultural Heritage PSP.
6
      A Phase 2 archaeological investigation must be undertaken and a permit must be obtained from SAHRA regional office before
      any archaeological site can be destroyed. In addition, exhumation and reburial of graves must conform to the standards set out
      in the Ordinance on Excavations (Ordinance no. 12 of 1980). Permission must be obtained from the descendants (where
      known), the National Department of Health, Provincial Department of Health, Premier of the Province and the local police. In
      addition, permission must be obtained from the landowners (where the graves are located and where the graves are going to be
      relocated) before exhumation can take place. Human remains can only be handled by a registered undertaker or an institution
      declared under the Human Tissue Act (Act No 65 of 1983 as amended). The ECO will co-ordinate.



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                Secure housing sites using 1,2 m high fence. In areas where security or theft is a problem, the
                fence height may be increased to 1,8 m or even 2,4 m and topped with razor wire. These fences
                are to remain in position until the cessation of Works. Also refer to Particular Specifications 60
                and 61 and the Scope of Works in the Technical Document.
                Ensure that essential services (including showers, appropriate sanitation and drinking water
                facilities) are provided for all housing sites
                Maintain essential services in a functional state. These may not be overloaded. Defects and
                inadequacies must be rectified immediately.
                Provide a designated place for food storage, preparation and consumption. Food storage must
                be separate from sleeping quarters and waste storage areas.
                Service all labour housing with cooking facilities, preferably gas or electricity.
                Allow for household amenities, such as washing and drying of clothes, as well as areas for
                social interaction.


6.2.2 Contractors camp and lay-down areas

                Locate all storage areas and material laydown sites within predetermined zones as per the
                approved ESM&R Plan.
                Additional areas required by the Contractor for laydown and storage must be approved by the
                Engineer, in the form of an amended ESM&R Plan indicating the extent and anticipated
                utilisation of the storage and laydown area.
                Keep the camp and all its storage and laydown areas secure and neat at all times and employ
                appropriate access control measures during construction.
                Clearly indicate which activities are to take place within which areas of the site using
                demarcation and/or signage.
                Position security lighting so that it does not pose a nuisance to residential properties or tourist
                facilities or a danger to road users.
                Locate all other structures (including site offices, site laboratories, substations, workshops, wash
                bays, stores, substations etc.) as indicated on the approved ESM&R Plan.


6.2.3 Batching plants

                Position batching plants on the basis of convenient location to the Work Sites as well as
                environmental limitations/opportunities7.
                Do not locate batching plants or associated sludge dams within the 1:100 year floodline, or
                within a horizontal distance of 100 m (whichever is greater) of a watercourse or drainage line.
                Protect the batching plant on the up-slope side by an earth berm or sandbag system to deflect
                clean surface runoff away from the plant.
                Contain the batching plant on the down-slope side by a trench and earth berm or sandbag
                system to control contaminated runoff and construction water emanating from within the plant.
                Collect all construction water and contaminated runoff emanating from within the batching plant
                (and associated wash bays) and contain within a sludge dam for later disposal in the
                appropriate manner (Section 6.3.5).
                Clean out all sludge dams on a regular basis, and disposed of sludge in the appropriate manner
                (Section 6.3.5).



7
      As allowed for on the approved ESM&R Plan.



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                Ensure that appropriate measures are in place to prevent the overflow of sludge dams during
                heavy rains and storm conditions. A method statement to this effect shall be provided by the
                Contractor for approval by the Engineer.
                Scrape waste concrete and cement sludge off the side of the batching plant on a regular basis,
                and dispose of in the appropriate manner (Section 6.3.5).


6.2.4 Crusher plants

                Position crusher plants on the basis of convenient location to the Work Sites as well as
                environmental limitations/opportunities8.
                Utilise the minimum area required for the storage of different stone sizes.
                Do not locate crusher plants or associated settlement ponds within the 1:100 year floodline, or
                within a horizontal distance of 100 m (whichever is greater) of a watercourse, drainage line or
                identified wetland.
                Do not locate crusher plants or associated settlement ponds within any riparian vegetation
                zone9.
                Protect the crusher plant on the up-slope side by an earth berm or sandbag system to deflect
                clean surface runoff away from the plant.
                Contain the crusher plant on the down-slope side by a trench and earth berm or sandbag
                system to control contaminated runoff and construction water emanating from within the plant. .
                Collect all construction water and contaminated runoff emanating from within the crusher plant
                and contain within a closed settlement pond system.
                Filtered water from the settlement pond may be liberated into the environment in an appropriate
                manner (Section 6.3.5).
                Clean out settlement pond on a regular basis, and disposed of sludge in the appropriate manner
                (Section 6.3.5).
                Ensure that appropriate measures are in place to prevent the overflow of settlement ponds
                during heavy rains and storm conditions.


6.2.5 Sand washing plants

                Position sand washing plants on the basis of convenient location to the Work Sites as well as
                environmental limitations/opportunities10.
                Do not locate sand washing plants or associated settlement ponds within the 1:20 year
                floodline, or within a horizontal distance of 50 m (whichever is greater) of a watercourse,
                drainage line or identified wetland unless specified additional sediment retention methods are
                implemented such as silt curtains.
                Do not locate sand washing plants or associated settlement ponds within any riparian
                vegetation zone11.
                Protect the sand washing plant on the up-slope side by an earth berm or sandbag system to
                deflect clean surface runoff away from the plant.
                Contain the sand washing plant on the down-slope side by a trench and earth berm or sandbag
                system to control contaminated runoff and construction water emanating from within the plant.
                Collect all construction water and contaminated runoff emanating from within the sand washing
                plant and contain within a closed settlement pond system.

8
      As allowed for on the approved ESM&R Plan.
9
      To be indicated by the ECO as referenced in the Environmental Impact Assessment.
10
      As allowed for on the approved ESM&R Plan.
11
      To be indicated by the ECO as referenced in the Environmental Impact Assessment.



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                Filtered water from the settlement pond may be liberated into the environment in an appropriate
                manner (Section 6.3.5).
                Clean out settlement pond on a regular basis, and disposed of sludge in the appropriate manner
                (Section 6.3.5).
                Ensure that appropriate measures are in place to prevent the overflow of settlement ponds
                during heavy rains and storm conditions. A method statement to this effect shall be provided by
                the Contractor for approval by the Engineer.


6.2.6 Off-site Mitigation and Plant Rescue

                The Employer will establish an agreement with the South African National Biodiversity Institute
                or similar institution for the collection of valuable plant species and the harvesting of seed during
                construction, in particular, from the left bank of the basin area. Furthermore the Client may have
                a temporary holding area for a certain percentage of the plants harvested that can be used in
                the rehabilitation of construction areas and for re-population in the off-site mitigation area.
                Primary mitigation for loss of flora is Clause 3.2.1.13 in the revised Record of Decision. The
                operation will be over a number of years required for construction in order that plant species can
                be collected over different seasons.

6.2.7 Roads and access

                Develop all permanent and temporary roads and access routes as indicated on the approved
                ESM&R Plan.
                Slight deviations of alignment are permitted, so as to avoid significant vegetation specimens and
                communities, natural features and sites of cultural and historical significance identified by the
                ECO or Cultural Heritage PSP. These deviations must be approved by the Engineer.
                Make use of existing roads and tracks where feasible, rather than creating new routes.
                Ensure that adequate vehicle turning areas are allowed for. Position these in disturbed areas as
                far as possible.
                Where construction will obstruct existing access, be sure to allow for alternative temporary
                access routes.
                In general, construction routes should not be wider than 3 m in sensitive areas, with passing
                bays where two-way traffic is required.
                Any additional routes and turning areas required by the Contractor must be approved by the
                Engineer in consultation with the ECO, in the form of an amended ESM&R Plan indicating the
                position and extent of the proposed route/area.
                Plan access routes to avoid significant vegetation specimens and communities, natural features
                and sites of cultural and historical significance12.
                Routes should not traverse slopes with gradients in excess of 8%. Where this is unavoidable,
                stabilise the road surface, if not gravel, using methods approved by the Engineer.
                Avoid routes through drainage lines and riparian zones wherever possible. Where access
                through drainage lines and riparian zones is unavoidable, only one road is permitted,
                constructed perpendicular to the drainage line. Avoid roads that follow drainage lines within the
                floodplain.
                Enforce speed limits at all times on site roads.
                Allow for safe pedestrian crossing where necessary.
                Ensure that only authorised roads and access routes are used.


12
      To be indicated by the Engineer.



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                Vehicles may not leave the designated roads and tracks and turnaround points will be limited to
                specific sites.
                Where this is avoidable, maintain all access routes and roads adequately in order to minimise
                erosion and undue surface damage. Repair rutting and potholing and maintain stormwater
                control mechanisms.
                Runoff from roads must be managed to avoid erosion and pollution problems.
                Regularly remove topsoil (and other material) accumulated in side drains of roadways to keep
                these open and functional.
                Clear up any gravel or cement spillage on roads.
                Clean and make good any damage to public or private roads caused by the Contractor during
                the construction phase.
                No off-road driving is permitted, unless authorised by the Engineer.
                Do not permit vehicular or pedestrian access into natural areas beyond the necessary work site.
                The Engineer will indicate whether or not it is necessary to keep a photographic record of
                temporary or permanent rights of way over private property as permitted during construction.


6.2.8 Gates and fences

                Protect and maintain existing private property, fences and gates.
                Respect the open or closed status of gates for the duration of the construction period.
                Small sensitive areas may be fenced where necessary, as the work site progresses.
                Additional fencing may be specified by the Engineer, on advice from the EER to counter
                problems arising on site. The Contractor must erect such fencing and/or gates when and where
                required by the Engineer, and re-erect and maintain temporary fencing and or gates as
                necessary.
                Fences must be aligned to avoid significant vegetation specimens and communities, natural
                features, sites of cultural and historical significance and animal movement corridors as advised
                by the Engineer. All alterations must be approved by the Engineer.
                Limit clearing for fencing to the removal of trees and shrubs within 1 m of the fence line. No
                removal of the grass cover or topsoil is to occur within this width.
                Retain temporary fencing and/or gates in position until replaced by permanent fencing or until
                the Engineer directs their earlier removal.
                If temporary fencing and or gates are removed temporarily for the execution of any part of the
                Works then these must be reinstated as soon as practicable by the Contractor.


6.3   Site operations


6.3.1 Rubble and waste rock

                Store inert building rubble and waste rock as indicated on the approved ESM&R Plan.
                Subject to approval by the Engineer, in consultation with the ECO, certain borrow pits and/or
                quarries may be utilised for the disposal of waste rock and inert building rubble (Section 6.4).
                If no on-site disposal opportunities exist, then rubble and waste rock must be disposed of at the
                nearest registered solid waste disposal facility.




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6.3.2 Solid waste

                Collect all domestic waste in adequate numbers of litter bins located as required on the Work
                Site and within the Contractors camp.
                Where feasible, collect waste paper, glass and metal waste separately and arrange for
                collection by recycling contractors.
                For linear works, provide litter bins at regular positions, with spacing not exceeding 100 m
                throughout the Work Site.
                Litter bins must be equipped with a closing mechanism to prevent their contents from blowing
                out.
                Ensure that personnel make use of the litter bins provided. Keep all Work Sites and the
                Contractors camp tidy and litter free at all times.
                Empty litter bins weekly (or as required before they reach capacity).
                Where necessary, dedicate a storage area on site for the collection of construction waste.
                Remove stored domestic waste to the nearest registered solid waste disposal facility.
                Ensure that solid waste is transported so as to avoid waste spills en-route.
                Where solid waste disposal is to take place on site, ensure that only non-toxic materials, which
                have no risk of polluting the groundwater, are buried in designated approved areas at
                                                       13
                acceptable depths below ground level .
                No solid waste disposal site may be located below the full supply level of the prospective dam.
                No solid waste may be burned on site.


6.3.3 Liquid waste

                Provide portable chemical toilets at all Work Sites, unless a proper septic tank is installed as per
                the conditions of the ORWRDP RoD14.
                Ensure that adequate numbers of conveniently located site toilets are available on all Work
                Sites at all times in quantities related to the number of users (this shall not exceed 1 toilet per 20
                users).
                Do not locate any site toilet, sanitary convenience, septic tank or French drain within the 1:100
                year floodline, or within a horizontal distance of 100 m (whichever is greater) of a stream or
                identified wetland.
                Maintain and clean site toilets regularly as is required to keep them in good, functional working
                order and in an acceptable state of hygiene. Sewage from chemical toilets may not be dumped
                into the environment – the sewage is to be removed to a proper waste water treatment facility.
                Combine drinking water facilities with hand washing facilities near site toilets.


6.3.4 Hazardous waste

                Store hazardous waste as indicated on the approved ESM&R Plan.
                Ensure compliance with all national, regional and local legislation with regard to the disposal of
                hydrocarbons, chemicals, solvents and any other harmful and hazardous substances and
                materials.
                Drip trays must be used where dispensing mechanisms or stored receptacles may leak. Collect
                any hazardous waste in receptacles located on a drip tray on site pending disposal.
                Retain waste oils and batteries for recycling by the supplier wherever possible.

13
      The Department’s consent and the necessary approvals and permits are to be in place before any such disposal takes place.




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                Water and oil should be separated in an oil trap. Oils collected in this manner should be
                retained in a safe holding tank and removed from site by a specialist oil recycling company for
                disposal at approved waste disposal sites for toxic/hazardous materials. Oil collected by a
                mobile servicing unit should be stored in the service unit’s sludge tank and discharged into the
                safe holding tank for collection by the specialist oil recycling company.
                Regularly dispose of all hazardous waste not earmarked for reuse, recycling or resale (such as
                oil contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons, electrical cleaning solvent, certain chemicals
                and fluorescent tubes) at a registered hazardous waste disposal site.
                Contain chemical spills, and arrange for cleanup/control by the supplier, or by professional
                pollution control personnel.
                Under no circumstances shall the spoiling of bituminous products on the site, over
                embankments, in borrow pits or any burying be allowed.
                No spillage of bituminous products shall be allowed on-site. Special care should be taken to
                avoid spillage of tar products such as tar prime or pre-coating fluid to avoid water-soluble
                phenols from entering the ground or contaminating water.
                Unused or rejected bituminous products shall be removed from site and taken to the supplier’s
                production plant.
                All used filter materials should be stored in a secure bin for disposal off site. Hazardous waste
                shall not be stored or stockpiled in any area other than that designated on the construction-site
                layout.
                Maintenance and servicing bays shall have a concrete floor and be fitted with sumps and
                collection tanks for wastewater that is contaminated with diesel, petrol and oil. This wastewater
                shall be removed to a registered disposal site.
                Regularly dispose of all hazardous waste not earmarked for reuse, recycling or resale (such as
                oil contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons, bitumen, tar, electrical cleaning solvent, certain
                chemicals and fluorescent tubes) at a registered, approved hazardous waste disposal site.


6.3.5 Pollution control

                Do not locate any reservoir, dam or depot for any substance, which causes or is likely to cause
                pollution, within the 1:100 year floodline, or within a horizontal distance of 100 m (whichever is
                greater) of a watercourse, drainage line or identified wetland.
                Do not dump waste of any nature, or any foreign material into any drainage line or wetland.
                Do not allow the use of any drainage line or wetland for swimming, bathing, or the cleaning of
                clothing, tools or equipment.
                Prevent the discharge of water containing polluting matter or visible suspended materials
                directly into drainage lines or wetlands.
                Deflect any unpolluted water/runoff away from any dirty area (including plants, maintenance
                areas, workshops and contractors’ yards).
                Otherwise clean, but silt laden water may be discharged overland, provided no erosion is
                resultant from this discharge (Section 6.7.1).
                Where necessary, turbid water pumped from excavations within rivers must be passed through
                a sand filter or settling pond before being released back into the river. Discharge of this water
                must be in a controlled manner, and no erosion may result (Section 6.7.1).
                Design, construct, maintain and operate any tailings dam or sludge dam that forms part of a
                dirty water system to have a minimum freeboard of 0.8 m above full supply level.

14
      The installation of a septic tank requires approval from the local authority. Septic tanks may only be installed where soil
      conditions are suitable.



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                Ensure that no stormwater is allowed to enter any drainage installation for the reception,
                conveyance, storage and/or treatment of sewage.
                Ensure that water passing through vehicle wash bays and workshops pass through oil baffles/oil
                traps/oils separators before passing into conservancy tanks.
                Treat all oil sludge collected in the said traps, including sump liners, as hazardous waste
                (Section 6.3.4).
                Take special care during rainy periods to prevent the contents of sumps and drip trays from
                overflowing.
                Before any water is permitted to enter natural drainage lines, the quality of the water must
                comply with the standards contained within the General Authorisations of the Department of
                Water Affairs and Forestry15.
                Water may only be discharged into a stormwater or sewer system with the permission of the
                                16
                local authority .
                Immediately clean any accidental oil or fuel spills or leakages.
                Do not hose oil or fuel spills into a storm water drain or sewer, or into the surrounding natural
                environment.
                Clean small oil or fuel spills with an approved absorbent material, such as 'Drizit' or ‘Spill-sorb’.
                Contain oil or fuel spills in water using an approved oil absorbent fibre.
                Treat soil contaminated by oil or fuel using one of the following approved methods, as per
                instruction of the Engineer/ECO:
                       Remove the soil to the depth of the contamination and dispose of at a registered
                       Hazardous Waste Disposal Site.
                       Remove the soil to the depth of the contamination, and regenerate using approved bio-
                       remediation methods.
                       Report major oil or fuel spills to the provincial Department of Water Affairs and Forestry,
                       as well as to the relevant Local Authority.
                Carefully control all on-site operations that involve the use of cement and concrete (this applies
                to areas other than the batching plant).
                Limit cement and concrete mixing to single sites where possible.
                Dispose of all visible remains of excess cement and concrete after the completion of tasks.
                Dispose of in the approved manner (solid waste concrete may be treated as inert construction
                rubble, but wet cement and liquid slurry, as well as cement powder must be treated as
                hazardous waste [Section 6.3.4]).
                Contain water and slurry from cement and concrete mixing operations as well as from batching
                area wash bays. Direct such waste water into a settlement pond or sludge dam for later
                disposal.
                Do not allow the washing of trucks delivering concrete anywhere but within designated wash
                bays equipped with runoff containment. Direct such waste water into a settlement pond or
                sludge dam for later disposal.
                Where possible, make use of timber products treated off-site.
                Underlay areas where on-site application of timber treatment products is to take place with a
                PVC sheet to prevent the contamination of the soil surface.




15
      As set out in Government Notice 399 (26 March 2004) – Revision of General Authorisations in terms of Section 39 of the
      National Water Act, 1998 (Act No 36 of 1998) Sections 21(f), (h) and (g).
16
      The ECO to advise/co-ordinate in this regard.



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6.3.6 Implements and equipment

                Make use of mobile plant and equipment, which is appropriate to the task (i.e. for construction,
                rehabilitation and maintenance) in order to minimise the impact on and extent of damage to the
                environment.


6.3.7 Blasting

                The requirements for blasting are contained in the Technical Specifications.


6.3.8 Air quality

                Manage dust resultant from the Works and fugitive dust in an efficient and environmentally
                sensitive manner.
                Dust must be controlled through the regular watering of the work areas.
                Ensure that a dust control system (i.e. sprinkler or vacuum) is installed and maintained in an
                operating condition at the crusher plant.
                Dust from the construction site must not disturb economic or social activities in the vicinity of the
                construction site.
                In areas where dust is expected to be problematic, particularly nearby residential areas, enforce
                a maximum speed of 40 km/h for passenger and light commercial vehicles and 20 km/h for
                heavy vehicles and equipment.
                Apply watering as an additional means of controlling dust.



6.3.9 Noise control

                Ensure that employees and staff conduct themselves in an acceptable manner while on site,
                both during work hours and after hours.
                No loud music is permitted on site or in the Camp.
                Notify adjacent landowners of after-hours construction work and of any other activity that could
                cause a nuisance.
                Respond to community complaints with regard to noise generation, taking reasonable action to
                ameliorate the impact.
                Where complaints cannot be addressed to the satisfaction of all parties, then the Contractor will,
                upon instruction by the Project Manager, via the Engineer/RE, provide an independent and
                registered Noise Monitor to undertake a survey of the noise output levels. Recommendations to
                reduce noise to legislated levels must be implemented. This may include the construction of
                noise barriers, earth berms or sound attenuation walls as required.


6.3.10 Fire control

                Take adequate precautions to ensure that fires are not started as a result of Works on site as
                specified below: the Contractor will be held liable for any damage to property adjoining the Site
                as a result of any fire caused by one of his employees.
                Establish and maintain fire breaks around the Work Sites as and when specified by the ECO
                and as required by applicable legislation and the local authority.
                In areas highly susceptible to fire (plantations), night time security guards must be employed.



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                A minimum requirement for construction in a high fire risk area is a water truck or cart, with a
                minimum capacity of 5 000 litres, equipped with pump and hose (minimum length 30 m), which
                must be permanently on site.
                Ensure that the Work Site, the contractor’s camp and all living quarters are equipped with
                adequate fire fighting equipment17. This includes at least rubber beaters when working in veld
                areas, and at least one fire extinguisher of the appropriate type irrespective of the site.
                Take immediate steps to extinguish any fire, which may break out on the construction site.
                No open fires are permitted anywhere on site.
                Restrict contained fires for heating and cooking (i.e. in a fire drum) to designated areas on site.
                Prevent employees from creating fires randomly outside designated areas.
                Do not store any fuel or chemicals under trees.
                Do not store gas and liquid fuel in the same storage area.
                Do not permit any smoking within 3 m of any fuel or chemical storage area, or refuelling area.


6.3.11 Health and Safety

      The requirements for Health and Safety are covered by the relevant legislation and Technical
      Specification.


6.4   Borrow areas


6.4.1 Borrow pits and rock quarries

                All work must be done in accordance with the EMPR as authorised by the Department of
                Minerals and Energy (DME).
                Any additional borrow areas and quarries required by the Contractor must be approved by the
                Engineer, in consultation with ECO, in the form of an amended ESM&R Plan, and may only be
                opened once approved by DME in terms of the requirements of the Minerals and Petroleum
                Resources Development Act (Act No 28 of 2002).
                Avoid stripping material to bedrock (if relevant). This limits rehabilitation potential for these
                areas.
                Minimise the flow of any surface water or floodwater into borrow areas. Where necessary
                protect borrow areas by an earth berm or sandbag system to deflect clean surface runoff away
                from the excavations.
                Allow for the natural free drainage of borrow areas. All borrow areas must be drained unless
                otherwise specified.
                Ensure that truck loads are covered with tarpaulins when sand is being transported on public
                roads.
                Control the type of material imported to ensure that soil contamination, in terms of weeds and
                alien invasive plants, does not occur.
                Bury coarse material incapable of supporting vegetation beneath the finer material.
                Backfill inert rubble18 in layers of not more than 1 m, level and compact. Proceed in this manner
                until the level of backfilling has been reached and then cover the site with a layer of fine
                overburden at least 500 mm thick, followed by a layer of topsoil at least 200 mm thick (Sections
                7.2 and 7.4).

17
      In terms of SABS 1200
18
      Brick, rock, dry waste concrete and other building rubble that will not liberate toxic residues into the soil or ground water over
      time, once buried.



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                No residue or substance which causes or is likely to cause pollution of a water resource may be
                placed in the workings of any underground or opencast mine excavation, prospecting diggings,
                pit or any other excavation.


6.4.2 Sand mining

                Only screening activities are permitted within the riverbed. No unnecessary stockpiling of
                material should take place in the riverbed.
                Locate all support activities in the river plain, outside of the riparian vegetation zone.
                Limit access to single routes and access points at all times. Access through riparian vegetation
                to sand borrow areas must be constructed perpendicular to the drainage line.



6.5   Earthworks


6.5.1 Excavations and trenches

                For significant trees as indicated by the EER, trenching must 3 m away from the stem.
                Excavate and backfill trenches on a progressive basis as covered in Specifications.
                During construction through a drainage line, the majority of the flow must be allowed to pass
                down the stream (i.e. no damming must be allowed to take place). In-stream diversions should
                be used rather than the construction of new channels.


6.5.2 Cut and fill

                The Engineer may identify cut and fill areas that need protection and will specify a solution in
                terms of the most appropriate approved method and technology (Section 6.7.2).
                Finish blasted areas and cut and fill slopes as roughened surfaces, which emulate the natural
                surroundings.
                Ensure that no concrete rubble is present within the top 1,5 m of any embankment.


6.5.3 Shaping and trimming

                Shape areas to correct contours to within a tolerance of 300 mm. This tolerance applies to
                areas where the final contours are shown on the drawings.
                Trim areas already shaped to within an acceptable tolerance, with all undulations following a
                smooth curve. This tolerance applies to areas where the final contours are shown on the
                drawings.
                Dispose of excess material in the agreed manner (Section 6.3.1).
                Plan shaping and trimming operations to allow for topsoil application: final trimmed levels must
                make provision for the specified depth of reapplied topsoil (Section 7.5).




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6.6   Stockpiles, storage and handling


6.6.1 Topsoil

                Topsoil is to be handled twice only – once to strip and stockpile, and once to replace and level.
                Position topsoil stockpiles as indicated on the approved ESM&R Plan.
                Any additional topsoil stockpile areas required by the Contractor must be approved by the
                Engineer in consultation with the ECO, in the form of an amended ESM&R Plan indicating the
                position and extent of thereof.
                Position topsoil stockpiles on the higher side of a disturbed area, and above a 1:50 year flood
                line wherever possible.
                Ensure that all topsoil is stored in such a way and in such a place that it will not cause the
                damming up of water, erosion gullies, or wash away itself.
                In linear developments, stockpile topsoil in windrows parallel to the excavation.
                In riverine areas, stockpile topsoil above the riverine zone.
                Do not stockpile topsoil in drainage lines.
                Do not stockpile topsoil in heaps exceeding 2 m in height.
                Remove exotic/invasive plants and broad leaf weeds that emerge on topsoil stockpiles (Section
                6.8).
                If topsoil is to be stockpiled for extended periods, especially during the wet season, then the
                ECO may recommend one of the following measures:
                                                                                    19
                       The re-vegetation of the stockpiles with indigenous grasses (Section 7.8).
                       The covering of the stockpiles with a protective material such as hessian mats.
                Ensure that topsoil is at no time buried, mixed with spoil (excavated subsoil), rubble or building
                material, or subjected to compaction or contamination by vehicles or machinery. This will
                render the topsoil unsuitable for use during rehabilitation.
                The Contractor will be held liable for the replacement of any topsoil rendered unsuitable for use
                during rehabilitation, for reasons due to his negligence or mismanagement on site.


6.6.2 Spoil

                Position spoil (excavated subsoil) as indicated on the approved ESM&R Plan.
                No spoiling shall take place outside of the designated construction area.
                Any additional spoil storage area required by the Contractor must be approved by the Engineer
                in consultation with the ECO, in the form of an amended ESM&R Plan prior to initiating the
                activity. The following information is required for approval:
                        The location, description of and access to proposed sites.
                        The quantity of material to be stored as spoil.
                        The type of material to be stored as spoil (i.e. blast rock, excavated rock, subsoil etc.).
                        The proposed method of storing spoil.
                        A proposal for the reinstatement and rehabilitation plan, including the final profile.
                In linear projects, spoil must be positioned in windrows parallel to the excavation.
                Position spoil on the higher side of a disturbed area, and above a 1:20 year flood line wherever
                possible.
                Ensure that all spoil is stored in such a way and in such a place that it will not cause the
                damming up of water, erosion gullies, or wash away itself.

19
      To be indicated by the ECO.



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                Store spoil in low heaps, not exceeding 2 m in height.
                Do not store spoil in drainage lines.
                Properly rehabilitate any permanent spoil dumps as soon as work in that area is complete. The
                specifications contained in Section 7 are to be followed in this regard.
                In general, no slopes steeper than 1(V):3(H) will be allowed.
                Bury the coarser material beneath the finer material, and overlay all permanent spoil heaps with
                a layer of topsoil at least 200 mm thick (Sections 7.4 and 7.5).


6.6.3 Vehicles and equipment

                Vehicles used during construction must have the minimum impact on the environment or other
                road users.
                Regularly check vehicles, machinery and equipment operating on site to ensure that none have
                leaks or cause spills of oil, diesel, grease or hydraulic fluid.
                No vehicles, machinery or equipment with leaks or causing spills may be allowed to operate on
                the construction site. These must be sent to the maintenance yard or workshop for repair, or
                must be removed from site.
                Ensure that the maintenance of all vehicles and equipment, including oil and lubricant changes,
                takes place only within properly equipped, bunded maintenance areas or workshops as
                indicated on the ESM&R Plan.
                Only emergency and essential repairs of vehicles and equipment may take place on site.
                Underlay light-duty vehicle wash bays and workshops with an impermeable PVC lining or thin
                concrete slab which drains into a conservancy tank.
                Underlay heavy duty maintenance areas and workshops with a concrete slab, enclosed within a
                bund, which drains into a conservancy tank.
                Provide drip pans for generators, or any machinery that will be in position for longer than one
                day.
                Drip trays are to be watertight, and must be emptied regularly and before rain events. The
                contents of drip trays are to be treated as hazardous waste (Section 6.3.4).
                Where oil and fuel spills are expected, parking is to be on an impervious surface with adequate
                pollution control mechanisms in place.



6.6.4 Fuel

                Storage and handling of fuel must be in accordance with SANS specifications, or better, as
                directed by the Engineer.


6.6.5 Hazardous substances

                Hazardous and flammable substances must be stored and used in compliance with applicable
                regulations and safety instructions (Revised ROD Clause 3.2.1.5)




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6.7   Erosion control


6.7.1 Water use and management

                Do not drain, fill or alter in any way, any drainage line, including the riverbanks unless this forms
                part of the construction Works, or upon specific instruction by the Engineer.
                Monitor water use and ensure that areas of waste are identified and minimised (i.e. water used
                for surface wetting, for batching, at the crusher plant, for potable supply etc.).
                Repair identified leaks and address issues of water wastage as soon as these are identified.
                Where possible, recycle water on the construction site.


6.7.2 Erosion control and protection

                Line overflow and scour channels with stone pitching along their length and at their points of
                discharge to prevent soil erosion. The point of discharge must be at a point where there is
                natural grass cover.
                Ensure that channels do not discharge straight down the contours. These must be aligned at
                such an angle to the contours that they have the least possible gradient.
                Locate any point of overland discharge at least 50 m away from any river, stream or drainage
                way.
                Identify all areas susceptible to erosion so that they can be protected from undue soil erosion
                resultant from activities within and adjacent to the construction camp and Work Areas.
                Retain natural trees, shrubbery and grass species wherever possible (Section 6.1.2).
                Do not permit vehicular or pedestrian access into natural areas beyond the demarcated
                boundary of the Work Area (Section 6.1.1).
                Utilise only light equipment for access and deliveries into areas of unstable soils, in areas where
                erosion is evident, and at stream and river embankments20.
                Limit vehicular access into rocky outcrops and ridges21.
                Institute adequate sedimentation control measures at river crossings and when excavation or
                disturbance within riverbanks, or the riverbed takes place22.
                Address erosion donga crossings as river crossings, applying soil erosion control and bank
                stabilisation procedures as specified by the ECO (Appendix 3).
                Do not allow erosion to develop on a large scale before effecting repairs. When in doubt, seek
                advice from the ECO, via the Engineer.
                Repair all erosion damage as soon as possible and in any case not later than six months before
                the termination of the Defects Notification Period to allow for sufficient rehabilitation growth.
                In general, slopes steeper than 1(V):3(H) or slopes where the soils are by nature dispersive or
                erodable, must be stabilised. The Engineer, in consultation with the ECO, will specify a solution
                in terms of the most appropriate approved method and technology. One or more of the
                following methods may be required:
                        Topsoil covered with a geotextile23, plus a specified grass seed mixture24.
                        Gravel armouring cover specified by the Engineer25.
                        Silt fencing designed by the Engineer.

20
      To be indicated by the Engineer.
21
      To be indicated by the Engineer.
22
      To be indicated by the Engineer in consultation with the ECO.
23
      Preferably made of sisal, with openings of at least be 225 mm2 and guaranteed to last at least 24 months.
24
      The subsoil must be broken up / roughened to properly bind with the topsoil.
25
      The subsoil must be broken up / roughened to properly bind with the topsoil.



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                        Earth or rock-pack cut-off berms26.
                        Benches (sand bags), gabions or similar.
                        Stormwater berms.
                Where the river diversion has a higher energy flux than the natural channel or a smaller cross-
                section which would lead to erosion in excess of the natural river course, protect the slopes
                using one or more of the following methods or similar may be used, as specified by the
                Engineer, in consultation with the ECO:
                        Sandbags.
                        Reno mattresses.
                        Plastic liners and/or coarse rock (undersize rip-rap).
                During the course of construction, the ECO may identify additional slopes in need of
                stabilisation and through the Engineer will specify actions in terms of the most appropriate
                practical approved method and technology.

6.8   Control of alien plants

                Monitor all sites disturbed by construction activities for colonisation by exotics or invasive plants
                and control these as they emerge (Appendix 4).
                Follow manufacturers instruction when using Engineer approved chemical methods, especially
                in terms of quantities, time of application etc.
                Ensure that only properly trained people handle and make use of chemicals.
                Dispose of the eradicated plant material at an approved solid waste disposal site. If no toxic
                sprays or persistent poisons were used during eradication, then the wood may be sold or
                donated.
                Rehabilitate all identified areas as soon as practically possible, utilising specified methods and
                species27.




26
      Angled across the contour at approximately 30 degrees from the bisector of the contour.
27
      To be indicated by the Engineer in consultation with the ECO and Appendices 6 for recommended method and species for
      rehabilitation.



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7.    REHABILITATION SPECIFICATION

      The Rehabilitation Phase refers to the period of the project after the completion of the actual Works,
      the onset signalled by site cleanup, site rehabilitation, the withdrawal of the Contractor from site, and
      coinciding with the commencement of the Defects Notification Period. This specification shall be read
      in conjunction with Particular Specifications DHP63 and DHP64.


7.1   Removal of structures and infrastructure

                As soon as a section of Works is finished and a construction site or camp vacated, the area
                must be rehabilitated by appropriate landscaping, levelling, topsoil dressing, land preparation,
                alien plant eradication and vegetation establishment.
                Clear and completely remove from site all construction plant, equipment, storage containers,
                temporary fencing, temporary services, fixtures and any other temporary Works28.
                Materials that will not be used again must be sold if possible or completely removed.
                Ensure that all access roads utilised during construction (which are not earmarked for closure
                and rehabilitation) are returned to a usable state and/or a state no worse than prior to
                construction.


7.2   Inert waste and rubble

                Clear the site of all inert waste and rubble, including surplus rock, foundations and batching
                plant aggregates. After the material has been removed, the site shall be re-instated and
                rehabilitated.
                Load and haul excess spoil and inert rubble to fill in borrow pits/dongas or to dump sites
                indicated/approved by the ECO (Section 6.4).
                Subject to approval by the Engineer in consultation with the ECO, certain borrow pits and/or
                quarries may be utilised for the disposal of waste rock and inert building rubble.
                Remove from site all domestic waste and dispose of in the approved manner (Section 6.3.2) at
                a registered waste disposal site.


7.3   Hazardous waste and pollution control

                Remove from site all temporary fuel stores, hazardous substance stores, hazardous waste
                stores and pollution control sumps. Dispose of hazardous waste in the approved manner
                (Section 6.3.4).
                Remove from site all pollution containment structures. Dispose of materials that will not be used
                again as hazardous waste (Section 6.3.4).
                Remove from site all temporary sanitary infrastructure and waste water disposal systems. Take
                care to avoid leaks, overflows and spills and dispose of any waste in the approved manner
                (Section 6.3.4).




28
      The removal of a septic tank requires approval from the local authority.



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7.4   Final shaping

                Make safe all borrow pits, quarries and dangerous excavations by backfilling, grading and
                blasting as required.
                In general, no slopes steeper than 1(V):3(H) are permitted, unless otherwise specified by the
                Engineer, in consultation with the ECO. Steeper slopes require protection (Section 6.7.2). The
                rationale is that the new slopes must mimic the natural slopes and topography.
                Programme the backfill of excavations so that subsoil is deposited first, followed by the topsoil.
                Compact in layers for best results.
                Backfill French drains, sludge dams and evaporation dams and compact, covering with a final
                layer of topsoil to a height of 100 mm above the surrounding ground surface.
                Deficiency of backfill may not be made up by excavating haphazardly within the Work Site.
                Additional fill may only be imported from approved borrow areas as indicated by the ECO.
                Monitor backfilled areas for subsidence (as the backfill settles) and fill depressions using
                available material.
                Dismantle and flatten temporary drifts and river crossings, reinstating all drainage lines to
                approximate their original profile.
                Shape all disturbed areas to blend in with the surrounding landscape.
                Ensure that no excavated material or stockpiles are left on site and that all material remaining
                after backfill is smoothed over to blend in with the surrounding landscape.


7.5   Topsoil replacement and soil amelioration

                The principle of Progressive Reinstatement must be followed wherever possible. This includes
                the reinstatement of disturbed areas on an ongoing basis, immediately after the specified
                construction activities for that area are concluded.
                Execute top soiling activity prior to the rainy season or any expected wet weather conditions.
                Execute topsoil placement concurrently with construction where possible, or as soon as
                construction in an area has ceased.
                Replace and redistribute stockpiled topsoil together with herbaceous vegetation, overlying grass
                and other fine organic matter in all disturbed areas of the construction site, including temporary
                access routes and roads. Replace topsoil to the original depth (i.e. as much as was removed
                prior to construction - Section 6.1.5).
                Place topsoil in the same area from where it was stripped (Section 6.1.5). If there is insufficient
                topsoil available from a particular soil zone to produce the minimum specified depth, topsoil of
                similar quality may be brought from other areas of similar quality.
                The suitability of substitute material will be determined by means of a soil analysis addressing
                soil fraction, fertility, pH and drainage.
                Do not use topsoil suspected to be contaminated with the seed of alien vegetation (e.g. black
                wattle). Alternatively, the soil is to be sprayed with specified herbicides.
                Ensure that storm water run-off is not channelled alongside the gentle mounding, but that it is
                taken diagonally across it.
                Shape remaining stockpiled topsoil not utilised elsewhere in an acceptable manner so as to
                blend in with the local surrounding area.
                After topsoil placement is complete, spread available stripped vegetation randomly by hand over
                the top-soiled area.




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                In the event that no topsoil is available on site prior to construction, and thus no topsoil is
                available for rehabilitation, undertake the following ameliorative action:
                      Sample the soil to a depth of 200 mm in all areas allocated for grass planting and send
                      the sample for soils analysis to determine the type of fertiliser and rate thereof to be
                      applied.
                      The necessary soil amendments as indicated by soil tests must be added to and worked
                      into the soil.
                      After the application of fertilisers such as superphosphate, a waiting period of six to eight
                      weeks is required prior to the execution of planting and or grassing.


7.6   Ripping and scarifying

                Rip29 and/or scarify30 all areas following the application of topsoil to facilitate mixing of the upper
                most layers. Whether ripping and/or scarifying is necessary will be based on the site conditions
                immediately before these works begin.
                Rip and/or scarify all disturbed (and other specified) areas of the construction site, including
                temporary access routes and roads, compacted during the execution of the Works.
                Rip and/or scarify along the contour to prevent the creation of down-slope channels.
                Rip and/or scarify all areas at 300 mm intervals (but not more than 400 mm intervals), ensuring
                that the lines overlap.
                Do not rip and/or scarify areas under wet conditions, as the soil will not break up.


7.7   Planting


7.7.1 Transplanted plants

                All planting work is to be undertaken by a suitably experienced personnel, making use of the
                appropriate equipment (Section 6.3.6).
                Transplanting entails the removal of plant material and replanting the same plants in another
                designated position.
                Transplant trees and shrubs into positions as indicated on the ESM&R Plan.
                Transplant trees and shrubs during the winter (between April and September). Transplant
                deciduous trees, before the new growth appears.
                Prune back the plants to limit transpiration and spray foliage with an evapo-transpiration
                retardant liquid if they are evergreen.
                Aloes and bulbous plants may be transplanted at any time of the year.
                Trees to be transplanted must be carefully removed from the soil so as to retain as large a
                rootball as practically possible. Use the tree’s driplines as an indicator: the larger the tree the
                larger the rootball (and subsequently the planting hole).
                Minimise disturbance of the soil and the remaining roots in the rootball during the lifting, moving
                and or transportation of all species.
                Wrap the rootball in Hessian or in plastic sheeting to retain the soil and to keep the rootball
                moist.
                Unless otherwise specified by the ECO, excavate square holes of 800 mm x 800 mm x 800 mm
                on average for trees and 500 mm x 500 mm x 500 mm on average for shrubs.


29
      Loosening of the soil to a depth of 300 mm.
30
      The roughening of the surface of the soil to a depth of approximately 50 mm, creating a smoother surface than ripping.



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                If impenetrable shale, rock, clay or a high water table is encountered, making the above hole
                sizes impossible, then seek advice from the Engineer.
                Where local soil has poor drainage, broken rock (approximately 75 mm in diameter) must be
                placed to a depth of 150 mm at the bottom of the planting hole prior to planting and backfilling
                with approved plant medium mixture.
                Backfill planting holes with excavated material/approved topsoil, thoroughly mixed with weed
                free manure or compost (per volume about one quarter of the plant hole), one cup of 2:3:2
                fertiliser and an approved ant and termite poison.
                Plant trees and shrubs so that their stems or trunks are at the same depth as in their original
                position.
                Orientate trees and shrubs in the same direction as in their original position.
                Plant aloes and bulbs in similar soil conditions and to the same depth as in their original
                position.
                Stake all trees using three weather resistant wooden or steel stakes anchored firmly into the
                ground. Two of the three stakes are to be located on the windward side of the plant.
                Galvanised wire binding, 3 mm thick, covered with a 20 mm diameter plastic hosepipe must be
                tied tightly to the stakes, half to two thirds the height of the tree above the ground and looped
                around the trunk of the tree.
                Place stakes at least 500 mm apart and away from the stem and roots of the tree, so as not to
                damage the tree or its roots. This distance will depend upon the size of the tree planted and
                must be approved by the Engineer in consultation with the ECO before staking.
                Where necessary, protect newly planted trees against wind, frost and wild animals by means of
                fencing, sacking or frost nets.
                Water transplanted trees and shrubs as required until the plants are able to survive
                independently (i.e. depending on the rainfall).
                A raised circular 200 mm high subsoil berm, placed 500 mm (shrubs) to 750 mm (trees) from
                the plant’s stem must be provided for the watering. Do not simply leave the excavated plant
                hole partially backfilled for this purpose – the berm must be raised above the natural soil level.
                Water aloes and bulbs once directly after transplanting to settle the soil.
                Remove stakes and wire binds over time as required, as plants become established.


7.7.2 Nursery plants

                All planting work is to be undertaken by suitably experienced personnel, making use of the
                appropriate equipment (Section 6.3.6).
                Plant all trees, shrubs and individual plants in positions as indicated on the ESM&R Plan.
                Planting should preferably be done during the rainy season.
                Unless otherwise specified by the Engineer, excavate square holes of 800 mm x 800 mm x 800
                mm on average for trees and 500 mm x 500 mm x 500 mm on average for shrubs.
                If impenetrable shale, rock, clay or a high water table is encountered, making the above hole
                sizes impossible, then seek advice from the Engineer.
                Where local soil has poor drainage, broken rock (approximately 75 mm in diameter) must be
                placed to a depth of 150 mm at the bottom of the planting hole prior to planting and backfilling
                with approved plant medium mixture.
                Backfill planting holes with excavated material/approved topsoil, thoroughly mixed with weed
                free manure or compost (per volume about one quarter of the plant hole), one cup of 2:3:2
                fertiliser and an approved ant and termite poison.
                As much of the soil from container plants as possible must be retained around the roots of the
                plant during planting.


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                The plant must be planted into the specified hole size with the approved soil, compost and
                fertiliser mix used to refill the plant hole and must cover all the roots and be well firmed down to
                a level equal to that of the surrounding in situ material.
                After planting, each plant must be well watered, adding more soil upon settlement if necessary.
                Add mulch to the surface area of the bermed basin.
                Stake all trees using three weather resistant wooden or steel stakes anchored firmly into the
                ground. Two of the three stakes are to be located on the windward side of the plant.
                Galvanised wire binding, 3 mm thick, covered with a 20 mm diameter plastic hosepipe must be
                tied tightly to the stakes, half to two thirds the height of the tree above the ground and looped
                around the trunk of the tree.
                Place stakes at least 500 mm apart and away from the stem and roots of the tree, so as not to
                damage the tree or its roots. This distance will depend upon the size of the tree planted and
                must be approved by the Engineer in consultation with the ECO before staking.
                Where necessary, protect newly planted trees against wind, frost and wild animals by means of
                fencing, sacking or frost nets.
                Thoroughly water plants as required until the plants are able to survive independently (i.e.
                depending on the rainfall).
                A raised circular 200 mm high subsoil berm, placed 500 mm (shrubs) to 750 mm (trees) from
                the plant’s stem must be provided for the watering. Do not simply leave the excavated plant
                hole partially backfilled for this purpose – the berm must be raised above the natural soil level.
                Water aloes and bulbs once directly after transplanting to settle the soil.
                Remove stakes and wire binds over time as required, as plants become established.


7.7.3 Seeds and seedlings

                All planting work is to be undertaken by suitably experienced personnel, making use of the
                appropriate equipment (Section 6.3.6).
                Tree seedling material should be fresh and of local origin. Resist using plants from far afield as
                they may not be best suited to local climatic or soil conditions.
                Small seedlings are likely to transplant more successfully than will large ones. These should be
                potted and kept under nursery conditions (Section 6.2.6) until they are large enough to plant
                out.


7.8   Grassing

                Suitably trained personnel must undertake grassing by making use of the appropriate
                equipment (Section 6.3.6) and grass species as specified by the terrestrial ecologist.
                Grass areas using the method specified on the ESM&R Plan.
                Trim31 areas to be grassed to the required level.
                Sodding may be done at any time of the year, but seeding must be done during the summer
                when the germination rate is better.
                Hydroseeding with a winter mix will only be specified where regrassing is urgent, and cannot
                wait for the summer.




31
      Preparation of an even surface for grassing.



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7.8.1 Sods

                Sodding is defined as the laying of grass sods.
                The soil should be uniformly wet to a depth of at least 150 mm before planting of grass sods.
                Protect sods against drying out: keep these moist from the time of harvesting until final
                placement.
                Rake or spike the area to give a loose surface to a depth of 100 mm.
                Lay the first row of sods in a straight line, starting at the bottom of a slope, where possible.
                Place the next row of sods in the same way, tightly against the bottom row with the joints
                staggered, until the full area is covered with sods.
                Tightly butt sods together, taking care not to stretch or overlap sods.
                Where a good fit cannot be obtained, the intervening spaces may be filled with parts of sods or
                topsoil.
                On steep slopes the sods must be secured using timber stakes of at least 300 mm in length.
                After planting, water sods to prevent drying out.
                Irrigate as required until the grass is able to survive independently (i.e. depending on the
                rainfall).


7.8.2 Runners

                Plant grass runners evenly by hand or by mechanical means at a rate of at least 400 runners
                per hectare.
                Use only fresh runners, avoiding grass runners that have been allowed to dry out.
                Rake or spike the area to give a loose surface to a depth of 100 mm.
                The soil should be uniformly moist to a depth of at least 150 mm before planting of grass
                runners.
                After planting, runners must be given water and, when sufficiently dry, must be rolled with a light
                agricultural roller and re-watered.
                Irrigate as required until the grass is able to survive independently (i.e. depending on the
                rainfall).


7.8.3 Hand seeding

                All seed supplied should be labelled in accordance with the Government Seed Act (Act No 20 of
                1961).
                The soil should be loose and uniformly moist to a depth specified by the Engineer, before any
                seeding commences.
                Halve the seed and fertiliser mixture as specified and apply evenly in two immediate successive
                applications perpendicular to each other.
                The seeded area must be raked over after seed application and well watered.
                Irrigate as required until the grass is able to survive independently (i.e. depending on the
                rainfall).




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7.9   Maintenance

                The Employer will monitor the re-growth of invasive vegetative material for one year, as per the
                ROD.
                Cordon off areas that are under rehabilitation as no-go areas using danger tape and steel
                droppers (or other approved method). If necessary, these areas should be fenced off to prevent
                vehicular, pedestrian and livestock access.
                Revegetation must match the vegetation type, which previously existed, unless otherwise
                indicated in the Contract or specified by the Engineer.
                Base the new carrying capacity of rehabilitated land on the status quo rather than the regional
                estimate.
                Water all transplanted, planted and grassed areas as specified (Sections 7.7 and 7.8)32.
                Control invasive plant species and weeds by means of extraction, cutting or other approved
                methods.
                For planted areas that have failed to establish, replace plants with the same species as
                originally specified.
                A minimum grass cover of 80% of natural occurrence is required, and individual plants must be
                strong and healthy growers at the end of the Defects Notification Period.




32
      Ideally, the amount of irrigation required will make up the difference between rainfall recorded on site and the minimum.
      requirement



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8.    REGISTERS

      As per the ROD the following registers are to be maintained and kept on site by the ECO at all times:

                A daily site diary.
                A non-conformance register.
                A public complaints register.
                A register of audits.




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9.     MONITORING, AUDITING AND REPORTING


9.1    Roles and responsibilities

       The responsibilities of the various role-players in implementing, monitoring and auditing of the EMP
       are defined in Section 3 of this document


9.1.1 Construction compliance monitoring


      9.1.1.1 Site handover

       The Engineer will attend the site handover meeting, where the EMP will form part of the agenda. Key
       environmental matters discussed at this meeting will be minuted and submitted as part of the
       environmental reporting.


      9.1.1.2 Method statements

       Before a construction activity commences, the Engineer and ECO will agree which activities, if any,
       require a written method statement over and above those already listed in the Contractor’s Scope of
       Works. In such cases, the Contractor, with assistance from the CER, will submit a written method
       statement, which should include the following:


                The type of construction activity.
                Locality where the activity will take place.
                Identification of impacts that might result from the activity.
                Identification of activities or aspects that may cause an impact.
                Methodology and/or specifications for impact prevention for each activity or aspect.
                Methodology and/or specifications for impact containment for each activity or aspect.
                Emergency/disaster incident and reaction procedures.
                Treatment and continued maintenance of impacted environment.

       The Contractor may provide such information in advance of any or all construction activities provided
       that new submissions shall be given to the Engineer whenever there is a change or variation to the
       original.

       The ECO will review the construction method statements in order to ensure that the environmental
       specifications contained within this EMP are adhered to.


      9.1.1.3 Site inspections and meetings

       During construction, the day-to-day compliance with this EMP will be monitored by the ECO.

       The ECO will attend monthly site inspections and meetings and will complete monitoring checklists to
       establish how well the Contractor is complying with conditions of the authorisation and the EMP.

       Regardless of which monitoring technique is used, the ultimate aim is that each environmental
       management specification be checked by means of a system in which a score may be allocated for:



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                Full compliance.
                Satisfactory performance.
                Unsatisfactory performance.
                No action.

       Monitoring will take place at least every month during construction, and every three months during the
       Defects Notification Period as specified in Clause 3.2.4 of the ROD. Completed Monitoring Reports will
       be submitted to the Engineer and the EMC who will attend to issues.
       Anything of a significant environmental nature that arises in between the monthly site meetings must
       be recorded in the site diary by the ECO and be reflected in written correspondence (email/fax/letter)
       directed to the Engineer and copied to the Client. If required, the Engineer, in consultation with the
       ECO, must conduct a site visit to address the matter.


      9.1.1.4 Tests on Completion

       The ECO will attend the Tests on Completion inspections. Outstanding environmental matters
       requiring attention will be provided to the Engineer for inclusion in the snag list, which is attached to
       the Taking-Over Certificate.


      9.1.1.5 Final completion and environmental performance certificate

       Once the environmental items on the snag list have been addressed to the satisfaction of the ECO,
       the ECO will provide an environmental performance certificate confirming that the environmental
       specifications applicable to the Contractor(s) have been met. This certificate will be submitted to the
       Engineer prior to the Performance Certificate being issued.


9.2    Penalties

       Contractual bonuses payable to the Contractor will be penalised for non-compliance based on annual
       audits and in line with the Public Finance Management Act.




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10.   PUBLIC COMMUNICATION

      The project Communication Strategy will be made available to the Contractor. The Contractors, their
      staff or sub-contractors are not to enter into discussions or provide comment to members of the
      general public, affected landowners or media on aspects of the project, compensation procedures or
      construction programme/activities. All such communication must be directed to the Engineer, who will
      direct it via the Employer, to the departmental media liaison personnel or relevant PSP.




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APPENDIX 1 : DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS AND TOURISM - RECORD OF
                                 DECISION

Go to http://www.dwaf.gov.za/ORWRDP/documents.asp to view the RoD.




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     APPENDIX 2: ENVIRONMENTAL SITE MANAGEMENT AND REHABILITATION PLAN




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     APPENDIX 3: PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF REHABILITATION AND STABILIZATION

                      [Source: RENNIES WETLAND PROJECT. Wetland Fix. 1997]


a)    Stream bank stabilization using herbaceous plants

                Where practical initiate restoration programmes on prioritised catchments and streams.
                Initiate streambank restoration programmes as high up the catchment as possible and progress
                downstream.
                Remove stock from, fence off or herd stock away from sensitive areas.
                Provide an alternative water source.
                Provide a protected stream crossing point.
                Methods of stream bank stabilization using herbaceous plants:
                        Root rhizome cuttings buried in rows 50 cm – 100 cm apart.
                        Root clumps of grass, sedge, reed or bulrush at 50 cm – 100 cm intervals.
                        Root clumps of grass, sedge, reed or bulrush at 50 cm – 100 cm intervals and anchored
                        down with rocks.
                        Reed culm bundles planted at 50 cm – 100 cm intervals.
                        Reed culm bundles planted at 50 cm – 100 cm intervals and anchored down with rocks.
                        Root clumps of grass, sedge, reed or bulrush planted in roll gabions anchored into
                        trenches with stakes.
                        Root clumps of grass, sedge, reed or bulrush planted in roll gabions placed over silt trap
                        layer of dead branches and anchored into trenches with stakes.
                        Root clumps of grass, sedge, reed or bulrush planted in standard gabions or containers
                        and anchored into trenches with stakes.

b)    Stream bank stabilization using trees

                Do not plant trees in riparian zones in straight lines but at random with approximately 3-5 m
                gaps between trees. This seems close but the aim is to try and establish a closed canopy and
                an extensive root system cover quickly, and furthermore, not all the trees will survive.
                Plant the front trees as close to the stream as possible, but not on the edge of steep banks
                where bank slumps/slides are likely to occur. Reshaping of the banks or planting far enough
                back from the bank edge to allow for slumping should be considered.
                Methods of stream bank stabilization using trees:
                       Tree seedlings planted into the bank at 3 m intervals (zig-zagged or in a grid pattern).
                       Tree cuttings and seedlings planted into the bank at 3 m intervals.
                       Tree cuttings – ground layering.
                       Tree cuttings pilings.
                       Tree cuttings laid into wire netting rolls anchored into trenches with stakes.
                       Tree cuttings planted through wire netting rolls anchored into trenches with stakes.
                       Tree cuttings laid into front and top of gabions or containers filled with stone soil.
                       Tree cuttings staked alongside gabion deflectors.




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c)    Channel Plug development using herbaceous plants

                The basic concept of developing channel plugs is to restore or to create wetlands.
                Remove crops or timber to the prescribed distance from the wetland edge.
                Develop plugs at channel/donga headcuts or as high up in the channel as possible before
                progressing with plugs downstream.
                Remove/fence off or herd stock away from sensitive areas.
                Use a weak link fence that will collapse during flood events.
                Provide an alternative water source for stock.
                Remove alien invasive plants in planned phases (starting upstream and working on light
                infestations first) and maintain control via regular follow ups.
                Methods of channel plug development using herbaceous plants:
                       Rock fill (rip-rap) at head cut supported by root clumps of sedge, reed or bulrush.
                       Soil hump diversion planted with root-clumps of grass, sedge, reed or bulrush.
                       Sand bag diversion planted with grass, sedge, reed or bulrush when wet.
                       Channel planted with root clumps of sedge, reed or bulrush in 100 cm strips.
                       Channel planted with root clumps of sedge, reed or bulrush in 100 cm strips and
                       supported with rocks.
                       Channel planted with reed bundles and anchored with rocks to form 100 cm strips.
                       Roll gabion channel planted with root clumps of sedge, reed or bulrush, anchored with
                       rocks and half buried in trenches.
                       Gabion: Root clumps of sedge, reed or bulrush planted in front and on top of stone and
                       soil filled gabions.
                       Concrete weir: Supported by root clumps or gabion/root clump planting.
                       Clay core dam wall supported by root clump plantings.
                       Reno mattress: long flat wire-mesh or veldspan baskets filled with rocks or stones, used
                       to protect water overfall points against downstream scour.

d)    Channel plug development using trees

                Do not plant trees in riparian zones in straight lines but at random with approximately –5 m gaps
                between trees. This seems close but the aim is to try and establish a closed canopy and an
                extensive root system cover quickly, and furthermore, not all the trees will survive.
                Plant the front trees as close to the stream or erosion slide as possible, but not on the edge of
                steep banks where bank slumps/slides are likely to occur. Reshaping of the banks or planting
                far enough back from the bank edge to allow for slumping should be considered.
                Methods of channel plug development using trees:
                       Seedlings and/or cuttings planted into the channel at about 150 cm intervals.
                       Cuttings ground layered into the channel.
                       Cuttings planted into rock sill.
                       Cuttings planted alongside a roll gabion sill filled with rock and soil.
                       Cuttings planted through a roll gabion sill filled with rock and soil.
                       Cuttings staked alongside gabion or container plug.
                       Cuttings staked and ground layered alongside gabion or container plug.

e)    Herbaceous plant establishment on streambanks and in channels

                Zone 1: The stream or channel bed zone that is usually permanently or semi-permanently wet.
                Zone 2: The lower bank zone that is usually moist and is frequently waterlogged during the wet
                season.
                The bank top zone that is usually only wet or inundated for short periods during the wet season.
                The following species are recommended for use in the zones as indicated:


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 Plant name                  Distribution map        Optimal position in the channel
 Cyperrus papyrus
 Papyrus



 Typha capensis
 Bulrush



 Phragmites australis
 P. mauritianus
 Common reed

 Echinochloa colona
 E. crus-galli
 Jungle rice
 Watergras
 Cyperus latifolius
 C. immensus
 iKhwane grass

 Leersia hexandra
 Wild ricegrass
 Wilde rysgras


 Juncus kraussii
 J. effusus
 Juncus
 iNcema
 Hermarthria altissima
 Red swamp grass
 Rooikweek

 Acroceras macrum
 Nile grass
 Nylgras

 Cynodon dactylon
 Couch grass
 Kweek
 isiFulwane
 Imperata cylindrica
 Cottonwool grass
 Dousgras
 Um Thente




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 Stenotaphrum
 secundatum
 Coastal buffalo grass
 Strand buffelsgras
 uNgwengwe
 Setaria megaphylla
 Broad leaved setaria
 Breeblaar setaria
 uBabe
 Penisetum purpureum
 Elephant grass
 Olifantgras




f)    Tree establishment on streambanks and in channels

                PG zone: ‘Plug trees’ with spreading roots in wet channels that under some conditions form a
                ‘root weir’ affecting a blockage or plug in the channel.
                VR zone: Vigorous rooting trees suitable for bank stabilization.
                P zone: Pioneer or precursor trees that are fast growing, can tolerate full sun when young and
                will create partial shade for other trees and seedlings to follow.
                O zone: Trees of ornamental, commercial or medicinal value (added to areas away from bank
                edge).
                The following species are recommended for use in the zones as indicated:

Tree name & No               Leaf or pod      Distribution Map   Position in stream channel profile
                             shape
                       172
Acacia karroo
Sweet thorn
Soetdoring
umunga
                       183
Acacia robusta
Splendid thorn
Enkeldoring
umNgamanzi
                       324
Bridell micrantha
Coast Gold leaf
Mitseeri
umHlalamagwababa
                       637
Buddlej
saiviifoia
Sagewood
Saliehout
ILoshane




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                      524
Baringtonia racemosa
Powderpuff tree
Poeierkwasboom
u Bhoquo
                       39
Ceitis africana
White stinkwood
Witstinkhout
um Vumvu
                      667
Cierodendrum giabrum
Tinderwood
Harpuisblaar
umQoqonga
                      536
Combretum
erythrophyllum
River Bushwillow
Riviervaderlandswilg
umBondwe
                      330
Croton sylivaticus
Forest croton
Boskoorsbessie
umZilanyone
                      113
Cryptocarya latifolia
Broad-leaved laurel
Breeblaarkweper
umHlangwene
                      159
Faidherbia albida
Ana tree
Anaboom
umHlalankwazi
                       66
Ficus natalensis
Natal Fig
Natalvy
um Thombi
                       50
Ficus sur
Cape Fig
Besemtrosvy
umKhiwane
                       66
Ficus sycomorus
Sycamore Fig
Gewone Trosvy
umKhiwane




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                     54
Ficus trichopoda
Swamp Fig
Moerasvy
umVubu
                    670
Halleria lucida
Tree fuchsia
Notsung
iMinza
                    361
Harpephyllum caffrum
Wildplum
Wildepruim
umGwenya
                    464
Hibiscus
taliaceus
Lagoon hibiscus
Wildekatoenboom
umLolwa
                    397
Ilex mitis
African holly
Without
iPhuphuma
                    145
Leucosidea sericea
Oldwood
Ouhout
umTshitshi
                    335
Macaranga capensis
Wild poplar
Wildepopulier
iPhumela
                    577
Maesa lanceolata
False assegai
Basterassegai
uPhongaphonga
                     37
Myrica piluifera
Broad-leaved
waxberry
Breeblaarwasbessie
                     38
Myrica serrata
Lance-leaved
waxberry
Smalblaarwasbessie
uMakhuthula



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                         22
Phoenix reclinata
Wild date palm
Wildedadelboom
iSundu
                         18
Podocarpus latifolius
Real Yellowwood
Opregte Geelhout
umSonti
                         16
Podocarpus falcatus
Outeniqua Y.wood
Outeniekwageelhout
umSonti
                        118
Ocotea bullata
Stinkwood
Stinkhout
umNukani
                         26
Raphia australis
Kosi palm
Kosipalm
umVuma

                        647
Rauvolfia caffra
Quinine tree
Kinaboom
umHlambamanzi
                    380
Rhus chirindensis
Red current
Bostaaibos
inHlokoshiyane- enkhulu
                        386
Rhus lancea
Willow rhus
Karee

                  384.1
Rhus montana
Drakensberg karee
Drakensberg karee


                        396
Rhus viminalis
White karee
Witkaree




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                       35
                     36.2
Salix muncronata
River willow
Vaalwilger
umZenkana
                     555
Syzygium cordatum
Waterberry
Waterbessie
umDoni
                     557
Syzgium guineense
Water pear
Waterpeer
umDoni-namanzi
                      42
Trema orientalis
Pigeonwood
Hophout
umBhatini
                     646
Voacanga thouarsli
Wild frangipani
Wildefrangipani
umKhadlu
                     606
Diospyros mespiliformis
Jackal-berry
Jakkalsbessie
                     678
Kigelia africana
Sausage tree
Worsboom
                     684
Breonadia salicina
Matumi
Mingerhout
                     301
Trichilia emetica
Natal mahogany
Rooiessenhout




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                APPENDIX 4: PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF ALIEN PLANT CONTROL

                       [Source: RENNIES WETLAND PROJECT. Wetland Fix. 1997]


a)    Principles for control

                Light invader plant infestations are easier to deal with than heavy infestations. They can also
                get worse if ignored: heavy infestations may not. So tackle the easiest problems first.
                Infestation generally proceeds downhill: start at the highest point and work downwards.
                No control operation succeeds the first time - one or more follow-ups are essential. So when
                attempting to clear a large area piece-meal, it is better to make the second effort a follow up
                operation on the first area cleared than to start on a new area. Cleared areas should be
                inspected at intervals to ensure that alien elimination is complete.
                Take into account other plants present and possible damage or disturbance to desirable plants
                or to the soil during control, as long term site rehabilitation costs need to be further considered.
                Do not overlook commercial prospects. Some alien plants might have a market value for use as
                compost, firewood or even building materials.
                In cases where large infestations are being tackled it is advisable to consult with the Agricultural
                Research Council, Plant Protection Research Unit; as their expertise could save time and
                money.

b)    Methods of control

1.    Biological control (the use of natural biological agents such as insects, mites and pathogens)

                Even though a biological agent might become well established, eradication of the target weed
                does not usually occur. The main aim of biological control is not to eradicate but to reduce the
                vigour of the weed and to impair its reproductive capacity.

2.    Mechanical control (action in which force is exerted)

                This method is target specific, requires little expertise, but is generally slow, labour intensive
                and involves soil disturbance:
                      Raking/dragging of aquatic weeds.
                      Hand-pulling/uprooting (small infestations and where invaders are shallow).
                      Cutting/slashing as close to the ground as possible (usually used as an initial treatment
                      prior to chemical treatment).
                      Ring-barking and strip-barking (used when felling is impractical, or when damage from
                      felling large trees is to be limited).
                      Felling.

3.    Chemical control

                In certain cases, the use of herbicides is preferable to mechanical methods, for example when
                the disturbance created by digging and uprooting could be disastrous on steep slopes prone to
                soil erosion or when chemical control may be more economical than mechanical control.
                Consider the following when choosing a herbicide:
                       It should be one registered for use against the weed to be eliminated.




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                     Note the level of persistency displayed by the herbicide after application. Residual
                     herbicides preclude immediate re-growth or replanting.
                     The degree of selectivity of action of the herbicide may be critical. Some kill all plants,
                     others have no effect on non-target species, particularly grasses.
                     The effect of the herbicide upon animal life must be considered. Some herbicides are
                     dangerous to particular groups of animals (e.g., fish) and should never be used near
                     water.
                Methods:
                     Foliar application (only kills the plant after translocation to the roots and is therefore slow
                     acting. Environmental conditions are important during application).
                     Basal bark treatment (for plants with a diameter of 5-15 cm. Highly selective and efficient
                     for control in rugged terrain).
                     Cut stump treatment (for plants with a diameter of greater than 15 cm).
                     Soil applied herbicides (not selective and usually persistent. Effectively used for control
                     of bush encroachment).




FIRST EDITION
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     Environmental Impact Assessment
     De Hoop Dam Environmental Management Plan



              Biologic   Mechanica   Mechanica    Mechanica     Mechanic   Chemical   Chemic    Chemica   Chemical         Other
                 al          l           l             l           al                   al         l
Alien                      Hand-     Cutting or   Ringbarki     Felling     Foliar     Cut       Basal      Soil
Plant                     pulling    slashing         ng                    Spray     Stump      bark     treatment
Species                                           barkstrippi
                                                      ng
Barbados                 Seedlings                                          Garlon                                         Burn
Gooseber                  and re-                                                                                          heape
ry                        growth                                                                                             d
                                                                                                                           materi
                                                                                                                             al
Blackwoo                 Seedlings
d
Bramble                                                                     Garlon                        Reclaim
                                                                           Roundup                        Grasslan
                                                                           Brushoff
                                                                            Escort
Brazil                   Seedlings                                          Garlon                                         Veld
Pepper                                                                                                                     Burn
Bugweed                  Seedlings                                          Garlon    Chopper   Garlon    Reclaim
                                                                           Roundup              Starane   Grasslan
                                                                           Chopper
                                                                           Starane
Guava                                                                                 Chopper   Tordon
                                                                                      Tordon     super
                                                                                       super
Gum-                                                                        Garlon    Garlon              Reclaim
saligna                                                                    Chopper    Chopper             Grasslan
                                                                            Escort
Inkberry                 Seedlings
Kariba          Leaf                                                        Igran
weed           feeding
               weavils
Lantana                  Seedlings                                         Roundup    Tordon              Reclaim
                                                                           Chopper    super               Grasslan
                                                                                      Chopper
Mauritius                Seedlings                                          Garlon
thorn                                                                      Roundup
Parrots                                                                                                                    Rakin
feather                                                                                                                     g or
                                                                                                                           draggi
                                                                                                                            ng
Pine                     Seedlings                                                                                         Veld
                                                                                                                           burn
Poplar-
grey




     FIRST EDITION
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    Olifants River Water Resources Development Project                                            65
    Environmental Impact Assessment
    De Hoop Dam Environmental Management Plan



Port           Seed      Seedlings                       Garlon                        Reclaim
Jackson        borer                                     Roundup                       Graslan
willow
Prickley       Sap-                                      Roundup                                       Inject
pear          sucking                                    MSMA                                          Masm
             cochineal                                                                                   ar
              and leaf
              eating
             cactoblas
                tis
Rooikran                 Seedlings                       Garlon                        Reclaim
s                                                                                      Grasslan
Sesbania     Flower or                                   Garlon     Garlon             Reclaim
red            seed                                      Roundup                       Graslan
              feeding
              weavils
Spanish
reed
Syringa                  Seedlings                       Garlon               Garlon
Triffid                                                  Garlon     Garlon             Reclaim         Veld
weed                                                     roundup    Chopper            Grasslan        burn
                                                         Brushoff
                                                          Escort
Water                                                                                                  Rakin
fern                                                                                                    g or
                                                                                                       draggi
                                                                                                        ng
Water          Leaf                                      Roundup                                       Rakin
hyacinth      feeding                                     Igran                                         g or
              weavils                                                                                  draggi
                                                                                                        ng
Water          Leaf                                                                                    Rakin
lettuce/      feeding                                                                                   g or
cabbage       weavils                                                                                  draggi
                                                                                                        ng
Wattle-        Seed      Seedlings                       Garlon     Tordon    Garlon   Reclaim
black         feeding                                    Roundup     super    Tordon   Grasslan
              weavils                                                         super
Wattle-        Wasp      Seedlings
Longleaf      causes
               galls
Wattle-                  Seedlings                       Garlon     Garlon    Tordon
Silver                                                              Tordon    super
                                                                     super
Weeping
willow
Wild                     Seedlings
tobacco




    FIRST EDITION
    12 MARCH 2007