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					  http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/web-focus/events/meetings/semantic-web-thinktank-2007-03/



 Top Down Or Bottom Up
 Approaches To Web Innovation?
 Brian Kelly                            Acceptable Use Policy
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  A centre of expertise in digital information management   (but note caveat) www.ukoln.ac.uk
    Traditional Approaches
    What we thought:
      • W3C was the trusted guardian of Web
        innovations
      • W3C saved us from fragmentation threats
      • W3C would continue to roll out
        innovations which would be deployed in
        the market place
      • W3C standards would form the basis for
        digital library development programmes
        (e.g. NOF-digi; JISC programmes; etc.)

    A centre of expertise in digital information management   www.ukoln.ac.uk
2
    Were We Right?
    NOF-digi & JISC Standards documents:
       • Use PNG; SVG; SMIL; …
       • Flash, PDF, Java, … aren’t open so they don’t fit in with an
          open standards approach
       • Web Services & Semantic Web standards will be important
    What happened:
       • PNG; SVG; SMIL?
       • Flash; PDF; Java – widely deployed, so a more flexible
          approach for use of standards was adopted
       • Web Services Considered Harmful panel at WWW 2005
       • Amazon report REST approach preferred to W-S*
          standards (80/20)
       • Semantic Web vs. l/c semantic web debates flourish;
       • W3C revive HTML developments
    An “evidence-based” approach begins to be preferred
3
    A centre of expertise in
    to ideological digital information management
                             beliefs              www.ukoln.ac.uk
    Role of Web 2.0
    Web 2.0:
       • Forget (for now) blogs, wikis, etc.
       • Consider characteristics such as rapid
         development, user engagement, ‘always beta’,
         clean URIs, microformats, mashups, …
    Suggestion:
       • Web 2.0 clearly provides (today) the rich
         environment for developing popular & user-
         focussed services
       • We should be looking (outwards) at the
         successes of the Web 2.0 environment and not
         (inwards) at new schema developments

    A centre of expertise in digital information management   www.ukoln.ac.uk
4
    Light- vs. Heavy-Weight Development
    Lightweight Exploitation:
       • Companies with limited funding (6 months to release or we
         don’t get paid)
       • This helps to avoid mission drift, feature creep & a user-
         focus (it must be ‘cool’; we must exploit viral marketing)
    Heavyweight Exploitation:
       • (Typically) public-sector bodies in large consortia
       • ‘Worthy’ but most definitely not ‘cool’
       • Focus groups; advisory bodies and need to address multiple
         political & cultural pressures stifle innovation
       • Academic organisations cause drift towards addressing
         intellectually challenging problems
       • Inability to respond quickly to technological & cultural
         changes

     A Daily Mail stereotype of public sector IT development, or a valid
     criticism of national information management
    A centre of expertise in digital/international development activities?
                                                                      www.ukoln.ac.uk
5
           Exploiting Web 2.0 Developments
 UK University Locator (unfunded)
Dapper Home Page
Yahoo! Pipes is RSS Feed Mashup Editor
                                                    What can we do?
                                                     • Explore Yahoo Pipes as a
                                                       lightweight development tool
                                                     • Explore Dapper (and
                                                       Dapplications) as a
                                                       lightweight scraping tool
                                                       (e.g. exploit microformats)
                                                     • Explore existing
                                                       Dapplications (e.g. magg)
                                                     • Geo-location services are
                                                       ripe for exploiting (and do
                                                       you need to fund this?)

           A centre of expertise in digital information management      www.ukoln.ac.uk
6
    Are Museums Doing It Right?
    Reflections on Nick Poole’s vision:
    NP: We should place a 2-year moratorium on new projects,
        programmes and initiatives & focus public funds instead on
        sustained investment in core capacity building and skills
        development
    BK: We should place a 2-year moratorium on large-scale new
        projects, programmes and initiatives and focus public funds
        instead on sustained investment in core capacity building
        small-scale innovation and skills development
    NP: Significant investment should be made in 3-4 high-value, high-
        density destination sites such as the 24 Hour Museum which
        act as 'ambassadors' for our sector in the online environment
    BK: Small-scale investment should be made in 3-4 low-cost,
          high-density mashup sites such as the 24 Hour Museum
          alongside encouragement to 3rd party 'ambassadors' for our
          sector (e.g. YouTube).
    A centre of expertise in digital information management www.ukoln.ac.uk
7
    In Harmony With The BBC
    BBC 2.0 vision outlined at JISC Conference (13 March):
         • Do not attempt to do everything yourselves… link to other
             high-quality sites yourselves (cf use of Flickr as
             repository & selection process for John Peel day photos)
         • Fall forward fast… make many small bets
         • Treat the entire web as a creative canvas (i.e. blended
             stuff)
         • The web is a conversation… join in. Adopt a relaxed
             conversational tone. Admit your mistakes. (i.e. don’t tell)
         • Maximise routes to content. Develop as many
             aggregations as possible reflecting as many people,
             places topics, channels, networks and time as possible.
         • Let people paste your content on the walls of their virtual
             homes. YouTube is an excellent example of this.
         • Link to discussions on the web, don’t host them… Only
             host web-based discussions where there is a clear
                             (i.e. exploit 3rd party
             rationale. digital information management services)
    A centre of expertise in                                     www.ukoln.ac.uk
8
    Why Not? Not?
         Why
     We’re reliant
      JISC
     on large                                                 WeJISC to
                                                                  have
     funds from                                               own the data,
     the EU                                                   the metadata,
                                                              the software
                              This Web 2.0
          This doesn’t        thing is                             Google
          fit our             simple to use                        might go
          research            and can                              bankrupt
          agenda              provide lots
                              of benefits!




           Adapted from Washington Post cartoon
    A centre of expertise in digital information management        www.ukoln.ac.uk
9
     Issues
     Some issues for discussion:
       • Would a heavyweight Semantic Web
         recommendation be appropriate at present?
       • Is a recommendation for a top-down approach
         appropriate in a Web 2.0 environment?
       • Can we regard Web 2.0 as a testbed rather than
         a solution?
       • If a user-focussed approach is advisable, do we
         have concrete evidence that a heavyweight
         solution (a) is needed and (b) will be used?
       • What lessons can be learnt from previous cultural
         heritage development activities?

     In reality we’ll probably have both bottom-up and top-down
     approaches. A challenge will management
     A centre of expertise in digital information be       www.ukoln.ac.uk
10

				
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