Docstoc

Definition

Document Sample
Definition Powered By Docstoc
					        Collaborative Applications
                Prasun Dewan
             Department of Computer Science
             University of North Carolina
             CB 3175 Sitterson Hall
             Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3175

             dewan@cs.unc.edu
             http:/www.cs.unc.edu/~dewan



Dewan                   290-F99               1
5.1. DEFINITION OF A COLLABORATIVE APPLICATION
    (GROUPWARE)

 Oxford: Work jointly esp at literary or artistic production

 Malone: helps people work together more effectively

 Lynch et al: makes users aware they are part of a group

 Wells: software and hardware for shared interactive environment

 Ellis: supports groups engaged in a common task and provides an interface to
  shared environment

 Peter & Johnson-Lenz: computer-mediated culture, intentional group processes
  plus supporting software

 Johansen: specialized computer aids for collaborative work groups

 Winograd: state of mind
   Dewan                              290-F99                              2
                       Definition
                       Collaborative
                       Application



                 I/O                    I/O

                           Coupling
        User 1                            User 2
                          Potentially
                          Real-Time
Dewan                         290-F99              3
Traditional Collaborative Applications
         File                     Mail                    Talk



save                      send                    hi             hi

                 load                  receive    hello          hello



User 1          User 2   User 1         User 2   User 1          User 2




   Dewan                          290-F99                         4
Views of Collaboration Systems

 Problems

 Issues

 Disciplines

 Systems: Applications and Infrastructures


 Dewan              290-F99               5
        Problems: Application Areas

 Business Management             Education

 National Collaboratory          Medicine

 Engineering/Design              Air Traffic Control

 Software Engineering            Command and Control

 Writing                         Games/Casual Interaction

                                  Any complex task!



Dewan                      290-F99                            6
        Problems: Generic Tasks

         Design

         Implementation

         Inspection/Review

         Consulting

Dewan                  290-F99    7
  Views of Collaboration Systems

   Problems

   Issues

   Disciplines

   Systems: Applications and Infrastructures




Dewan                 290-F99                   8
                            Issues: Semantics

 Session Management: How do distributed users create, destroy, join, and
  leave collaborative sessions?

 Single-User Interface: What are the application semantics if there is a single
  user in the session?

 Coupling: what feedback does a user receive in response to the input of
  another user?

 Access Control: How do we ensure that users do not execute unauthorized
  commands?

 Concurrency Control: How do we ensure that concurrent users do not enter
  inconsistent commands?


  Dewan                             290-F99                                 9
                 Issues: Semantics (Contd.)
 Process Control: How do we ensure that users follow prescribed group
  processes?

 Merging: How do we merge concurrent commands entered by different
  users?

 Undo/Redo: What are the semantics of undo/redo in a collaborative session?

 Awareness: How are users made aware of ``out of band'' activities of their
  collaborator?




   Dewan                             290-F99                               10
                       Issues: Implementation

 Objects: What kind of objects are used to program a collaborative
  application?

 Collaboration Awareness: Which of these objects are collaboration aware
  and how are these objects integrated with existing, collaboration-unaware
  objects?

 Layers: How are these objects arranged in layers?

 Concurrency: How is the application decomposed into concurrent threads?

 Distribution: How are the application objects placed in different address
  spaces and hosts?



 Dewan                             290-F99                               11
                 Issues: Implementation (Contd.)

 Replication/Migration: Which of these objects are centralized and which
  are replicated? Which of the centralized objects can migrate?

 Real-Time Support: What kind of services are provided to ensure real-time
  interaction with tolerable jitter and latency?




  Dewan                            290-F99                              12
  Views of Collaboration Systems

   Problems

   Issues

   Disciplines

   Systems: Applications and Infrastructures




Dewan                 290-F99                   13
        Computer Science Disciplines

         Operating Systems

         Database Management Systems

         Programming Languages

         User Interface Systems

         Software Engineering


Dewan                 290-F99           14
  Views of Collaboration Systems

   Problems

   Issues

   Disciplines

   Systems: Applications and Infrastructures




Dewan                 290-F99                   15
                     Systems: Applications
 MUDs (Multiuser Dungeons)                      Information Lens

 DIVE (Distributed Interactive Virtual          Coordinator
  Environment)
                                                 Action Workflow
 Video Walls
                                                 Computational Mail
 Media Space
                                                 Quilt
 Hydra
                                                 PREP
 MAJIC (Multi-Attendant Joint Inteface for
  Collaboration)                                 IBIS

 GestureCam                                     CLARE

 Shasthtra                                      RTCAL (Real-Time Calendar)


     Dewan                            290-F99                          16
                   Applications (Contd)

         GROVE (Group Outline Viewing Editor)

         CES (Collaborative Editing System)

         GroupDraw

         ClearBoard

         TeamWorkstation

         GroupLens

         IRI

Dewan                     290-F99                17
               Systems: Infrastructures

   File Systems                   XTV, NetMeeting

   DBMS                           Suite

   Lotus Notes                    Web

   Coda                           Rendevous

   IPC                            GroupKit

   ISIS                           TeamWorkstation

   Xerox's Colab                  Weasel, Clock

Dewan                   290-F99                       18
Traditional Collaborative Applications
         File                   Mail                   Talk



save                     send                  hi             hi
                 load              receive     hello          hello


User 1          User 2   User 1    User 2     User 1          User 2

  Implicit Comm.          Explicit Comm.       Implicit Comm.
  Artifact-based          Private Messages     Session-based
  Polling                 Auto Notification    Auto Notification
  Asynchronous
   Dewan                  Asynchronous
                               290-F99         Synchronous19
    Novel Collaborative Applications
     File++           Mail++            Talk++

Talk + File        File + Mail         Talk + Mail

Implicit Comm.   Artifact-based      Session-based
Artifact-based   Private Messages    Explicit Messages
Session-based
Synchronous
                         File + Mail + Talk
                 Implicit & Explicit Comm.
                 Artifact-based
                 Session-based
                 Synchronous & Asynchronous

 Dewan                  290-F99                      20
        Talk++


         Talk++

         Mail++

         File++

         Talk + Mail

         Talk + File

         Mail + File

         Talk + Mail + File



Dewan                   290-F99   21
                  MUDs: Textual Virtual Reality
         John                              Mary   (Wizard)
Say Hi everyone                John has entered the room (hear footsteps)
You say, “Hi everyone”         John says, “Hi everyone”
Emote smiles
You smile                      John smiles

Whisper “Boring” to Joe        Look John
You whisper, “Boring” to Joe   John’s textual description
@who                           Move John to public place
Name         Connect   Idle    Change John’s description
             Time      Time
                               Disallow John whisper
                               Disallow John from this room
     Dewan                       290-F99                         22
Video Walls: Video-based Virtual
            Reality

Camera &                                                     Camera &




                                          Screen & Speaker
             Screen & Speaker
Microphone                                                   Microphone




 Room 1                                                      Room 2




Dewan                           290-F99                               23
             Media Space

                                    Map




        Room 2             Room 4




Dewan            290-F99                  24
        Hydra: Gaze Awareness




           Figure originally appears in [5].

Dewan                    290-F99               25
    6.1.7. MAJIC: Real-Life with
     Seamless User Boundaries




         Figure originally appears in [36]
Dewan                 290-F99                26
         DIVE: Navigation- based VR
Supports Unintended
Collaboration
                      Session                     Aura
 Non intrusive
                                                  User 2
                                    User 3


                      Application
      User 4                             User 1




     Dewan                          290-F99                27
        Hallway Model




Dewan        290-F99    28
Gesture Cam: Remote Surrogate




        Figure originally appears in [30]

Dewan                  290-F99              29
        Gesture Cam: Architecture




                               Figure Originally appears
                               in [30]
Dewan              290-F99                       30
        Colab. PsyBench




Dewan         290-F99     31
        PSyBench




Dewan     290-F99   32
        Psy Bench Architecture




Dewan            290-F99         33
        In Touch




Dewan     290-F99   34
        In Touch Architecture




Dewan            290-F99        35
        6.1.9.     Mail++


         Talk++

         Mail++

         File++

         Talk + Mail

         Talk + File

         Mail + File

         Talk + Mail + File


Dewan                       290-F99   36
  Information Lens: Typed Messages
 Type: Exam
 Change Notice                            Messages
 Subject:
        ….
                          Notices                    Requests
 Semi-structured
 typed messages

 Notices               Room       Exam          Exam       Class
                       Change     Change        Change     Absence
 Joe Absence
                       Notice     Notice        Request    Request
 14 Exam
                                     Type Hierarchy
 Change
Type-based filtering
    Dewan                       290-F99                         37
                  Notes Mail
By Category
Category 1
       2/24/99 Main message 1 (John Smith, responses)
       2/25/99      Response 1 (Mary Lowe, 1 response)
       2/26/96      Response 2 (Joe Doe)
       Category 2
               2/24/96 Main message 2 (Mary Lowe, 1
response)
By Author
Doe, Joe
       1. 2/26/99 Response 2 (re. Main message 1)
       Lowe, Mary
               1. 2/24/99 Main message 2
               2. 2/26/96 Response 2 (Joe Doe)
Dewan                    290-F99                         38
 Coordinator: Structured Conversation
              Request (response, completion, alert dates)
              Acknowledge
              Agree
 Customer     Interim-Report/Cancel/New-Promise              Producer
              Report-Completion
              Satisfaction

Automation of
      form fields                   Request          Agree
      alerts, reminders      Customer                         Producer
      status information
                                    Satisfaction      Complete
     Dewan                       290-F99                         39
                      Action Workflow
                                              Schedule Interview
Status By
Candidate                                Director            Manager
Workflow Step                        2
                                                3
                          1              4
                              Manage      Manager
           Director
                                   Review
                       10            7         5
                                          6
                      9
                                8                                  Technical
Director                                       Manager
                      Manager                                      Directors

 Declare Assessment                             Submit Evaluation Form
   Dewan                            290-F99                            40
ATOMICMAIL: Computational Mail

                    Data          Program



Lisp-based PL                         display/animate graphics
Single Directory Accessed             gather data and mail
File Creation Limited
Mail Messages Limited
                            Mail Receiver



   Dewan                    290-F99                        41
        6.1.15.    File++


         Talk++

         Mail++

         File++

         Talk + Mail

         Talk + File

         Mail + File

         Talk + Mail + File

Dewan                290-F99   42
 Quilt: Writeable Typed Hypermedia
Artifact =
Document +
Colab. Info.
                    Revisions                   Creation time
                    Suggestions
Document            Public comments
                    Private messages             Creator
                    Other

          Logging                         Triggers
Machine Level (Insert-Char) User- Alert significant changes
Level (Reorganized Section 2)               Colab Styles
                                  Author modifies owned section
          Roles                   Co-author modifies all
Reader < Commenter < Co-Author Designated editor modifies all
   Dewan                     290-F99                       43
           PREP: Zero-Cost Hyperlinks
           Main text   Alice’s         Benu’s         Chou’s
                       comments                 com            com
                                       ments          ments


Para 1




Para 2


   Dewan                          290-F99                            44
     IBIS: Structured Issue Resolution

*I: Which processor should be used        Resolved issue
       ?P: Processor A                    Unresolved position
              AS: Fast                    Argument Supporting
       *P: Processor B                    Current position
              AS: Cheap, already in use
       -P: Processor C                            Rejected
              AS: Cheap & fast            position
              AO: Will not be available           Argument
                   in time                objecting
   Artifact =
   Colab. Info.

     Dewan                      290-F99                      45
        6.1.19. CLARE: Structured
        Discussion + Process Model




   RESRA (Representation Schema of Research Artifacts)
               Figure originally appears in [39]
Dewan                        290-F99                46
       CLARE: Structured Discussion
           + Process Model




SECAI (Summarization, Evaluation, Comparison, Argumentation)
                Figure originally appears in [39]
    Dewan                      290-F99                47
        6.1.20.    Talk + File


         Talk++

         Mail++

         File++

         Talk + File

         Talk + Mail

         Mail + File

         Talk + Mail + File

Dewan                  290-F99   48
  RTCAL: Real-Time Artifact Sharing
    Topic, Participants          Topic, Participants        Awareness
    Chair, Controller            Chair, Controller
    Proposal: 10am               Proposal: 10am
           Vote: Yes                    Vote: No

             Public Appts                 Public Appts

             Private Appts

             Public Appts                 Public Appts
                                              Conference   join, leave
Application                  Application      Control      get floor,
Commands                     Commands         Commands     release floor,
                                                           terminate
      Regular User                         Chair
     Dewan                      290-F99                          49
   GROVE: Access-Controlled Views
User and State Awareness            Fine-grained Access Control
No Concurrency Control                         public, shared, private
Incremental Sharing                            read, write rights
Independent Scrolling

   Outline Title                                  Outline Title
   1. Readable and writeable item                        1.Readable and writeabl
   1.1 Also readable and writeable                item            1.1 Also readab
   *.Shared readable and writeable                and writeable 1.2 Another public
   * .* Shared readable                           item     *.* Different shared ite

User 2       User 3        User 4              User 1        User 3      User 4


                User 1                                       User 2
     Dewan                           290-F99                             50
CES: Delayed Commitment & Tickle
              Locks
                                                     Tickle Locks
Sharing of          Central Host
Committed               Document
Results                 Root                         Version Stack


Implicit
Commit       Text Node                Text Node
Del/CR       Owner User 1             Owner User 2

               Host 1                   Host 2



   Dewan                    290-F99                          51
      GroupDraw: Virtual Gestures &
            Optimistic Locks
                                          Optimistic Locking
Coupled Graphical Objects
                                          Implicit Locking/Unlocking
Uncoupled Scrollbars & Palettes
Multiuser Scrollbar & Gestalt Viewer      Fine-grained CC & AC




              User 1                               User 2
     Dewan                      290-F99                          52
Pebbles: Single-Display Groupware


          *
                         +




Dewan          290-F99         53
   6.1.25. Clearboard: Face to face
              Awareness




Figure available from http://ishii.www.media.mit.edu/people/ishii/CB.html.


Dewan                             290-F99                               54
        Clearboard: Architecture




              Figure first appeared in [26]
Dewan                    290-F99              55
TeamWorkstation: Integrated Desktop
     & Computer Awareness




  Figure available at http://ishii.www.media.mit.edu/people/ishii/TWS.html

  Dewan                            290-F99                               56
                TELE-SCREEN




Editing paper
 xxxx yyyyy




Dewan              290-F99    57
                TELE-DESK




Editing paper
 xxxx yyyyy




Dewan             290-F99   58
                SCREEN-OVERLAY




Editing paper
 xxxx yyyyy




Dewan                290-F99     59
                DESK-OVERLAY




Editing paper
 xxxx yyyyy




Dewan               290-F99    60
                SCREEN & DESK-OVERLAY




Editing paper
 xxxx yyyyy




Dewan                    290-F99        61
                COMPUTER-SHARING




Editing paper
 xxxx yyyyy




Dewan                 290-F99      62
        6.1.27.    Talk + Mail


         Talk++

         Mail++

         File++

         Talk + File

         Talk + Mail

         Mail + File

         Talk + Mail + File


Dewan                290-F99     63
        6.1.28.    Mail + File


         Talk++

         Mail++

         File++

         Talk + Mail

         Talk + File

         Mail + File

         Talk + Mail + File


Dewan                   290-F99   64
         News: Shared Mailboxes
User 1            Message 1               User 1
                  Message 2
User 2                                    User 2

           Send                 Receive


User N                                    User N

                  Message M




Dewan                 290-F99                      65
         News: Scaleable Architecture
                               News
                               Server
          read news                                   News
          post news                                   Client
News                  News               News
Client                Server             Server
                                                      News
                                                      Client
                                           exchange
                                News       news
                                Server
   eventual delivery of
   immutable messages


  Dewan                        290-F99                   66
          Message/News Filtering
• Agent-based                       • Rating-based
    –   Newsgroup                     – Moderator
    –   Discussion Thread             – Known Reviewers
    –   Urgent Message                – Anonymous
    –   Sender Cost                     Reviewers
    –   Strings in Messages
    –   Message Length
    –   Spell Checking
    –   Included Messages
Dewan                     290-F99                    67
6.1.31. Group Lens: Aggregate-based Filtering

 Multiple (arbitrary) people rate message

 Rating combined into one aggregate number specific to reader

 Correlation coefficient - CAB:
   Sum (i = 1 to n) ((Ai - Amean)* (Bi - Bmean))
   ---------------------------------------------
   Sqrt ( (Sum (i = 1 to n) (Ai - Amean)**2) * Sum (i = 1 to n) (Bi - Bmean)**2))


 Given set S of rating users, aggregate:
   Sum (i = 1 to n) (Bi - Bmean)*CABi)
   --------------------------------------            + Amean
   Sum (I = 1 to n) CABi




      Dewan                                     290-F99                   68
                   Group Lens

                    News               read news     Filterbot
                    Server                           (Rating
                                                     Agent)
   post news
   read news                      post rating
                                       read rating
                                                      send rating
        Modified   send rating          Better
        News
        News                            Bit
        Client
        Client     get rating           Bureau



Dewan                        290-F99                             69
Evaluating Aggregation-based Filtering
 • Coverage
    – Measures % of time predications are available
 • Statistical Accuracy
    – Measures how computed rating deviates from actual
      rating
    – Disproportionately higher weight to large deviation
 • Decision Support Accuracy
    – Probability random “good” item rejected by system
    – Probablility random “bad” item accepted by system


  Dewan                      290-F99                        70
                 Experiments
            Coverage, Decision Making Accuracy

                 No             Spell   Include   Length
                 Filterbot
general          40, 69         43, 67 46, 70     44, 67
perl.misc        7, 65          42, 74 13, 64     13, 68
linux.announce   14, 66         46, 68 20, 61     48, 70
food.recipes     22, 61         71, 66 27, 66     42, 56
rec.humor        15, 46         50, 80 50, 72     16, 71
Dewan                        290-F99                   71
 Mercury: Automatic Asynchronous
        Error Notification
module A                               Module B

export T                               import T

type T = char
         String                        v: T = ‘a’

              Edit T   Buffered                     Asynchronous
                                                    Error notification
                       Notifications
                                           User 2
     User 1




  Dewan                      290-F99                          72
  GroupDesk: Automatic Customizable
       Awareness Notification
Relation Classes      Object Classes               Event Classes

 Similar-to              Object                    Modification
               can
               establish          can raise
 Version-of              Document                  Comment Added



                   Relations: Owner                 Interest
                   Events: Modification             Context
                   Interested Users: Alice, Benu

     Dewan                      290-F99                           73
        6.1.34.    Talk + Mail + File

         Talk++

         Mail++

         File++

         Talk + Mail

         Talk + File

         Mail + File

         Talk + Mail + File



Dewan                   290-F99         74
  6.1.35. IRI: Distance Learning
           Environment




        Figure available at http://www.cs.odu.edu/~tele/iri.
Dewan                        290-F99                           75

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:4
posted:3/12/2012
language:English
pages:75