CTCS 2e Chapter 6 by dfhdhdhdhjr

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                                                 Agenda


• Video
• Last Class: Visual Basic Tutorial 4
• Chapter 6 in Computers and Technology in a
  Changing Society: Ethics and Intellectual Property
  Rights
• Agenda for Next Class




                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition       1
 Chapter 6                                 Chapter 2
             Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)
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                                                Last Class


•      Visual Basic Tutorial 4
       ▪ Previous two presentations covered major points
          of VB
       ▪ For the test, for the most part, the questions focus
          on good programming practice as opposed to
          specifics of VB




                       Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition       2
    Chapter 6                                 Chapter 2
                Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)
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                                  Chapter 6



   Ethics and Intellectual Property
               Rights
        P2P’s Cloudy Future




                   Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   3
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                                             Objectives


1. Understand the concept of intellectual property rights and how
   these rights relate to computer use.


2. Define the term “ethics” and provide several examples of unethical
   behavior in computer-related matters.

3. List several types of copyrighted materials and describe how they
   can be used ethically.

4. State several ethical issues related to the use of school or business
   resources and information.


                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   4
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                                      Objectives (cont’d)


5. Explain what computer hoaxes and digital manipulation are and
   how they relate to computer ethics.

6. Identify several ethical issues surrounding business practices
   and decisions.

7. Discuss the status of legislation related to intellectual property
   rights and ethics.




                     Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6    Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   5
                    What Are Intellectual Property XP
                               Rights?

• Intellectual property rights – the legal rights to
  which the creators of intellectual property–original
  creative works–are entitled.

• Intellectual property rights indicate who has the right
  to use, perform, or display the creative work; how
  long the creator retains rights to the property; and
  other related restrictions.

• The three main types of intellectual property rights
  are copyrights, trademarks, and patents.
                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   6
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                                             Copyrights


• A copyright is a form of protection available to the
  creator of an original artistic or literary work, such as a
  book, movie, software program, musical composition,
  or painting.

• Copyright protection in the U.S. gives the copyright
  holder the exclusive right to publish, reproduce,
  distribute, perform, or display the work.

• Copyrights can be registered, but don’t have to be.

                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   7
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                                              Copyrights


• Copyrights are often displayed on
  published works and Web sites.

• Copyrights last until 70 years after
  the creator’s death (95 years from
  publication date or 120 years from
  creation date for works registered
  by an organization).
                                                                 Figure 6-1

• Can be protected by digital watermarks and other
  digital rights management (DRM) software.
                     Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
  Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   8
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                                            Trademarks


• A trademark is a word,
  phrase, symbol, or design
  that identifies and
  distinguishes one good or
  service from another.
   ▪ Can be claimed ™ or
                                                                                        Figure 6-3
     registered ®.

• Cybersquatting – registering a domain name
  confusingly similar to a trademark or for the purpose
  of selling the domain name at an inflated price.
                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)       9
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                                                 Patents


• A patent protects inventions by
  granting exclusive rights to its
  inventor for 20 years.

• In addition to products,
  business methods can be
  patented.

• Patents are expensive to
  register, but can be lucrative.
                                                               Figure 6-4

                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   10
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                                     What are Ethics?


• Ethics – standards of moral conduct.
   ▪ Computer ethics.
   ▪ Business ethics.
   ▪ Personal ethics.

• Unethical acts aren’t always illegal, but illegal acts
  would be viewed as unethical by most people.

• Ethics play an integral role in our lives since they
  guide our behavior

                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   11
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             Ethical Use of Copyrighted Material


• Software:
   ▪ With copyrighted software, the developer holds
     the ownership rights for that program.

     ▪ When software is purchased, the buyer is
       acquiring a software license that permits him or
       her to use the program.

     ▪ The terms of the software license dictate the
       allowable use.

                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   12
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                         Example of a Software License




Figure 6-5

                          Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
       Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   13
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             Ethical Use of Copyrighted Material


• Four main types of software:
   ▪ Commercial software – developed and sold for a
     profit; typically can’t be shared with others.
   ▪ Shareware – distributed on the honor system; can
     be shared with others.
   ▪ Freeware – given away by the author, but still are
     copyright protected.
   ▪ Public domain software – not copyrighted.



                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   14
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             Ethical Use of Copyrighted Material


• Books and Web-based articles:
   ▪ Cannot be legally reproduced, presented as ones
     own original material, or otherwise used in an
     unauthorized manner.
   ▪ To present someone else’s work as your own is
     plagiarism, which is both a violation of copyright
     law and unethical.
   ▪ Internet and computers make it easier to
     plagiarize.


                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   15
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                                  Examples of Plagiarism




      Figure 6-8

                          Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
Chapter 6          Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   16
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                          Examples of Plagiarism (cont’d)




      Figure 6-8




                          Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
Chapter 6          Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   17
                Example of an Online Originality
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                      Test for an Essay




                             Figure 6-9

                   Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   18
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             Ethical Use of Copyrighted Material


• Music:
  ▪ Many legal and ethical issues surrounding music
    downloads, especially via P2P sites.
  ▪ RIAA lawsuits are getting a great deal of attention.
  ▪ You can legally download music for roughly $1 per
    song.
  ▪ Once a song is legally obtained, it is considered
    fair use to transfer those songs to another medium
    for personal use.


                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   19
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                      Examples of Online Music Stores




Figure 6-10



                          Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
       Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   20
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             Ethical Use of Copyrighted Material


• Movies:
  ▪ Copy protection is built into many VHS, DVD, and
    pay-per-view movies to prevent individuals from
    making unauthorized copies.
  ▪ Pirated movies easily available via the Internet.
  ▪ New issues surrounding sharing recorded or
    downloaded movies via the Internet.
  ▪ FCC broadcast flag may affect the ability to share
    content via the Internet.


                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   21
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                          Ethical Use of Resources
                               and Information

• School or company resources:
   ▪ Code of conduct – states what is considered proper
     and ethical use of school or company resources.
   ▪ Codes of ethics – summarizes the moral guidelines
     adopted by a particular organization and typically
     address such issues as honesty, integrity, fairness,
     responsibility to others, proper use of intellectual
     property, confidentiality, and accountability.

• Employees should carefully consider the use of the
  confidential information they have access to.
                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   22
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                                A Sample Code of Ethics




            Figure 6-12


                         Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
Chapter 6         Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   23
                           Ethical Use of Resources                                       XP
                                and Information

• Employee and customer information:
   ▪ While a business may be legally bound by such
     restrictions as employee confidentiality laws, union
     contracts, and its customer privacy policy, there are
     gray areas inside which ethical decisions need to be
     made.
   ▪ Ethically questionable acts may ultimately hurt
     business in the long run.
   ▪ Most business schools incorporate business ethics
     into their curriculum.

                     Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
  Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   24
                           Ethical Use of Resources                                       XP
                                and Information

• Cheating and falsifying
  information:
   ▪ Cheating in school is very
     common, but unethical and
     can have serious
     consequences.
   ▪ Schools with academic honor
     codes have a lower rate of
     cheating.
   ▪ Résumé padding is unethical.
                                                                    Figure 6-13


                     Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
  Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   25
                               Computer Hoaxes and                                        XP
                                Digital Manipulation

• Computer hoax – an
  inaccurate statement or
  story spread through the
  use of computers.
   ▪ Are sometimes
     published on Web
     pages, but are more
     commonly spread via
     e-mail.

                                               Figure 6-14


                     Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
  Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   26
                                Computer Hoaxes and                                        XP
                                 Digital Manipulation

• It is a good idea to
  double-check any
  possible hoax before
  passing it on to another
  person.

• The federal government’s
  Hoaxbusters site is a
  good resource for
  computer hoax
  information.        Figure 6-15

                      Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
   Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   27
                                     Computer Hoaxes and                                        XP
                                      Digital Manipulation

• Digital manipulation – the use of
  computers to modify text, images,
  photographs, music, and other
  digital content.
   ▪ Can be used to misquote
     individuals, repeat comments
     out of context, retouch
     photographs–even create false
     or misleading photographs.
   ▪ The matter of altering photos to
     be published is the subject of
     much debate.                                          Figure 6-16

• Test            Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
    Chapter 6       Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   28
                         Ethical Business Practices                                       XP
                            and Decision Making

• Ethically questionable products and services:
   ▪ Businesses must decide whether or not to sell
     products or services that some people find
     objectionable.
   ▪ Policies within a particular industry may vary from
     company to company.
   ▪ Difficult to prove age for online sales, though can
     require an adult signature for deliveries.



                     Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
  Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   29
                         Ethical Business Practices                                       XP
                            and Decision Making

• Vaporware – software and hardware products that have
  been announced and advertised, but are not yet–and
  may never be–available.

• Recent corporate scandals involving fraudulent reporting
  and other illegal and unethical activities has resulted in
  the perception of low business ethics by the public.
   ▪ Corporate Responsibility Act includes numerous
     provisions to improve the quality of financial reporting
     by businesses.

                     Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
  Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   30
                         Ethical Business Practices                                       XP
                            and Decision Making

• Workplace monitoring - businesses have the right and
  responsibility to ensure that employees are productive
  and the company resources are not being abused, but
  need to decide how to carry this out and should inform
  employees.

• Cultural considerations – there are
  cultural, legal, and ethical
  differences between businesses
  located in different countries.
                                                     Figure 6-18


                     Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
  Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   31
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                                  Related Legislation


• Some federal laws related to intellectual property
  rights and ethics include:
   ▪ Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Corporate
     Responsibility Act)
   ▪ Child Internet Protection Act (CIPA)
   ▪ U.S Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act
   ▪ Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)
   ▪ Trademark Amendments Act of 1999
   ▪ Digital Theft Deterrence and Copyright Damages
     Improvement Act
                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   32
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                          Related Legislation (cont’d)


    ▪   Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act
    ▪   Copyright Term Extension Act
    ▪   No Electronic Theft (NET) Act
    ▪   Copyright Act of 1976
    ▪   Lanham Act (Trademark Act of 1946)




                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
Chapter 6    Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   33
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                                               Summary


• What Are Intellectual Property Rights?

• What Are Ethics?

• Ethical Use of Copyrighted Material

• Ethical Use of Resources and Information

• Computer Hoaxes and Digital Manipulation

                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   34
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                                      Summary (cont’d)


• Ethical Business Practices and Decision Making

• Related Legislation




                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   35
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                                             Next Class


• Chapter 7: Health, Access, and the Environment




                    Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
 Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   36
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                                           Questions?




                   Computers and Technology in a Changing Society, Second Edition
Chapter 6   Presentation by: Joseph H. Schuessler, B.B.A., M.B.A., M.S., Ph.D. (ABD)   37

								
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