Psychosocial Development - Chapter 16

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Psychosocial Development - Chapter 16 Powered By Docstoc
					                             Human Growth

              Chapter Sixteen
   Psychosocial Development
PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College
Revised by Jenni Fauchier, Metropolitan Community College
 The Self and Identity

• Who am I?
• Identity—consistent definition of
  one’s self as a unique individual in
  terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs. and
 Multiple Selves

• Possible selves—various ideas of who
  one might be or become, each of
  which is typically acted out and
  considered as a possible identity
• False self—set of behaviors that is
  adopted by a person to combat
  rejection, please others, or try out as
  a possible self
  Multiple Selves, cont.

• Three Types of False Selves
  – acceptable false self. Adopted to be
    accepted; arises from feelings of
    worthlessness, depression; low self-
  – pleasing false self. Arises from wish to
    impress or please others; medium self-
  – experimental false self. Adolescent tries
    out a self to see how it feels; high self-
 Identity Status

• Erikson’s identity versus role
• Identity achievement—attainment of
  identity: self-understanding in accord
  with past experiences and future
   – willing to reconsider values and
     goals of parents and culture,
     accepting some, rejecting others
• Identity Foreclosure
  – adopts values and goals of parents
    and culture without questioning
    • closes out process before it begins
• Identity Diffusion
  – has few commitments to goals or values, and
    apathetic about taking on any role
• Identity Moratorium
  – experiments with alternative identities in
    order to try them out; not ready to make
    commitment to particular future goal
 Status Versus Process
• Developmentalists asked a series of
  questions to measure identity status
  – can a person achieve identity in one
    domain but still be searching in
    another domain?
    • answer: yes
  – is identity formed from within or
    from without?
    • answer: both
  Gender and Ethnic
• Gender identity—identification of
  self as either male or female with
  acceptance of all roles and behaviors
  that society assigns to that sex
  – adolescents make a multitude of
    decisions about sexual behavior and
    select from many gender roles
 Gender and Ethnic Identity, cont.

• Gender identity is often connected to
  ethnic identity
• Ethnic Identity
  – often questioning of ethnic identity
    and dominant American identity
  – As teens grow older, the need to be
    proud of general heritage grows
 Sadness and Anger

• Adolescents can feel despondent and
  depressed, overwhelmed by the world
  and their own inadequacies, as well as
  on top of the world, destined for
  great accomplishment
 Sadness and Anger, cont.

• Emotional problems are categorized in
  two ways
   – internalizing problems: problems
     are manifested inward to inflict
     harm on self
   – externalizing problems: problems
     are “acted out” by injuring others,
     destroying property, or defying
  The Usual Dip
• General trend in mood is more downward
  than upward
  – In U.S., both boys and girls feel less and
    less confident in math, language arts, and
  – self-esteem drops at around age 12
  – adolescents without support from family,
    friends, or school more vulnerable to self-
    esteem dip
    • loss of self-esteem may push toward depression

• Rate of clinical depression more than
  doubles in puberty (15%)
• depression affects 1 to 5 teenage
  girls, and 1 to 10 teenage boys
  – hormonal changes may explain this,
    coupled with psychic stress of
    school, friends, sexual drives, and
    identity crises
Adolescent Suicide

• Suicidal Ideation
  – thinking about suicide common
    among adolescents
 Adolescent Suicide, cont.
• Five reasons for erroneous belief
  that suicide is an adolescent problem
  – rate is triple the rate of 40 years ago
  – adolescents lumped together with young
    adults as one statistical category
  - adolescent suicide is shocking and grabs
  - social prejudice considers teenagers as
  - suicide attempts are more common in
• Parasuicide—deliberate act of self-
  destruction that does not end in
• Parasuicide and suicide depend on
  five factors
  –   availability of lethal means, especially guns
  –   lack of parental supervision
  –   alcohol and other drugs
  –   gender
  –   cultural attitudes
Gender, Ethnic and
National Differences in
• Worldwide, parasuicide is higher for
  females; completed suicide is higher
  for males
   – except in China, where females
     complete suicide more than males
• Cluster suicides occur when several
  suicides are committed within the
  same group in a short time
Adolescent Rebellion

• Many psychologists believe that
  rebellion for adolescent boys may be
 Breaking the Law

• Breaking the law is the most
  dramatic example of rebellion
• Worldwide, arrests rise rapidly at
  about age 12 and peak at about age
   – 44% of all U.S. arrests for
     serious crimes involve persons
     aged 10 to 20
Breaking the Law, cont.

• Incidence—how often a behavior
• Prevalence—how widespread a behavior
• Adolescent males are 3 times more
  likely to be arrested than females
 Breaking the Law, cont.

• African-Americans are 3 times more
  likely to be arrested than are European-
  Americans, who are 3 times more likely
  as Asian-Americans to be arrested
Limiting the Damage

• Adolescent-limited offender—person
  who becomes law abiding as an adult
• Life-course persistent offender—
  juvenile delinquent who continues
  patterns of lawbreaking throughout
  life; career criminal
 Family and Friends
• Family and peer support helps
  adolescents through good and bad
• Support provides
  –   sustenance
  –   provisions
  –   directions
  –   ballast for stability
  –   safe harbor or anchor
• Generation gap—distance between
  generations in values, behaviors, and
  knowledge—and understanding
  – adolescents often loosen ties to family
  – adolescents need to become
    psychologically separate
• Generational stake—each generation
  needs to see family from its own
• Typically, emerges in early
  adolescence, especially with
• Bickering—petty, peevish arguing,
  ongoing and repeated
• Adolescents believe they should have
  privileges of adult status
Parent-Adolescent Conflict, cont.

• Timing of problems is cultural
  – in general, for teens, bickering
    peaks in early to middle
  – For Chinese-, Korean-, and
    Mexican-American teens, parental
    conflict surfaces in late
Other Family
•   Communication
•   Support
•   Connectiveness
•   Control
    – parental monitoring
• They’re more crucial in early teens
  – self-help group
  – help “bridge the gap between
    childhood and adulthood”
  – help to define who they are not
    (identity formation)
  – Can encourage socially desirable
 Peer Pressure Unmasked
• Pressure to conform is strong—up to age
• Peers help to bridge gap between
  childhood and adulthood
• Peer pressure can be especially negative
  in times of uncertainty, but is not usually
  a corrupting influence on good
• Most peer-induced misbehavior is short-
 Peer Group for
• Bicultural Conflict
  – caught between strict family traditions
    and generational push for autonomy
• May give in to parental control (girls)
• May join a delinquent group (boys)
• Establishing ethnic identity is not
 Romantic Attraction

• Sequence of Heterosexual Attraction
  – friendships of one sex or the other
  – loose association of girls’ group and boys’
  – smaller mixed-sex group formed from
    larger group
  – true intimacy; peeling off from group
    into couples, with private intimacies
 Homosexual Youth

• Complications of this life style usually
  slow down romantic attachments
   – many reluctant to admit
   – may mask feelings
   – depression and suicide higher for
     these youth

• No other period is full of such
  multifactoral and compelling
  biological changes
• Fascinating and confusing social
  and intellectual transitions
• Most adolescents and their
  families survive fairly well
 Conclusion, cont.

• Most have some difficulties and some
  may have several
  – many problems stem from earlier
  – even considering that, adolescents are
    open to new patterns, goals, and
      • plasticity
  – young people can find a path that leads
    to adulthood and its challenges

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