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                              BEFORE SCHOOL STARTS:
                                    Mentor Checklist
      Provide her/him with a list of the school staff (or yearbook, if possible, to associate
       names with faces).
      Give a tour of the building
      Introduce to available building staff

Standard Score – grading and use of                  Testing schedule
Where supplies are kept                              Recordkeeping
Student illness procedures                           Classroom schedules
Bulletin boards                                      Copy center requests
Bus slips, detention slips, passes                   Discipline (classroom/bus)/referrals to the office
Information cards                                    “Chain of Command”
District forms                                       School calendar/mark key events
Classroom layout                                     Parking area
Class parties                                        Hall/playground duties
How to handle classroom routines                     Social contacts
Jobs/consequences                                    Mainstreaming
Teacher sick days                                    Classroom rules
Beginning days supplies (text, desks)                Emergency procedures
Organizing a grade book                              AV procedures/check-out
Lunch routine-teachers                               Attendance procedures/recordkeeping
Playground rules/equipment                           Lunch routine-students
School schedule (daily and weekly)                   Lunch card procedures
Bus procedures                                       Building Consultation Team
Cumulative folders                                   Substitute folder
Jargon                                               Schedules for special classes
Fire drill procedures                                Lesson plans
Specialists and their roles                          Tips on effective communication with students
Saving files on server                               Email and public folders
Internet User Policy                                 Web attendance and expectations
Accessing District Network and Website               Voicemail (where applicable)
File maintenance

      Observation and feedback
      Develop collegial relationships
      Review Points to Ponder (pg. 176-177)
      Read “The First Days of School” and share highlights with your mentor and other peers.

                                MISSION STATEMENT

       The mission of the Sheboygan Area School District is to equip all students with a
       foundation of knowledge and skills through quality instruction, opportunities, and
       a positive learning environment in an active partnership with the family and
       community, reinforcing values which will inspire them to access the opportunities
       of this society, strive for excellence in their endeavors, and contribute as
       responsible citizens.


       All students will be productive and responsible citizens in a competitive world.

                        SASD LONG RANGE PLAN GOALS

Goal 1
All students will perform at the “meets or exceeds” level on the common classroom and district
assessments by the 2014-15 school year.
      Meets - The student has achieved grade level expectations.
      Exceeds - The student has surpassed grade level expectations.

Goal 2
All students will perform at the “meets or exceeds” level for behavior as measured by school-
wide behavior data to provide for a safe school environment (office discipline referrals,
attendance, number of students and success rate of behavior interventions, etc).
      Meets - The student has achieved grade level expectations.
      Exceeds - The student has surpassed grade level expectations.

Goal 3
District support systems are aligned to maximize student learning.

Goal 4
Parents and community are involved in student learning.

Goal 5
District stakeholders are engaged in the education process through effective and timely


BBSIP: Building Based School Improvement Program.

A school-based process adopted in the Sheboygan Area School District to improve student
achievement in each school and the district as a whole by involving each school staff in planning
and making specific applications of effective school practices to reach student performance goals
that they set for their respective schools.

SET: School Effectiveness Team.

The building leadership team consisting of the principal(s), representative staff members, and, in
some cases, parents and/or students and/or community representatives who share leadership for
planning, implementing and monitoring the BBSIP process in their school and for involving all
staff in the process.






                  How well do you know the “lingo?”

1.    AP       Advanced Placement
2.    SAGE     Student Achievement Guarantee in Education
3.    PD&G     Professional Development and Growth
4.    CESA     Cooperative Educational Service Agency
5.    DPI      Department of Public Instruction
6.    LEA      Local Education Agency
7.    SEA      Sheboygan Education Association
8.    WEAC     Wisconsin Education Association Council
9.    EBD      Emotional Behavioral Disability
10.   SLD      Specific Learning Disability
11.   CDB      Cognitively Disabled-Borderline
12.   CDS      Cognitively Disabled-Severe
13.   OHI      Other Health Impaired
14.   PT       Physical Therapy
15.   OT       Occupational Therapy
16.   CC       Cross-Categorical
17.   CWD      Children with Disabilities
18.   IDEA     Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
19.   IEP      Individual Education Plan
20.   WKCE     Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Exam
21.   PPP      Program Prioritization Process
22.   ACT      American College Test
23.   LVEC     Local Vocational Education Coordinator
24.   YTY      Youth Tutoring Youth
25.   ELL      English Language Learner
26.   LEP      Limited English Proficient
27.   SACAP    Student Achievement Cycle Action Plan
28.   SBM      Site-Based Management
29.   PACE     Program for Academic and Creative Enrichment
30.   STRIVE   Sheboygan Treatment through Reintegration and Vocational
31.   TAPP     Teenage Parent Program
32.   PAS      Partnership for Academic Success
33.   DOL      Dimensions of Learning
34.   WISC     Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children

35.   ADHD   Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder
36.   ADD    Attention Deficit Disorder
37.   BCT    Building Consultation Team
38.   WSRA   Wisconsin State Reading Association
39.   WMC    Wisconsin Math Council
40.   ELC    Early Learning Center
41.   TGIF   Thank Goodness It’s Friday
42.   QEO    Qualified Economic Offer
43.   SASD   Sheboygan Area School District
44.   ATOD   Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs
45.   SAP    Student Assistance Program
46.   EAP    Employee Assistance Program
47.   CAPP   Cooperative Academic Partnership Program
48.   PDP    Professional Development Plan
49.   SAAT   Student Achievement Accountability Team
50.   UBD    Understanding by Design
51.   NCLB   No Child Left Behind
52.   EMT    Executive Management Team
53.   FYI    For Your Information
54.   SAIL   Straight Ahead to Independent Living
55.   WAVE   Work and Vocational Education


The Sheboygan Area School District Board of Education, District Administrators, Sheboygan
Education Association, and AFSCME Local #1750 agree to explore a process of decision-
making that will deliberately place greater authority and responsibility for education and related
decisions within the school itself for the purpose of enhanced student achievement, behavior
and/or attitudes. The Board of Education, the Sheboygan Education Association, District
Administrators, and AFSCME Local #1750 will jointly explore changes in structures and
procedures that will facilitate this change with the goals of:

1. Providing better collaboration in quality educational services;
2. Listening to all constituent groups and any suggested strategies;
3. Providing for the effective communication of efforts made by various teams, groups and
4. Monitoring and encouraging progress for inclusive shared decision-making; and
5. Evaluating and adjusting parameters over time (acknowledging the realistic need to consider
   statutory, contractual and functional responsibilities of member groups).

The Board of Education, District Administrators, Sheboygan Education Association, and
AFSCME Local #1750 agree that we are willing to explore all the implications of the Site-Based
Decision-Making process. However, none of the parties are able to set aside the legal
responsibilities or certain dimensions of respective organizational roles. Therefore, it is
understood that, unless waivers are granted, this process cannot change the following:

1. Federal and Wisconsin laws as they pertain to schools;
2. Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction rules and regulations;
3. Sheboygan Area School District policies and rules;
4. The collective bargaining agreement between the Sheboygan Area School District and the
   Sheboygan Education Association; and
5. The collective bargaining agreements between the Sheboygan Area School District and
   AFSCME Local #1750.

The parties recognize the mutual exploration of Site-Based Decision-Making might lead into
difficult areas and unforeseen problems. We each take this risk in good faith and with a readiness
to examine our own attitudes and behaviors and improve together. So that we may have the
necessary safeguards and acceptance of the process, Sheboygan Area School District Board of
Education, District Administrators, Sheboygan Education Association, and AFSCME Local
#1750 have the right to request either a slow-down or, in extreme cases, a withdrawal from the
joint process.

In the event that one or all of the anchors wish to terminate participation in the Sheboygan’s
Village Partnership Team, it is agreed that:

1. Other anchors of the Oversight Team will be informed in writing of the reasons for wanting
   to withdraw endorsement of the concept or wanting a slow-down.
2. All anchors agree to allow 60 days “cooling off” period. During the 60 days, the Oversight
   Team will meet to discuss the termination concerns at least two times, possibly using a third
   party consultant, in an effort to resolve the concerns.
3. If one anchor decides to end participation after the above procedures have been followed, the
   remaining anchors will determine whether the Oversight Team will be considered terminated
   or not.

Oversight Team – Composition:
Representatives of the Sheboygan Education Association (3)
Administrators (2)
School Board Members (2)
Representatives of AFSCME Local #1750 (2)
Parents/Representatives of the Community at Large (5)
Students (2)

Current members of the Sheboygan’s Village Partnership Team will serve as the Oversight Team
through the 1996-97 school year at which time some new members will be appointed. Terms will
be staggered so that some new members will be appointed each year. Members will be appointed
by their respective stakeholder groups.

    To provide a listening and learning place for the school district.

Responsibilities of the Oversight Team:
1. To give direction and guidelines to the process.
2. To obtain resources and other support for those involved in the form of training sessions and
   facilitated meetings.
3. To establish general steps for participation and training at sites.
4. To ensure that the pace and support are in harmony to provide high quality while keeping the
   change process moving.
5. To facilitate the flow of information throughout the district.
6. To process waivers for site councils or site teams in regard to Board policies, master
   agreements, etc.
7. To collaborate in “unsticking” the process when it runs into difficulties and obstacles.

When a Site Council has identified a course of action to improve an area of student achievement
or school climate, but the course of action would conflict with systemic constraints, such as
Board of Education policies, collective bargaining agreements or established practices of the
administration, it may submit a request for a waiver to the Oversight Team. The request will
include an explanation of the purpose of the proposed action, the process by which the proposal

was developed/adopted, the constraint(s) that must be waived, the duration of the waiver, the
parties and programs affected, and the proposed method for evaluating whether the course of
action has achieved the desired improvement. The Oversight Team will review such requests and
offer any suggested additions or changes it believes may enhance the likelihood of success of the
request (i.e.: if other sites have made similar requests in the past, or if other sites have similar
requests pending, such information may help in the formulation of a request for waiver).
Thereafter, the Oversight Team will refer such requests to the appropriate parties for
consideration and will also share information with other sites about the request and its
disposition, as appropriate. The Oversight Team will collect and share with the rest of the
District the results of the evaluations of all actions taken pursuant to such waivers as they are
completed by the sites.

The anchors agree to process waiver requests within a reasonable time following receipt. If the
waiver is granted, that information will be communicated to the requesting site in writing with a
copy to the Oversight Team. If the waiver is denied, members of the anchor shall communicate
that decision in person at the site so that the reasons for the denial may be explained to the Site

Site Councils
Please refer to Sheboygan Area School District Site-Based Management-Definitions and
Directions 1993 and Building-Based School Improvement Program-An Overview 1993 for
directions of the purpose, make-up, functions and responsibilities of the site-based councils and
School Effectiveness Teams.

Approved 4/8/96
Revised 2/3/97

    Dimension 1                  Dimension 3                Dimension 5
      PERCEPTIONS                REFINEMENT OF                OF MIND
                                                           Critical Thinking
 Classroom Climate                                        Being accurate and seeking
                                Questioning
 Feeling accepted              Comparing                 Being clear and seeking
   Teacher                     Classifying                clarity
   Peers                       Inducing                  Being open-minded
 Feeling comfortable and       Deducing                  Restraining impulsivity
  perceiving order              Analyzing errors          Taking a position when the
   Physical comfort                                        information warrants it
                                Constructing support
   Clear rules and                                        Being sensitive to the
                                Abstracting                feelings and level of
   Safety                      Analyzing perspectives     knowledge of others

                                                           Creative Thinking
    Classroom Tasks
                                                           Engaging intensely in tasks
      Value                                                even when
      Ability
      Clarity                   Dimension 4                answers/solutions are not
                                                            immediately apparent
                                                           Pushing the limits of one’s
                                                            knowledge and abilities
                             MEANINGFUL USE OF             Generating, trusting, and
    Dimension 2                 KNOWLEDGE                   maintaining one’s own
                                                            standards of evaluation
                                                           Generating new ways of
                                Decision Making            viewing a situation outside
    ACQUISITION AND             Investigation              the boundaries of standard
    INTEGRATION OF              Experimental Inquiry       convention
      KNOWLEDGE                 Problem Solving
                                Invention                 Self-Regulation
    Declarative Knowledge                                 Being aware of one’s own
    Constructing meaning
                                                           Planning
    Organizing                                            Being aware of necessary
    Storing                                                resources
                                                           Being responsive to
    Procedural Knowledge                                   feedback
    Constructing models                                   Evaluating the
    Shaping                                                effectiveness of one’s own
    Internalizing                                          actions

                       Stages of Backward Design

   1. Identify
                              2. Determine
                                                             3. Plan learning
                                                                experiences and

The backward design process consists of three general stages:
Stage 1. Identify Desired Results – What should students know, understand, and be
able to do? What is worthy of understanding? What “enduring” understandings are
desired? In this first stage we consider our goals and identify the targeted
understandings for a unit of study.

Stage 2. Determine Acceptable Evidence – How will we know if students have
achieved the desired results and met the standards? What will we accept as evidence of
student understanding and proficiency? The backward design orientation suggests that
we think about a unit or course in terms of the collected assessment evidence needed to
document and validate that the desired learning has been achieved, not simply as
content to be covered or as a series of learning activities.

Stage 3. Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction – With identified results (enduring
understandings) and appropriate evidence of understanding in mind, it is now the time
to plan learning activities. What questions will serve to ‘uncover’ the big ideas we want
students to come to understand? What enabling knowledge and skills will students
need in order to perform effectively and demonstrate the desired results? What will
need to be taught and coached, and how should it best be taught, in light of the
performance goals? In planning the learning activities, we consider the WHERE
elements. It is important to note that choices about teaching methods, sequence of
lessons, resource materials, etc. are made after the desired results and assessments are
identified. Teaching is a means to an end.

From: “Understanding by Design,” Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, ASCD, 2000, p. 33

                             2011-12 School Year Schedule of Testing and Surveys
                             Four-Year Old Kindergarten and Elementary Schools
                                                              December/                      March
                                                               January                    Spring Break
Grade      September         October       November                            February                          April             May
                                                             Winter Break                  (Mar 26 –
                                                           (Dec 23 – Jan 2)                 April 1)
                                                                                                            Literacy & Math
                                                                                                           (Apr 30 – May18)
                                           Literacy &
                                              Math                                                              WIDA
                                           (Nov 28 –
                                            Dec 20)                                                         Child Find Pre-
                                                                                                             (Apr 4 – 27)
              Print                                          ACCESS for                                                         Awareness
         Understanding                      Phonemic            ELLs                                                           (May 2 - 18)
        (Sept 1 – Oct 15)                  Awareness       (Dec 5 – Feb 10)               Letter/Sound
5KG                                                                                       Identification                          Letter &
                                          (Nov 30 – Jan
              Letter                                         Letter/Sound                 (Mar 2 – 23)                             Sound
          Identification                       13)           Identification                                                    Identification
         (Oct 3 – Nov 4)                                   (Dec 15 – Jan 19)                                                     (May 11 -
                                                                                                                                  June 7)
         Letter & Sound                    Dictation         ACCESS for                                    Running Records -
          Identification                 (Oct 31 – Nov          ELLs                                             Rigby
           (Sept 1 –15)                                    (Dec 5 – Feb 10)
                                              11)                                          Sentence         (Apr 2 – June 7)
G01     Running Records                                                                    Dictation
            - Rigby                         Running        Running Records                (Mar 1 – 16)         Writing
                                         Records - Rigby        - Rigby                                      Assessment
         (Sept 1 – Nov
              11)                         (Nov 14 – Jan    (Jan 30 – Mar 23)                               (May 11 - June 7)
                                                             ACCESS for                                        Writing
                                                                ELLs                                         Assessment
        Running Records       Writing       Running
                                                           (Dec 5 – Feb 10)                                (Apr 4 – May 18)
            - DRA           Assessment   Records - DRA
         (Sept 1 – Nov       (Sept 30–    (Nov 14–Jan                                                      Running Records -
                                                           Running Records
              11)             Nov 1)          27)                                                                DRA
                                                                 - DRA
                                                           (Jan 30 – Mar 23)                                (Apr 2 – June 7)
         (Sept 12 – Nov
               18)                        WKCE* and
        Running Records                   WAA-SwD
                                         (Oct 24 – Nov
            - DRA                                          (Dec 5 – Jan 27)                  MAP           Running Records -
         (Sept 1 – Nov                         23)
G03                                                          ACCESS for                   (Mar 1 – May           DRA
              11)                           Running
                                                                ELLs                          11)           (Apr 2 – June 7)
                                         Records - DRA
          Third Grade                                      (Dec 5 – Feb 10)
        Reading Practice                 (Nov 14 – Jan
             Tests                            27)
         (Sept 15 – Feb
             MAP                                                MAP
        (Sept 12 – Nov                    WKCE* and        (Dec 5 – Jan 27)                  MAP
               18)                        WAA-SwD
G04                                                                                       (Mar 1 – May
          Keyboarding                    (Oct 24 – Nov       ACCESS for
                                                                ELLs                          11)
          (per teacher                        23)
           schedule)                                       (Dec 5 – Feb 10)

                                          WKCE* and        (Dec 5 – Jan 27)                  MAP
G05      (Sept 12 – Nov                                                                   (Mar 1 – May
                                         (Oct 24 – Nov       ACCESS for
               18)                                              ELLs                          11)
                                                           (Dec 5 – Feb 10)

      *Assess only students below ceiling score

                   2011-12 School Year Schedule of Testing and Surveys
                                Middle and High Schools
                                                         December/January                    March
  Grade   September     October        November            Winter Break       February    Spring Break        April      May
                                                          (Dec 23 –Jan 2)                (Mar 26 –Apr 1)
            MAP                       WKCE* and           (Dec 5 – Jan 27)                   MAP
   G06    (Sept 12 –                   WAA-SwD             ACCESS for                     (Mar 1 – May
           Nov 18)                  (Oct 24 – Nov 23)     ELLs (Dec 5 –                       11)
                                                             Feb 10)
            MAP                       WKCE* and          (Dec 5 – Jan 27)                    MAP
   G07    (Sept 12 –                   WAA-SwD             ACCESS for                     (Mar 1 – May
           Nov 18)                  (Oct 24 – Nov 23)     ELLs (Dec 5 –                       11)
                                                             Feb 10)
                                                         (Dec 5 – Jan 27)

                                                           ACCESS for
            MAP                       WKCE* and                                              MAP
                                                          ELLs (Dec 5 –
   G08    (Sept 12 –                   WAA-SwD                                            (Mar 1 – May
                                                             Feb 10)
           Nov 18)                  (Oct 24 – Nov 23)                                         11)
                                                         Wisconsin Career
                                                         (selected schools)
                       SRI Lexile                               MAP                                         SRI Lexile
            MAP         Reading                           (Dec 5 – Jan 27)                   MAP             Reading
   G09    (Sept 12 –   Assessment                          ACCESS for                     (Mar 1 – May      Assessment
           Nov 18)      (selected                             ELLs                            11)            (selected
                        students)                        (Dec 5 – Feb 10)                                    students)
                                      WKCE* and
                                       WAA-SwD                                             Wisconsin
                                    (Oct 24 – Nov 23)      ACCESS for                        Career
   G10                                                        ELLs                        Assessment*
                                    Wisconsin Career     (Dec 5 – Feb 10)                  (selected
                                       Assessment*                                          schools)
                                    (selected schools)
                                                           ACCESS for
   G11                                                        ELLs
                                                         (Dec 5 – Feb 10)
                                                                                          Online Survey
                                                           ACCESS for
                                                                                          about Graduate
   G12                                                        ELLs
                                                         (Dec 5 – Feb 10)
                                                                                         (Mar 1 – Apr 27)
                                                                                          Online Surveys
                                    ELL IPT 2 Oral,        ACCESS for                      about MS and
                                     Reading, and            ELLs*                          HS Student
                                       Writing           (Dec 5 – Feb 10)                    Activities
                                                                                         (Mar 1 – Apr 27)

*Wisconsin DPI provides all materials

                         NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND
                    What it is and how it came to be:
      The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), a major reform of the Elementary
and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) was passed by congress and signed into law by
President Bush on January 8, 2002. The purpose of the act is to close the achievement
gap between disadvantaged and minority students and their peers. The Act
encompasses 45 programs totaling an annual investment of $19 billion. President Bush
has described the act as “the cornerstone of my administration”.

      No Child Left Behind embodies President Bush’s education reform plan: stronger
accountability for results, expanded flexibility and local control, expanded options for
parents, and an emphasis on teaching methods that have been proven to work.

                                   The Components:

       Evidence that all students are meeting high academic standards must be
provided in the form of annual assessments in grades 3-8 in reading and math. Data
from the annual testing will be disaggregated for students by poverty levels, race,
ethnicities, disabilities, and limited English proficiencies. States also must report on
school safety on a school-by-school basis.

       Annual “school report cards” will provide comparative information on the quality
of schools. Districts and schools that do not make adequate yearly progress towards
state proficiency goals for their students will be targeted for assistance and then be
subject to corrective action and ultimately restructuring. Schools that meet or exceed
objectives will be eligible for “academic achievement awards.”

                         FLEXIBILITY AND LOCAL CONTROL:
       In exchange for greater accountability for results, states and school districts will
have greater flexibility in how they can use federal education funds. The intent is to put
greater decision-making powers at the local and state levels where educators are most
in touch with students’ needs.

        Each state, hoping to receive federal dollars, must submit plans to the secretary
of education outlining evidence that they have content and achievement standards and
aligned assessments, school report card procedures, and statewide systems for holding
schools and districts accountable for the achievement of their students. In turn each
school district must report to their state agency (Department of Public Instruction)
outlining their district standards, testing procedures and results, and highlighting student

       Each state will determine, pending federal approval, what constitutes adequate
yearly progress (AYP) for students in that state. All students must reach proficiency, as
defined by their state, by the school year 2013-2014.

                                 PARENTAL OPTIONS:
        Annual “school report cards” will provide parents with comparative information
about how particular schools are performing. For parents whose children are attending
“failing” schools there are immediate options:

1. Public school choice: Parents with children in failing schools would be allowed to
   transfer their child to a better-performing public or charter school immediately after a
   school is identified as failing. There will be expanded federal support for the creation
   and maintenance of charter schools.

2. Supplemental services: Title 1 funds can be used to provide supplemental
   educational services such as tutoring, after school services, and summer school
   programs for children in failing schools.

                           PROVEN TEACHING METHODS:
       NCLB places a special emphasis on determining what educational programs and
practices have been clearly demonstrated to be effective through rigorous scientific
research. Scientific research is defined as research that involves the application of
rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge
relevant to education activities and programs. Federal funding will be targeted to
support these programs and teaching methods.

Instructional Mentor Training
Jeanne Pfeiffer


                   Monthly Instructional Mentor Checklist
 Review and discuss:
              Reporting Child Abuse (pg. 38-43)
              School Resource Officer Program (pg. 44)
              Developmental Guidance (pg. 45-46)
              Developmental Stages (pg. 47-54)
              Classroom Management Strategies (pg. 55-64)
              Code of Classroom Conduct Policy (pg. 67-78)
              Homework Policy (pg. 79-84)
              Review Professional Growth Plan and Staff Development Expectations
              Review Standards/Benchmarks/Report Cards


 Testing procedures                             Grading procedures
 Parent communications                          Pacing of the curriculum
 Extra curricular school activities/duties/
                                                 Youth-Tutoring-Youth (YTY)
 Field trips/bus requests                       Parent organizations (PTA/PTO)
 Work orders/maintenance                        Homework/policies
 Assemblies                                     Parent volunteers/Grandparent Program
 Progress reports                               Contract/professionalism

 Mentee observes mentor and other colleagues (pg. 178-206)
            Assist with curricular planning and timeline
            Prepare for formal observations
            Grade level/department meetings
            Review Points to Ponder (pg. 176-177)
            Review “The First Days of School” and share highlights with your mentor and
             other peers.

Department of Student and Instructional Services
Office of School Social Workers
830 Virginia Avenue
Sheboygan, WI 53081

                                 REPORTING CHILD ABUSE

Staff members of the Sheboygan Area School District are required to report suspected incidents
of child abuse to either the Police Department or the Department of Health and Human Services.
A staff member does not have to have absolute certainty that the abuse occurred; the staff
member is mandated (required) to report suspicions of child abuse.

According to Wisconsin Statute 48.981, school personnel are mandated to report the following
types of situations:

1. Physical abuse, which may be inflicted by an adult or another child.

2. Emotional damage, which is exhibited by severe anxiety, depression, withdrawal, or
   outward aggressive behavior that is caused by the child’s guardian.

3. Neglect, which is the lack of food, clothing, medical or dental care, or shelter that seriously,
   endanger the physical health of the child.

4. Threatened harm, which occurs when a child reports that she/he is afraid that she/he will be
   physically abused.

5. Sexual abuse, which includes sexual contact, which means any intentional touching, directly
   or through clothing by the use of any body part or object of the person’s intimate parts. The
   intentional touching must be for the purpose of either sexually degrading the victim or
   sexually arousing the perpetrator. Any child under sixteen years of age is presumed not
   capable of giving consent for sexual contact.

A staff member who discovers a suspected abused, neglected, or threatened child shall
immediately relate this information to the child’s teacher or principal. According to school
district Policy 5142.4, the staff member must complete a written report regarding the incident of
abuse and when it was reported. This report is given to the building principal.

If you have other questions about reporting child abuse, please contact your building guidance
counselor, social worker, and psychologist or call the Department of Health and Human Services
at 459-6400.

RULES OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION                                                           5142.4 (a)





Procedures in Assessing and Reporting Child Neglect and/or Abuse

Section 48.981 of the Wisconsin Statutes requires schools to report all suspected incidents of
child neglect and/or child abuse to the proper legal authority within the county. In Sheboygan
County, the Department of Social Services has a child protective service team with social
workers specifically trained to investigate reports of child neglect and/or abuse.

The law outlines the procedure in reporting suspected child abuse and/or neglect cases, and
provides immunity from civil or criminal liability to anyone participating in the making of a report.

Indications of child abuse and/or neglect are listed below and should be considered in
identifying cases.

1. Physical Abuse

   a.   Bruises, Welts
   b.   Sprains, Dislocations, Bone Fractures
   c.   Burns
   d.   Cuts, Lacerations

2. Emotional Abuse* See Policy 5142.4 for definition

   a. Stress such that a child cannot maintain himself.
   b. Unprovoked aggression
   c. Extreme withdrawal or passive behavior.

3. Sexual Abuse

   a. Emotional Stress
   b. Pregnancy

4. Neglect

   a.   Malnutrition
   b.   Consistently tired
   c.   Lack of supervision in the home
   d.   Lack of medical attention

A specific referral procedure is outlined below to insure an accurate and complete report of the
abuse or neglect incident and to support the completion of the referral process.

1. Any staff member who discovers a suspected abused, neglected, or threatened child shall
   immediately relate this information to the child’s teacher or the principal.

2. The teacher or principal shall then:

   a. follow the procedure in step 3 below (Mandatory)
   b. Convene a meeting with the school counselor, school social worker and school nurse,
      along with the staff member who originally reported the suspicion, to gather supporting

3. The principal or teacher shall call the Sheboygan County Department of Social Services,
   Protective Service Unit – 459-3245. A written report*, by school staff must be completed
   and should include the date, time, and whom the incident was reported at Department of
   Social Services:

   a. The names and addresses of the child and his parents or whoever is caring for him.
   b. The child’s age.
   c. The nature or the child’s condition, including and evidence of previous injuries or
      disabilities; include dates if available.
   d. Any other information that may be helpful in establishing the reason for the abuse and
      the identity of the perpetrator(s).
   e. Factual information, dates of truancies and absences, school performance and behavior,
      and general physical appearance of the child.
   f. The need for priority action for the safety of the child.

4. On occasion it may be necessary for a staff member to testify regarding the case. A
   subpoena would be served which will protect the individual from civil or criminal liability. The
   staff member should contact the principal immediately up0on receipt of subpoena. The
   employee would suffer no pay loss for court appearance.

5. A copy of the abuse/neglect report should be kept by the principal in a separate file for
   abuse/neglect cases, which will, retained in that school. This file is very confidential and
   should not be used by staff of others unless the student is involving in another child
   abuse/neglect case.

A follow-up of any child abuse or neglect is very important and the responsibility is shared by
the school and the Department of Social Services.

1. The Department of Social Services has the responsibility of notifying the school of the
   disposition of the case; was it a child abuse or neglect case and answering the following
   questions as soon as any are known.

   a. Is special help being given to the responsible party?

   b. Is the child being removed from the home temporarily?

   c. What can the school do to help in the situation?

2. The principal will designate a contact person for the Department of Social Services

3.    The school may be involved in providing services in the follow-up stages as a cooperative
     effort with those agencies working with the child and his family.

4. The name of the investigator from the child protective services team can be obtained by
   calling the Sheboygan County Department of Social Services, 459-3200.

*Any person Who willfully fails to file a report as required may be fined no more that $1000.00 or
imprisonment not more that six months or both.

Any person who reports and then violates confidentiality may be fined not more that $1000.00 or
imprisonment not more than six months or both.

Legal Reference: Wisconsin State Statutes 483.981

Rule Adopted:      October 18, 1983                  BOARD OF EDUCATION
Rule Revised:      December 17, 1985                 Sheboygan Area School District
GPL:lak                                              830 Virginia Avenue
                                                     Sheboygan, WI 53081

POLICIES OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION                                                       5142.4





A teacher, counselor, administrator, social worker, or mental health professional (psychologist),
working in a child caring institution (school), having reasonable cause to suspect that a child
seen in the course of professional duties has been threatened with an injury that will occur,
abused* or neglected, shall immediately contact protective services at the Department of Social
Services, the Sheriff’s Department or the City Police Department, whichever has jurisdiction,
and shall inform the department of the facts and circumstances contributing to a suspicion of
threatened injury, abuse, or neglect.

Classified staff members who have reasonable cause to suspect child abuse or neglect shall
bring this concern immediately to the attention of the child’s teacher or to the principal.

Safeguarding children from hazardous conditions brought about by child abuse and neglect can
be accomplished by increasing employee awareness of the problem, and by developing a
logical procedure to deal with the problem. The Board of Education charges the administration
to provide all employees with inservice training necessary to enable each employee to
understand the problem of child abuse and neglect, and the necessary procedures in dealing
with suspected cases.

*Abuse has been defined to include emotional damage, which means harm to a child’s
psychological or intellectual functioning, which is exhibited, by severe anxiety, depression,
withdrawal or outward aggressive behavior, or combinations of these behaviors as diagnosed
by a licensed practitioner.

Legal Reference:      Wisconsin Statutes 48.981, Wisconsin Act 172 effective March 28, 1984

Policy Adopted:    October 18, 1983                  BOARD OF EDUCATION
Policy Revised:    November 20, 1984                 Sheboygan Area School District
GPL:lak                                              830 Virginia Avenue
                                                     Sheboygan, Wisconsin 53081

 Sample form to use
 as documentation              SUSPECTED ABUSE REPORT
(To be completed by staff member observing the suspected abuse. Call the information in to
Sheboygan County Social Services at 6418.)

Child’s Name: _______________________________________________________________
Grade: _________ School: __________________________ Birth date: _______________
Parent(s): _____________________________________________________________________
Address: _____________________________________________________________________
Phone: _______________________________________________________________________
Parent(s) Workplace and Phone (if known): __________________________________________
Other siblings/adults and ages in home (if known): ____________________________________
Date and time of observation: _____________________________________________________
Alleged Perpetrator: ____________________________________________________________
Relationship/phone/address (if known): _____________________________________________
Description of suspected abuse, neglect, or threat warranting referral (If any injuries observed,
describe them): ________________________________________________________________

Contact made with Social Services:
Date: ___________________________        Time: ____________________________________
DSS Staff or Law Enforcement Officer contacted: ____________________________________

DSS Follow-Up:
Date of contact with child: _______________________________________________________
DSS Social Worker: ____________________________________________________________
Report received from DSS: _______________________________________________________

Referring staff member’s signature/title: ____________________________________________
                               (Give report to building principal)


The School Resource Officer Program is an integral part of the overall school program. There are
school resource officers at both high schools, Alternative Programs, and the three middle schools.

Everyone is highly encouraged to contact the school resource officer to discuss concerns about
individual students and also use him/her as a resource for classroom presentations. The school
resource officer’s job responsibilities include the following:

1.     To establish liaison services between the Sheboygan Police Department, school youth,
       parents of youth, Department of Health and Human Services, other law enforcement
       agencies, and all other related agencies in dealing with youth.

2.     Formulate and conduct juvenile crime prevention education programs in areas such as
       drug and alcohol abuse, vandalism, shoplifting, theft, and abuse cases.

3.     Promote public speaking engagements to service organizations in the community.

4.     Investigate all cases, which would violate Wisconsin statutes, and city ordinances, which
       occur on or in the area of the schools.

5.     Provide counseling to youth and their parents as needed.

6.     Attempt to keep the community alert as to possible problem areas in the community
       concerning delinquency.

7.     Attend school functions and activities that are appropriate as requested by the

8.     Deal with any violations of law committed by students while attending school.

9.     Assist teachers when requested to do so with presentations in the classroom.

A responsibility NOT included in the school resource officer’s position is the enforcement of
school rules and regulations.

The primary responsibility for the enforcement of school rules and regulations lies with the
administration and professional staff of the schools.


Educators, in their effort to create an effective learning climate, have recognized the primary
importance of assisting students with their intellectual and physical development; and many have
recognized the importance of assisting with their social and emotional development. The
importance of dealing with all of life’s growth process is emphasized by the fact that successful
achievement of developmental tasks, as they arise in the life of an individual, lead to happiness
and success with subsequent tasks.

Developmental tasks identified by Robert J. Havighurst, University of Chicago, have assisted
teachers in recognition of the needs of students. The students need to:

                  Understand themselves
                  Understand their feelings
                  Understand other people
                  Understand interaction
                  Understand communication
                  Understand roles and responsibilities
                  Understand the world of work
                  Understand choices and consequences

Conditions today make more evident than formerly the need for a developmental guidance
program for our school age youth. We live in an age of complexity and uncertainty as evidenced

      Choices, which are more numerous and come earlier;
      Decreasing stability of the family structure;
      The incidence of crime, drug abuse, emotional disturbance, and suicide among young
      The tremendous increase in man’s body of knowledge;
      Rapid changes and inconsistencies in society’s values;
      The rapid shifting nature of the world of work, including the phasing out of many jobs for
       the unskilled worker and the emergence of new jobs requiring higher skill levels.

Educators are charged with the responsibility of preparing our youth for a future which none of
us can predict with any accuracy. We do not know what information currently being taught will
be valid and useful to today’s school youth when they reach adulthood. It is important, therefore,
that we find some means of helping youth to make sense of their present experiences, to find
personal meaning in what they are being taught in school, to develop values and attitudes, and to
learn to practice the decision-making skills which will enable them to function in a charging

The Developmental Guidance Model for the Sheboygan Area School District is an organized
effort to help each youth to achieve all of which he or she is capable. Its focus in on personal
development, that guidance is an inherent part of all curriculum, and that the classroom teacher is
a central figure in the guidance function. It is designed to systematically, purposefully, and
actively involves youth in acquiring personal human skills, and to prevent problems before they
occur. It is based on the belief that:

       Counseling and guidance services should be provided for all youth at all grade levels
       (Wisconsin State Statutes, Chapter 90, 1973).

       That total growth, development and adjustment of each individual is of utmost

       Emotional growth enhances intellectual growth and prevents maladjustment.

       Youth learn better when they feel good about themselves.

       Growth in self-understanding enables young people to find personal meaning in learning

       Youth who understand their own feelings are better able to control their own behavior
       and to understand and get along with others.

       Persons grow in helping others to grow, and growth is affected more by what we do than
       by what is done to us.

       The process of psychological development is a vital arm of education and should not be
       left to chance factors in the school.

       Attitudes formed during the school years shape the future attitudes toward learning, self,
       and society.

       The total educational program, including all curriculum areas, would have to share one
       common objective: the total and integrated development of the individual. Collaborative
       planning by all staff members is needed.

The developmental guidance program is more effective when it is a cooperative enterprise
among the youth, parents, school, and community; and when teachers include specific guidance
experiences in their teaching. The classroom teacher exerts considerable influence on youth as
they view, sense, interpret, and draw conclusions from the teacher as a leader and as a person.
The classroom teacher is an influential person on the guidance of students, and is a key person in
an organized program of guidance activities.

                             DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

A. Physical Characteristics:
   1. Preschool children are extremely active. They have good control of their bodies and
      enjoy activity for its own sake.

   2. Because of their inclination toward bursts of activity, kindergartners need frequent rest
      periods. They themselves often don’t recognize the need to slow down.

   3. Preschoolers’ large muscles are more developed than those that control fingers and hands.
      Therefore, they may be quite clumsy at, or physically incapable of, such skills as tying
      shoes and buttoning coats.

   4. Young children find it difficult to focus their eyes on small objects; therefore, their eye-
      hand coordination may be imperfect.

   5. Although the children’s bodies are flexible and resilient, the bones that protect the brain
      are still soft.

   6. Although boys are bigger, girls are ahead of boys in practically all other areas of
      development, especially in fine motor skills, so don’t be surprised if boys are clumsier at
      manipulating small objects.

   7. Handedness is established in most children, and 90 percent are right-handed.

B. Social Characteristics:
   1. Most children have one or two best friends, but these friendships may change rapidly.
      Preschoolers tend to be quite flexible socially; they are usually willing and able to play
      with most of the other children in the class. Favorite friends tend to be of the same sex,
      but many friendships between boys and girls develop.

   2. Playgroups tend to be small and not too highly organized; hence they change rapidly.

   3. Younger children may play beside others; older ones with others. (Unoccupied behavior,
      solitary play, onlooker behavior, parallel play, associative play, cooper-active play)

   4. Quarrels are frequent, but they tend to be of short duration and quickly forgotten.

   5. Preschoolers enjoy dramatic play; most of the plots they invent stem from their own
      experiences or TV shows.

   6. Awareness of sex roles is evident.

C. Emotional Characteristics:
   1. Kindergarten children tend to express their emotions freely and openly. Anger outbursts
      are frequent.

   2. Jealousy among classmates is likely to be fairly common at this age, since kindergarten
      children have much affection for the teacher and actively seek approval. When there are
      thirty individuals competing for the affection and attention of just one, some jealousy is

D. Cognitive Characteristics:
   1. Kindergartners are quite skillful with language. Most of them like to talk, especially in
      front of a group.

   2. Preschoolers may stick to their own rules in using language.

   3. Competence is encouraged by interaction, opportunities, urging, limits, admiration, and
      signs of affection.

PRIMARY GRADES (1, 2, and 3; Six to Nine Years)
A. Physical Characteristics:
   1. Primary grade children are still extremely active. Because they are frequently required to
      participate in sedentary pursuits, energy is often released in the form of nervous habits –
      for example, pencil chewing, fingernail biting, hair twirling, and general fidgeting.

   2. Children at these grade levels still need rest periods; they become fatigued easily as a
      result of physical and mental exertion.

   3. Large-muscle control is still superior to fine coordination. Many children, especially boys,
      have difficulty manipulating a pencil.

   4. Many primary grade pupils may have difficulty focusing on small print or objects. Quite
      a few children may be far-sighted because of the shallow shape of the eye.

   5. At this age children tend to be extreme in their physical activities. They have excellent
      control of their bodies and develop considerable confidence in their skills. As a result,
      they often underestimate the danger involved in their more daring exploits. The accident
      rate is at a peak in the third grade.

   6. Bone growth is not yet complete; therefore, bones and ligaments can’t stand heavy

B. Social Characteristics:
   1. At this level children become somewhat more selective in their choice of friends. They
      are likely to have a more or less permanent best friend and may also pick out a semi-
      permanent “enemy”.

   2. Children during this age span often like organized games in small groups, but they may
      be overly concerned with rules or get carried away by team spirit.

   3. Quarrels are still frequent. Words are used more often than physical aggression, but many
      boys (in particular) may indulge in punching, wrestling, and shoving.

C. Emotional Characteristics:
   1. Primary grade pupils are sensitive to criticism and ridicule and may have difficulty
      adjusting to failure.

   2. Most primary grade children are eager to please the teacher.

   3. Children of this age are becoming sensitive to the feelings of others.

D. Cognitive Characteristics:
   1. Generally speaking, primary grade pupils are extremely eager to learn.

   2. They like to talk and have much more facility in speech than in writing.

   3. Because of their interpretation of rules, primary grade children may tend to be tattletales.

INTERMEDIATE GRADES (4, AND 5; Nine to Eleven Years)
A. Physical Characteristics:
   1. A growth spurt occurs in most girls and starts in early-maturing boys. On the average,
      girls between the ages of ten and fourteen are taller and heavier than boys of the same age.

   2. As children approach puberty, concern and curiosity about sex are almost universal,
      especially among girls.

   3. Fine motor coordination is quite good; therefore, the manipulation of small objects is
      easy and enjoyable for most children. As a result, arts and crafts and music activities are

B. Social Characteristics:
   1. The peer group becomes powerful and begins to replace adults as the major source of
      behavior standards and recognition of achievement.

   2. Between the ages of six and twelve, the development of interpersonal reasoning leads to
      greater understanding of the feelings of others.

C. Emotional Characteristics:
   1. Conflict between the group code and adult rules may cause difficulty, including juvenile

   2. Behavior disorders are at a peak at the elementary grade level, but most children find
      their own ways to adapt.

D. Cognitive Characteristics:
   1. There are sex differences in specific abilities and in overall academic performance.

   2. Differences in cognitive style become apparent.

MIDDLE SCHOOL (GRADES 6, 7, and 8; Eleven to Fourteen Years)
A. Physical Characteristics:
   1. Most girls complete their growth spurt at the beginning of this period. A boy’s growth
      spurt; however, usually is not completed before the eighth or ninth grade, and it may be
      precipitous. Some boys add as much as six inches and 25 pounds in a single year.

   2. Puberty is reached by practically all girls and many boys.

   3. There is likely to be a certain amount of adolescent awkwardness – probably due as much
      to self-consciousness as to sudden growth – and a great deal of concern about appearance.

   4. Although this age period is marked by generally good health, the diet and sleeping habits
      of many junior high students is poor.

B. Social Characteristics:
   1. The peer group becomes the general source of rules of behavior.

   2. The desire to conform reaches a peak during the junior high years.

   3. Students are greatly concerned about what others think of them.

C. Emotional Characteristics:
1. Many adolescents may go through a period of “storm and stress”.

2. Crime rates are at a peak during the adolescent years, and vandalism may be a problem in
   certain schools.

D. Cognitive Characteristics:
   1. This is a transition period between concrete operational and formal thought.

   2. This is a transition period between the moralities of constraint and cooperation.

   3. Between the ages of twelve and sixteen, political thinking becomes more abstract, liberal,
      and knowledgeable.

HIGH SCHOOL (Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12; Fifteen and Eighteen Years)

A. Physical Characteristics:
   1. Most students reach physical maturity, and virtually all attain puberty.

   2. Many adolescents experience confusion regarding sexual relationships.

   3. Increased sexually activity among adolescents has led to high rates of illegitimate births
      and sexually transmitted diseases.

B. Social Characteristics:
   1. Parents are likely to influence long-range plans; peers are likely to influence immediate

   2. Girls seem to experience greater anxiety about friendships than boys.

C. Emotional Characteristics:
   1. Toward the end of the secondary school years, girls may be more likely than boys to
      experience emotional disorders.

   2. The most common type of emotional disorder during adolescence is depression.

   3. If depression becomes severe, suicide may be contemplated.

D. Cognitive Characteristics:
   1. High school students become increasingly capable of engaging in formal thought, but
      they may not use the capability.

   2. Keep in mind that novice formal thinkers may engage in unrestrained theorizing, be
      threatened by awareness of possibilities, and be subject to adolescent egocentrism.

Psychology Applied to Teaching; 6th Edition, Robert F. Biehler & Jack Snowman, Houghton
Mifflin Co., 1990, p. 98-142

                   CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Taken from: Wong, H. c. 1998. The First Days of School. Harry K. Wong Publications.
Mountain View: CA. pgs. 82-94 and 141-193.

WHO:            You, the classroom teacher, are responsible for organizing a
                well-managed classroom.

                “You were not hired to teach third grade, coach football, or
                teach English. You were hired to take a group of students
                and turn them into interested and productive learners in a
                well-managed classroom.” (p. 84)

WHEN:           Begin on Day 1 and follow through on each subsequent
                school day.

WHERE:          Your personal classroom and wherever your students are in
                your charge.

WHAT:           Classroom management is everything a teacher does to
                organize students, time, space, and materials, so that
                instruction can take place.

                Discipline constitutes student behaviors that need to be

                Rules reflect the expectations of appropriate student
                behavior and create a safe and protected environment.

                Consequences and rewards are the logical results of the
                choices people make. People must responsibly accept
                consequences throughout their entire life.

                Procedures are a method or process for how things are to be
                done in a classroom. A procedure becomes a routine when
                students begin to do it automatically.
WHY:            Classroom management is the single most important factor
                in governing student learning and determining teaching

HOW:             Before you ever meet your students begin by determining
                 your classroom procedures. How do you want things done in
                 your classroom? What procedures need to be determined to
                 make things run efficiently?

                 Explain and demonstrate procedures.

                 Rehearse procedures until they become a routine.

                 Reinforce procedures and reteach them as needed.

                 Develop a discipline, your expectations of student behavior.

                 Communicate the rules (3-5 for optimum success) to parents
                 and students in verbal and written form.

                 Determine consequences and rewards that are logical
                 results of the choices students make.

                 Have all of this ready for the first day of school!

                 Be consistent in using procedures and enforcing
                 classroom rules. You get only what you demand.

Instructional Mentor Training
Jeanne Pfeiffer

        BELONG                                                                POWER
       (active kids will act out if need not met)
       (passive kids will withdraw if need not met)

   FREEDOM                                                                              FUN

Source: Control Theory by William Glasser – For additional information contact CTRTQM Institute as 22024 Lassen Street, Suite 118,
Chatsworth, CA 91311

Giving a choice is a very useful behavior management technique. Some benefits
from giving choices are as follows:
   1. A choice reduces the probability of a power struggle.
   2. A choice will keep the student in the thinking mode. If the choice is
      presented in the form of a question, it increases the probability of the student
      remaining in the thinking mode.
   3. A choice is a deposit in the “Relationship Bank.”

Some guidelines for giving choices are as follows:
   1. Never give a choice that you don’t like.
   2. Giving a choice seldom works when the student is in an emotional state.
   3. When you offer the choice, you must be ready to make the decision if the
      student doesn’t.
   4. Bottom Line Behaviors are not choice issues.

The way you present the choice is a key factor in your successful use of choices as
a behavior management technique. Some things to keep in mind are as follows:
   1.   Relax.
   2.   Smile.
   3.   Use a calm voice.
   4.   Present the choice as a question if possible.
   5.   Give the student time and space after you present the choices. If you
        disengage for a short period of time, you increase the probability that the
        student will make the best choice.

Giving a choice is a powerful and useful technique. However, it isn’t the best
technique for every situation. You need to evaluate every situation to determine if
it is a non-choice situation. A non-choice situation might be a time to use an
“enforcement statement.”* The activity on the next page is designed to give you
some practice generating statements that give a choice.
* The concept of Enforceable and Unenforceable Statements comes from Jim Fay. For more information
contact the Cline/Fay Love and Logic Institute, Inc. 2207 Jackson Street, Golden, CO 80401 or call 1-

A number of behavior situations are described in column one. In column two you will find a power statement that could increase the
probability of a power struggle. Please write a statement giving a choice in column three for each of the power statements. Remember,
a Bottom Line Behavior is a non-choice situation. Write the word non-choice in column three for such a situation.

            Behavior Situation                         Power Statement                              Choice Statement
1. A student is wasting time during work
                                             “Get to work right now!”
2. A student is playing with a toy during
                                             “Put it away right now!”
3. A student has a problem completing
                                             “You better get it done right now!”
   his/her homework.
4. Two students are smoking in the
                                             “You can’t smoke in school!”
5. It is time to clean up for lunch. A
                                             “None of you will be going to lunch
   number of students are not helping
                                             until this room is clean!”
   with clean up.
6. A student calls another student a “butt
                                             “You will apologize!”

All disciplinary situations are different. Giving a student a choice is a very
powerful behavior management technique. However, giving a choice will not be
the best option in all situations. The “enforceable” statement is a very useful
behavior management technique when you believe a choice isn’t an option. It is
very important to make “enforceable” statements. Some adults get caught up in the
emotion of the situation and make an “unenforceable” statement. The difference
between the “enforceable” and the “unenforceable” statement is as follows:
  “Unenforceable” Statement – The adult tells the student what the student is going
  to do or what the student can’t do. Example: “You can’t yell at me like that!”
  “Enforceable” Statement – The adult tells the student what the adult is going to
  do. “I will listen when you lower your voice.”
Some negative side effects of the “unenforceable” statements are as follows:
       1. Increased stress for the adult in charge.
       2. Increased probability of a power struggle.
       3. Students frequently refuse to comply with the “unenforceable” statement.
“Unenforceable” statements violate the basic premise of control theory. Control
theory contends that you cannot control other people. Your attempts to control are
met with resistance and rebellion. Therefore, “unenforceable” statements tend to
result in noncompliance, refusals, and power struggles.
It is non-productive to tell the student what he/she is going to do or what he/she
can’t do. It is more productive to tell the student what you are going to do.
You will increase your effectiveness in the process of making “enforceable”
statements if you keep the following tips in mind.
       1.   Relax.
       2.   Calm voice.
       3.   Respect the student’s space.
       4.   Give the student time to think after you make your statement.
The activity on the next page is designed to give you some practice generating
“enforceable” statements.
*The concept of Enforceable and Unenforceable Statements comes from Jim Fay. For more information
contact the Cline/Fay Love and Logic Institute, Inc. 2207 Jackson Street, Golden, CO 80401 or call 1-

A number of behavior situations are described in column one. These situations are followed by an unenforceable statement. Please
write an enforceable statement in column two for each of these situations.

              Situation and Unenforceable Statement                                    Enforceable Statement

 1. A student is being sarcastic. “You can’t talk to me like that!”

 2. Several students are very excited. They all want to talk at
    once. “I don’t want all of you talking at one time.”

 3. A student has several late assignments. “You had better turn
    your assignments in tomorrow.”

 4. Two students are having difficulty playing fair at recess.
    “You had better play fair.”
 5. You ask the student to go to the counselor. The student
    responds, “I’m not going and you can’t make me.” You
    respond, “Get out now!”
 6. A student sharpens a pencil during instruction. “You can’t
    be at the pencil sharpener when I’m talking.”

Be Empathetic – Be Sad - Be Caring – Be Gentle – Be Kind
How are you going to fix it?
How are you going to solve the problem?
What are you going to do about the problem?
Do you need help?
Would you like help?
Do you want an idea?
How would that work for you?
Do you think the idea would work for you?
What do you need to do?
What are you going to do?

Source: Corwin Kronenberg,  1993, For information, contact Corwin Kronenberg Consulting, Inc. (952) 831-

                                       Lee Canter’s Assertive Discipline
1. Create a Classroom Discipline Plan and Post it in Your Classroom
   A. Establish Rules for Your Classroom
       Choose rules that are observable
       Choose rules that apply throughout the day
       Include the rule “Follow directions” in your classroom rules
       Rules should be limited to five
   Examples of some appropriate general classroom rules for different grade levels
   Grades K-3                                       Grades 4-5
    Follow directions                             Follow directions
    Keep hands, feet, & objects to yourself         Keep hands, feet, & objects to yourself
    Do not leave the room without permission        No swearing or teasing
    No swearing or teasing                          Be in your seat when the bell rings
    No yelling or screaming                         Bring all necessary materials to class
                                 Grades 7-12
                                  Follow directions
                                  No swearing or teasing
                                  Be in your seat when the bell rings
   B. Determine Positive Reinforcement for Your Classroom
       Praise
       Positive Notes and Phone Calls
       Special Privileges (Free time, extra computer time, correcting papers, special art activity, cross-grade tutor,
           first in line, caretaker of the class pet, teacher’s assistant, class monitor, share something brought from home,
           read to kindergarten class)
       Behavior Awards
       Tangible Rewards
   C. Determine Disciplinary Consequences for Your Classroom
       Must be something student does not like
       Must be presented to student as a choice
       Does not have to be severe to be effective
       Should be organized into a discipline hierarchy (if appropriate, include calling parents,
         sending the student to the principal, and a severe clause)
   Examples of some appropriate discipline hierarchies for different grade levels
   Grades K-3                                        Grades 4-5
   1st time: Warning                                 1st time: Warning
   2 time: 5 min. working away from group            2nd time: 10 min. working away from group
   3rd time: 10 min. working away from group         3rd time: 15 min. working away from group
   4 time: Call parents                              4th time: Call parents
   5th time: Send to principal                       5th time: Send to principal
   Severe clause: Send to principal                  Severe clause: Send to principal
                                    Grades 7-12
                                    1st time: Warning
                                    2nd time: Stay in class 1 minute after the bell
                                    3rd time: Stay in class 2 minutes after the bell
                                    4th time: Call parents
                                    5th time: Send to principal
                                    Severe clause: Send to principal
1.   _________________________________________________
2.   _________________________________________________
3.   _________________________________________________
4.   _________________________________________________
5.   _________________________________________________

1.   _________________________________________________
2.   _________________________________________________
3.   _________________________________________________
4.   _________________________________________________
5.   _________________________________________________

1.   _________________________________________________
2.   _________________________________________________
3.   _________________________________________________
4.   _________________________________________________
5.   _________________________________________________
6.   _________________________________________________


Behavior Documentation Record
Make copies of this page to use throughout the year.
         Student Name                Date/Time         Place        Problem Behavior   Disciplinary Action Taken

End-of-the-Year Checklist
Now that the year is closing, take a few        I Taught the Classroom Discipline Plan
minutes to assess how well you used Assertive    I carefully explained the rules, positive
Discipline to manage behavior in your class.        reinforcement, and disciplinary
Use the results to develop an even better           consequences to the students.
program for next year.
                                                 I questioned the students to be sure they
Indicate: A=Always, S=Sometimes, R=Rarely         understood the plan.
I Assumed an Assertive Attitude
                                                 I reviewed the plan periodically to remind
 I felt in control of my classroom.              the students what was expected of them.
 I stayed calm whenever students
                                                I Clearly Communicated the Rules and
  misbehaved (I did not yell or become                                                         I Used Redirecting Techniques
                                                Specific Directions
                                                 I communicated my expectations to             I consistently redirected students who
I Developed a Classroom Discipline Plan             students at all times.                         strayed off task and were not disruptive.
 The classroom discipline plan was posted       My students knew what was expected of        I Provided Disciplinary Consequences
    in my classroom.                              them at all times.                            I consistently provided consequences
 The classroom discipline plan included         I communicated to students in a clear,           when students were disruptive or
  rules, positive reinforcement, and a            firm, and caring manner.                         continually off task.
  hierarchy of consequences.
                                                I Used Positive Recognition                     I consistently followed through on the
 I followed the plan closely.                                                                   consequences promised.
                                                 I positively recognized every student once
 I changed the plan when it wasn’t working.                                                    I provided consequences in a calm,
                                                    a day.
 I developed individualized behavior plans                                                      assertive manner.
                                                 I used praise frequently.
  for chronically disruptive students.                                                          I changed the consequences when they
                                                 I used positives that students liked and
 I informed the principal of the classroom                                                      weren’t effective.
                                                  looked forward to receiving.
  discipline plan.
                                                 I changed the type of reinforcement I used   If you find that you are weak in one particular
 I informed the parents of the classroom
                                                  when it wasn’t effective in motivating       area, review the new and revised Assertive
  discipline plan.
                                                  students to behave.                          Discipline® text and workbooks.
 I provided a copy of the classroom
                                                 I changed the positive ideas periodically
  discipline plan for substitute teachers.

                              Individual Plans for Students

Pro-Active Strategies:
    procedures and routines that are specific and clear
    clear behavioral expectations
    cuing systems
    consistency
    Cantor’s 3 weeks/33 weeks ratio
    fair does not mean equal
    maintain rapport
    communication with parents, introductory calls and letters

“Reactive” Strategies:
    never give up
    maintain rapport
    refer to Harry Wong—reinforce procedures and routines—classroom “tune-up”
    location, location, location—sometimes “near the teacher” isn’t always the best
    calls or notes to parents
    notebooks
    report charts broken down into small parts of the day for a better chance of success
    classroom based plans should be positive and supportive and specific
    modifications (homework and other requirements)
    the appropriate use of educational assistants and support staff
    “this isn’t’ working for either of us” and “we’re going to problem solve our way through this”

                Response to Intervention (RtI)
     A systematic and data based method of identifying,
     defining, and resolving student’s academic and
     behavioral difficulties.

     The RTI committee has worked together, looking at national models, state models, best
     practices, and recommendations from the US Dept. of Education. This is an
     accumulation of this data.

      An extension of No Child Left Behind and a component of IDEA.
      Produce better outcomes for all children specifically focused on reading, mathematics,
       written language, and behavior.
      Multi-tier of instruction and intervention options.
      Emphasis on prevention and early intervention.
      Keep in mind equity of instruction and intervention!

WI DPI Preliminary
Defined:   RTI is the practice of providing high quality instruction/intervention, matched to
           student needs, and using learning rate over time and level of performance to
           make important educational decisions (Batsche, 2005).
Goals:     Early intervention and prevention to enhance outcomes for children by providing
           access to increasingly intense supports, eliminating the “wait to fail” system, and
           linking instruction to progress monitoring.
               Multi-tiered instruction/intervention
               Problem Solving Process
               Integrated data collection and analysis system
Includes all systems (regular, remedial, special education) to develop a UNIFIED
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM within schools and districts.

Five Essential Components
1.   Universal Screening
2.   Evidenced based Instruction
3.   Evidenced based Interventions
4.   Progress Monitoring
5.   Intervention Integrity

Tier 1   General Education Curriculum 80% of students should be successful.
          All students are screened
          Progress towards benchmarks monitored at least three times per year
          Elementary: screenings should focus on reading, math, written language, and
          Secondary: broader range of skills and behaviors (for now)
          Establish classroom intervention plan
          Begin progress monitoring
          Weekly for six weeks
          Check rate of growth – determine if additional or different intervention is needed,
           if so move to Tier 2 intervention.

Tier 2   Students who are not meeting benchmarks. 10-15% should respond rapidly.
            Intensive and specific instruction
            Typically small group
            Data collected more frequently
            Intensity and duration of intervention emphasized

Tier 3   Most Intensive. State is looking at 4%.
          Interventions may be individual, occurring daily and on-going
          May take place in regular education, ELL, or special education
          Problem-solving team is monitoring the effectiveness of individualized
           interventions and adapting as needed
          Evaluation/specialized assessment may drive interventions
          Focus on intensity and duration, not who or what

POLICIES OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION                                                                  5144.4






It is the policy of the Sheboygan Area School District to establish and maintain a favorable learning
environment for students and staff. Effective learning cannot take place in a class where student
behavior interferes with the ability of the teacher to teach effectively or the ability of other students to
participate in class learning activities.

Students shall be expected to abide by the code of classroom conduct adopted by the Board for the
purpose of maintaining order and a favorable academic atmosphere. Any student who violates the
code of classroom conduct or other District policies, rules, and expectations set forth in the Rights and
Responsibilities Student Handbook is subject to removal from class and/or disciplinary action.

The District recognizes and accepts its responsibilities to create, foster, and maintain an orderly and
safe class environment, conducive to teaching and to the learning processes. Every member of the
school community is expected to cooperate in this central mission.

Legal Reference: State Statute 118.164 and 120.12 as of 8/1/99

                                                              BOARD OF EDUCATION
Policy Adopted: May 11, 1999                                  Sheboygan Area School District
WRH:lak                                                       830 Virginia Avenue
                                                              Sheboygan WI 53081

POLICIES OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION                                                             5144.3 (a)






The terms of Section 118.01 of the Wisconsin Statutes require the Board to provide an instructional
program attaining a series of goals including that of providing students with an understanding of the
duties and responsibilities of citizenship. School District high school and middle school are located
within residential neighborhoods throughout the community. Acts of student misconduct within the
community in the course of and contemporaneous with the school day, to include vandalism, littering,
disorderly conduct, underage smoking, and acts which are intended to or which in fact threaten or
intimidate other citizens, are inconsistent with the School District educational goal related to the duties
and responsibilities of citizenship.

It is the policy of the Sheboygan Area school District that thirty minutes prior to the commencement of
academic classes at the school identified below; throughout the student day, to include the designated
student lunch period; and fifteen minutes after the end of the last academic class period of each day,
students may not loiter within the following school neighborhood areas:

Sheboygan North High School

   Primary School Neighborhood Area:

A. The municipal sidewalk, public right-of-way, and all privately owned property adjacent to the south
   side of School Avenue from 12th Street on the west to 10th Street on the east.

B. The municipal sidewalk, public right-of-way, and all privately owned property adjacent to the east
   side of 10th Street from School Avenue on the south to Grand Avenue on the north.

C. The municipal sidewalk, public right-of-way, and all privately owned property adjacent to the north
   side of Grand Avenue from 10th Street on the east to 12th Street on the west.

Sheboygan South High School

   Primary School Neighborhood Area:

A. The municipal sidewalk, public right-of-way and all privately owned property adjacent to the east
   side of 12th Street from Wilson Avenue on the north to Washington Avenue to the south.

                                                                                             5144.3 (b)

B. The municipal sidewalk, public right-of-way and all privately owned property adjacent to the south
   side of Washington Avenue from 12th Street on the east to 15th Street on the west.

C. The municipal sidewalk, public right-of-way and all privately owned property adjacent to the south
   side of Wilson Avenue from 12th Street on the east to 15th Street on the west, including the
   property of the Early Learning Center and Norwest Bank property.

Riverview School

   Primary School Neighborhood Area:

A. The municipal sidewalks, public right-of-way and privately owned property adjacent to the south
   side of Virginia Avenue.

B. The municipal sidewalks, public right-of-way and privately owned property adjacent to the west
   side of Water Street between Jefferson Street and Virginia Avenue and adjacent to all of Water
   Street south of Virginia Avenue.

C. The municipal sidewalks, public right-of-way and privately owned property adjacent to New Jersey
   Avenue between Water Street and 8th Street.

D. The alley adjacent to the east side of the Central Office Building and all parking areas north of the
   Central Office Building and south of 9th Street.

E. The municipal sidewalks, public right-of-way and privately owned property adjacent to Jefferson
   Avenue from Water Street to 8th Street.

Farnsworth Middle School

   Primary School Neighborhood Area:

A. The municipal sidewalk, public right-of-way on privately owned property adjacent to the north side
   of Union Avenue between 9th and 12th Streets.

B. The municipal sidewalk, right-of-way and privately owned property adjacent to the east side of 10th
   Street between Union Avenue and Ashland Avenue.

C. The municipal sidewalk, public right-of-way and privately owned property adjacent to the west side
   of 11th Street between Union Avenue and Ashland Avenue.

D. The municipal sidewalk, public right-of-way and privately owned property adjacent to the south
   side of Ashland Avenue between 9th and 12th Streets.

Urban Middle School

   Primary School Neighborhood Area:


A. North Avenue between 12th Street and 13th Street, including the roadway, median, municipal
   sidewalk, public right-of-way, and all privately owned property adjacent to the south side of North

B. 12th Street from North Avenue to School Avenue, including the roadway, municipal sidewalk,
   public right-of-way, and all privately owned property adjacent to the east side of 12th Street.

C. 13th Street between North Avenue and School Avenue, including the roadway, municipal sidewalk,
   public right of way, and all privately owned property adjacent to the west side of 13th Street.

For purposes of the policy, the word “loitering” is defined as:

        “To congregate, wander, stroll, stand, play, delay, linger aimlessly, or idle about within a
        school neighborhood area, either on foot or in or on any conveyance being driven or parked
        therein, without a lawful purpose for being present, unless accompanied by a parent, guardian,
        or other adult person having care, custody or control of the student. Loitering does not include
        direct movement through a school neighborhood area when traveling to and from school.

Students who loiter within a designated primary school neighborhood area during the designated time
periods set forth above, are subject to school disciplinary action as described below.

Students who engage in acts of misconduct within a designated primary or secondary school
neighborhood area during the time period thirty minutes prior to the commencement of academic
classes, throughout the student day, to include the designated student lunch period; and fifteen
minutes after the end of the last academic class period of each day, and who are referred to school
authorities as a consequence, are subject to school discipline action as described below. Acts of
misconduct include but are not limited to:

   1. Vandalism.
   2. Littering.
   3. Disorderly Conduct.
   4. Underage smoking.
   5. Acts which are intended to threaten or intimidate citizens within the community or which have
      this effect.
   6. Any act which is violative of or subject to penalty under the Wisconsin Statutes or local

Students may be referred to school authorities as the result of misconduct within a designated primary
or secondary school neighborhood area through being returned to the school campus by law
enforcement authorities, receiving a municipal ordinance citation or being convicted thereof, being
charged with or convicted of a crime, or through a specific report of complaint by an eyewitness.

                                                                                         5144.3 (d)

The standard of proof to be applied in determining that a student has engaged in misconduct within a
primary or secondary school neighborhood area will be the same as that applied when suspending a
student from school.

The designated secondary school neighborhood areas are:

Sheboygan North High School

   Secondary School Neighborhood Area:

The area bounded by 8th Street from North Avenue to Mayflower Avenue, 8th Street to 9th Street on
Mayflower Avenue, 9th Street from Mayflower Avenue to Pershing Avenue on the east; Pershing
Avenue from 9th Street to 12th Street on the north; 12th Street from Pershing Avenue to Columbus
Avenue, Columbus Avenue from 12th Street to 13th Street, 13th Street from Columbus Avenue to
Grand Avenue, Grand Avenue from 13th Street to 10th Street, 10th Street from Grand Avenue to
School Avenue, School Avenue from 10th Street to 12th Street, 12th Street from School Avenue to
North Avenue on the west; and North Avenue from 12th Street to 8th Street on the south; as well as
Mayflower Avenue from 13th Street to Lakeshore Road, Lakeshore Road from Mayflower Avenue to
School Avenue, School Avenue from Lakeshore Road to 13th Street and 13th Street from School
Avenue to Mayflower Avenue.

Sheboygan South High School

   Secondary School Neighborhood Area:

The area bounded by 11th Street on the east, Humboldt Avenue on the north, Hickory Street on the
west and Parkwood Boulevard on the south.

Riverview School

   Secondary School Neighborhood Area:

The area bounded by 9th Street on the west, the Sheboygan River on the south and east and
Pennsylvania Avenue on the north.

Farnsworth Middle School

   Secondary School Neighborhood Area:

The following alleys and all privately owned property adjacent to the alleys:

A. Connecting 9th and 10th Street between Union Avenue and Ashland Avenue.

B. Connecting 11th and 12th Street between Union Avenue and Ashland Avenue.

C. Connecting Union Avenue and Dillingham Avenue, between 10th and 11th Street.

                                                                                             5144.3 (e)

Urban Middle School

   Secondary School Neighborhood Area:

The area bounded by Grand Avenue on the north, 15th Street on the west, Martin Avenue and Los
Angeles Avenue on the south and 10th Street on the east.

The following forms of school discipline, as applicable, may be imposed by the school principal, or
designee, as a consequence of violation of this policy and any implementing school rules:

   1. Detention.

   2. In-school suspension.

   3. Saturday school.

   4. Forfeiture of the open campus privilege, to include the privilege to leave school during the
      student lunch period.

Students who fail to serve or who violate the terms of a school disciplinary action, imposed under the
terms of this policy or an implementing school rule, are subject to suspension from school. Repeated
violation of this policy and/or an implementing school rules is a basis for expulsion from the school of
the Sheboygan Area School District.

Policy Adopted: November 18, 1997                           BOARD OF EDUCATION
WRH:lak                                                     Sheboygan Area School District
                                                            830 Virginia Avenue
                                                            Sheboygan, WI 53081

RULES OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION                                                             5144.4(a)





A teacher's primary responsibility is to maintain an appropriate educational environment for the class
as a whole. Therefore, not withstanding the provisions of this Code, in every circumstance the teacher
should exercise his or her best judgment in deciding whether it is appropriate to remove a student
from class.

The Board believes that the most effective discipline takes place in the classroom at the time the
incident occurs. Each teacher is expected to avail himself/herself of every opportunity to emphasize
student responsibility for respecting constituted authority and the rights of others. This disciplinary
procedure shall be accomplished through a progressive behavior management system.

This code of classroom conduct applies to all students in grades kindergarten through 12.

I. Behavior that Warrants Removal of a Student from Class
   A. Behavior that is dangerous, disruptive, unruly, or interferes with the ability of the teacher to
      teach effectively. This type of behavior includes the following:

          inappropriate physical contact intended or likely to hurt, distract or annoy others, such as
           hitting, biting, pushing, shoving, poking, pinching or grabbing;

          inappropriate verbal conduct intended or likely to upset, distract or annoy others, such as
           name calling, teasing or baiting;

          behavior that may constitute any form of harassment; (see District Policy 5146.1,
           Harassment of Students)

          repeated or extreme inappropriate verbal conduct likely to disrupt the educational
           environment, particularly when others are talking (e.g. lecture by teacher, response by
           other students, presentation by visitor) or during quiet (study) time;

          throwing any object, particularly one likely to cause harm or damage, such as books,
           pencils, scissors, etc;

          inciting other students to act inappropriately or to disobey the teacher or school or class
           rules, including, without limitation, inciting others to walk out;


          destroying the property of the school or another student; or

          loud, obnoxious, or outrageous behavior.

   B. Behavior that violates the behavior rules and expectations as outlined in Student Handbooks
      for individual schools.

   C. Behavior, which interferes with the ability of the teacher to teach effectively. By way of
      example and without limitation, a student may be removed for behavior, which constitutes:

          open defiance of the teacher, manifested in words, gestures or other overt behavior;

          open disrespect of the teacher, manifested in words, gestures, or other overt behavior; or

          other behavior likely or intended to sabotage or undermine the instruction.

   D. Behavior, which is inconsistent with the class decorum and the ability of others to learn. Such
      behavior may include, without limitation, sleeping in class, blatant inattention, or other overt or
      passive refusal or inability to engage in class activities.

   E. Behavior that violates the District’s policies on suspension and expulsion.

II. Definitions

Under this code, any student may be removed from class by a teacher of that class. For the purpose
of this Code, “student” means any student enrolled in the District, exchange student, or student visitor
to the District’s schools.

For the purposes of this code, a “class” is any class, meeting or activity, which students attend, or in
which they participate while in school under the control or direction of the District. This definition of
“class” includes, without limitation, regular classes, special classes, resource room sessions, labs,
library time, counseling groups, assemblies, study halls, lunch, or recess. “Class” also includes
regular scheduled District sponsored extracurricular activities, either during or outside of school hours.
Such activities include, by example and without limitation, District sponsored field trips, after school
clubs, and sporting activities.


A “teacher of that class” means the regularly assigned teacher of the class, or any teacher assigned
to teach, monitor, assist in or oversee the class. A “teacher” is any certified instructor, counselor,
nurse, or administrator in the employment of the District. This definition includes, without limitation,
any assigned substitute teacher, proctor, monitor, or group leader, and educational assistant under
the direction of a teacher. Where there is more than one teacher in a class, any teacher may remove
a student from that class, upon informing the other teacher(s) of his/her intent to do so. It is advisable,
though not absolutely required, that all teachers of a class consent to the removal of the student.

A “building administrator” means a principal of a school, or other individual duly designated by the
building administrator or District Administrator.

III. Procedures for Removing a Student from Class

Except where the behavior is extreme, a teacher should generally warn a student that continued
misbehavior may lead to removal from class. When the teacher determines that removal is
appropriate, the teacher should take one of the following courses of action:

   A. instruct the student to go to the main office for that period of removal. In such case, the
      teacher should send a note with the student and/or call the office;

   B. obtain coverage for the class and escort the student to the main office; or

   C. seek assistance from the main office or other available staff. When assistance arrives, the
      teacher or the other adult should accompany the student to the main office.

When a student is removed from class, the teacher shall send the student to the building principal or
designee and inform him/her of the reason for the student’s removal from class. Documentation of the
incident shall be given to the building principal or designee within 24 hours of the student’s removal
from class.

The principal shall inform the student of the reason(s) for the removal from class and shall allow the
student the opportunity to present his/her version of the situation. The principal shall then determine
the appropriate educational placement for the student who has been removed from a class by a

The parent/guardian of a minor student shall be notified of the student’s removal from class as
outlined below.

IV. Placement Procedures (short and long term removal)

Short term removal is a serious matter, and should not be taken lightly either by the teacher or student.
In most cases, a student shall remain in an alternative placement for at least the duration of the class
or activity from which she or he was removed.

Long term removal is an extremely serious step, which should not be undertaken hastily or for less
than compelling reasons. Long-term removal should not be considered or implemented except after
thorough consultation with teachers, parents, the building principal or designee, and other appropriate
District staff. Long-term removal may result in the placement of the student in an alternative education
program defined by law.


The building principal or designee shall place a student who has been removed from a class by a
teacher in one of the following alternative educational settings:

   A. another class in the school or another appropriate place in the school;

   B. another instructional setting with appropriate adult supervision; or

   C. an alternative education program as defined by law.

An instruction program approved by the school board that utilizes successful alternative or adaptive
school structures and teaching techniques and that is incorporated into existing traditional classrooms
or regularly scheduled curriculum programming.

Note: This list may not include all placement options available at individual schools. After weighing
the interests of the removed student, the other students in the class and the teacher, the principal or
designee may determine that readmission to the class from which the student was initially removed is
the best or only alternative.

When making placement decisions, the building principal or designee shall consider the following

      •the reason the student was removed from class and the severity of the offense;

      the type of placement options available for the student in that particular school and any
       limitations on such placements;

      the student’s individual needs and interests;

      the estimated length of time for the placement (i.e., remainder of the class period versus
       school day);

      whether the student has been removed from a teacher’s class before (repeat offender); and

      the relationship of the placement to any disciplinary action (e.g., if the student’s suspension
       from school is required as a result of the student’s conduct).

The principal or designee may consult with other appropriate school personnel as the principal or
designee deems necessary when making or evaluating placement decisions. All placement decisions
shall be made consistent with established Board policies and in accordance with state and federal
laws and regulations.


V. Parent/Guardian Notification Procedures

The parent/guardian of a minor student shall be notified of a student’s placement in an alternative
educational setting as outlined below.

   A. The building principal or designee shall notify the parent/guardian of a minor student, in writing,
      when a teacher has removed a student from a class. This notification shall include the reasons
      for the student’s removal from class and the placement decision involving the student. The
      notice shall be given as soon as practicable after the student’s removal from a class and
      placement determination.

   B. If the removal from class and change in educational placement involves a student with a
      disability, parent/guardian notification shall be made consistent with state and federal laws and

   C. If the student removed from a class is also subject to disciplinary action for the particular
      classroom conduct (i.e., suspension or expulsion), the student’s parent/guardian shall also be
      notified of the disciplinary action in accordance with legal and policy requirements.

Note: Irrespective of the guidelines above, the building principal or designee will attempt to contact, by
telephone, the parent/guardian regarding a student’s removal from class when it is deemed
appropriate and necessary.

VI. Removal of Students Identified as Disabled under the IDEA

Students identified as requiring special educational services under the IDEA or Section 504, in
general, may be removed from class under the same terms and conditions as non disabled student.
Some students covered under the IDEA should have a behavioral plan, which will address:

   A. whether and to what extent the student should be expected to conform to the behavioral
      requirements applicable to non-disabled students; and

   B. alternative consequences or procedures for addressing behavioral issues.

VII. Dissemination of Code of Classroom Conduct to Parent/Guardians and Students

This policy and rule will be disseminated to all students and families at the beginning of each new
school year. (See Exhibit 5144.4) In addition, this Code shall be discussed with students early in each
new school year.

Rule Adopted: May 11, 1999                                   BOARD OF EDUCATION
WRH:lak                                                      Sheboygan Area School District
                                                             830 Virginia Avenue
                                                             Sheboygan WI 53081

Department of Student and Instructional Services
Sheboygan Area School District                                                                      Exhibit 5144.4

                                         Code of Classroom Conduct

Name of School ________________________

Student’s Name ________________________

Dear Parent/Guardian:

Students, parent(s)/guardian(s), teachers, counselors, administrators and our support staff all have
important roles to play in our schools. With so many people working together, student behavior
problems can occur from time to time. The Code of Classroom Conduct was established to assure
that effective learning takes place in our schools. In addition, the Code of Classroom Conduct is
outlined in the Rights and Responsibilities Handbook for Students. It is extremely important that
both you and your child take time and read Policy and Rule 5144.4, Code of Classroom Conduct.

Since lifelong success depends in part on self-discipline it is critical that we provide every student an
opportunity to learn in a positive, nurturing classroom environment. Your child deserves the most
positive educational climate possible for his/her growth.

The Code of Classroom conduct allows teachers to remove students from class for specific
behaviors outlined in the Code. Removal from class could also result in a student’s alternative
educational placement in school or an out-of-school suspension.

Your signature below indicates that you have received the Code of Classroom Conduct. We are
asking that you sign the bottom portion of this letter and return it to school within five school days.

If you have any questions regarding this letter, please do not hesitate to contact your child’s school
                                               Code of Classroom Conduct
                                       (Return to school within five school days)

My signature below confirms that I have received the Sheboygan Area School District’s Code of
Classroom Conduct.

                                       /                                                           /
Parent/Guardian Signature              Date                 Student Signature                      Date

Parent/Guardian Signature              Date

Exhibit Adopted: May 11, 1999                                        BOARD OF EDUCATION
WRH:lak                                                              Sheboygan Area School District
                                                                     830 Virginia Avenue
                                                                     Sheboygan, Wisconsin 53081

POLICIES OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION                                                              6154





Definition. Homework is a learning activity to be conducted by students outside of the regular
classroom setting and scheduled under guidelines provided by teachers. It is an integral part of the
instructional process and important to the total educational development of students. It should be a
positive, meaningful learning experience.

Purpose. Through the grades homework should be designed to reinforce classroom learning, to
provide appropriate applications of classroom learning, to develop study and work habits, to use
family and community resources for learning, to promote problem-solving and creativity, to develop
independent learning skills, and to promote an interest in life-long learning.

Schedule. Appropriate purposeful homework should be scheduled through the grades under the
following guidelines to develop student responsibility and study skills through the years.

           K-1      Periodic activities
           2-3      Average of 10-20 minutes per school day
           4-5      Average of 20-40 minutes per school day
           6-7      Average of 40-60 minutes per school day
           8-9      Average of 60-90 minutes per school day
          10-12     Average of 90-150 minutes per school day

Within these guidelines, it is recognized that the actual length and nature of homework will vary with
the ability of the student, the requirements of various subjects, and the pattern of instructional

Implementation. The administration and staff shall develop district and school guidelines for
homework, provide parents with information and suggestions on effective homework, and develop
student homework and study skills.

Policy Adopted: November 17, 1964                          BOARD OF EDUCATION
Policy Revised: May 17, 1988                               Sheboygan Area School District
GPL: ams                                                   830 Virginia Avenue
                                                           Sheboygan, WI 53081

RULES OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION                                                                   6154 (a)





1. Definitions.
   Homework is any assignment or learning activity for students to do outside of the regular class
   under guidelines and directions provided by teachers. It is related to classroom instruction and is
   an integral part of the learning process. It may include completion or continuation of in-class
   assignments or activities. It provides practice, application, and extension of, and preparation for,

2. Purposes.
   Through the grades homework should be designed to reinforce classroom learning, to provide
   useful applications of classroom learning, to review and prepare for classroom instruction, to
   develop good study and work habits, to use family and community resources for learning, to
   promote problem-solving and creativity, to develop independent learning skills, to enrich and
   extend learning experiences, to strengthen home-school cooperation to support student learning,
   and to promote an interest in life-long learning.

3. Types of Homework.
   Teachers should use a variety of types of homework to suit student needs and learning situations,
   to maintain interest in learning, and to develop a pattern of independent study.

   a. Independent Practice. Students do added practice to further develop or master skills and
      knowledge newly introduced in the classroom. To be effective, independent practice
      homework should be preceded by in-class instruction and guided practice, requires clear
      directions, suits students' ability and success levels, and should be checked promptly. For
      students who have already achieved mastery, application or extension homework should be
      assigned instead to avoid needless repetition.

   b. Application. Students use skills and knowledge from the classroom in new situations or to
      solve problems new to them. To be effective, application homework should be preceded by
      similar in-school tasks, requires clear task or problem statements, applies recent learning
      directly and personally, includes varied levels of difficulty to suit student ability, and should be
      evaluated carefully and promptly.

   c. Preparation. Students study new content, review content, or complete assignments on their
      own in preparation for future classroom activities by using textbooks, study guides, workbooks,
      other readings or media, reference materials, library resources, or activities organizing or
      collecting information. To be effective, preparation homework should have a clear purpose,
      needs clear directions, suits students' ability levels, and should be used promptly as scheduled
      in classroom activities and evaluation.

                                                                                                  6154 (b)

   d. Extension. Students engaged in projects, inquiry, or independent learning activities that take
      them beyond work done in class with collections, original products, research, work experience,
      community service, etc. To be effective and support and student involvement in the planning,
      implementation, and evaluation.

4. Scheduling guidelines. The following are guidelines for introducing and developing homework
   patterns through the grades.

     Grades         Average Homework per School Day
      K-1              Periodic activities

       2-3              10 to 20 minutes

       4-5              20 to 40 minutes

       6-7              40 to 60 minutes

       8-9              60 to 90 minutes

      10-12             90 to 150 minutes

   It should be recognized that time required to complete homework varies with student ability and
   pace. Also, in grades eight through twelve homework requirements will vary with the type and
   number of courses that students elect.

   Elementary school homework should include independent practice, application, and extension
   assignments. Preparation assignments should be phased in middle school and increased in high
   school. At all levels, the type of homework used should be varied to suit students and content and
   to keep students interested.

   In addition to assigned homework, daily out-of-school academic enrichment activities should be
   encouraged. Enrichment activities may be done to fill in the homework time when homework is
   completed or is not scheduled.

5. Enrichment Activities. Students take part in out-of-school learning activities in which they are
   interested at home, in the community, or in school co-curricula’s, such as reading with the family,
   word games, clubs or organizations, hobbies, and student activities. Enrichment is student and
   family selected and is not assigned homework, but it provides personal use and enjoyment of what
   is learned in school and motivates students to learn more.

   Academic enrichment activities should be encouraged through the grades, beginning with family
   reading, word, games, puzzles, and the like in kindergarten. School suggestions for parents,
   incentive programs, cooperation with community organizations, co-curricular activities, and
   recognition should develop enrichment along with homework.

6. Cautions. To make homework a productive experience, it should not be associated with
   punishment. It should avoid busy work and unnecessary repetition. It should be coordinated
   among teachers and limited in length so it does not become a burden.

                                                                                             6154 (c)
7. Role of the Principal:

   a. Establish with faculty school wide guidelines and procedures for homework under this rule.

   b. Inform parents of school homework guidelines and give them suggestions for family support of

   c. Report to faculty parent and student feedback on homework and academic enrichment

   d. Work with faculty to prevent and/or deal with problems in student homework loads and

8. Role of the Teacher:

   a. Inform students and parents of expectations and suggestions for homework.

   b. Meaningfully and clearly relate homework to the classroom instruction.

   c. Provide clear, specific directions for homework and check student understanding of them.

   d. Provide appropriate classroom instruction and guided practice for independent practice and
      application homework.

   e. Provide instruction, practice, and feedback with study techniques required for preparation and
      extension homework.

   f.   Check, acknowledge, or use all homework and provide prompt feedback to students.

   g. Schedule longer-term homework with sufficient advance notice and time to complete tasks.

   h. Coordinate homework schedules with other faculty and with other school, community, and
      family activity.

   i.   Match homework to student abilities and interest as much as possible.

   j.   Encourage academic enrichment activities out of school in addition to homework or in place of
        homework when it is completed or unnecessary.

   k. Use a variety of homework types and activities to build student motivation.

   l.   Recognize that situations sometimes prevent completion of homework, but contact parents
        about repeated neglect of homework.

   m. Consider formal and informal student feedback on homework experiences.

                                                                                     6154 (d)

9. Recommendations for Parents. Parents should be informed of guidelines and expectations for
   homework. They should be informing if student homework does not meet standards or is not
   completed. They should be provided information on effective homework study techniques and

   a. Provide a place for study that has favorable conditions and minimal possibility of distraction or

   b. Help the student set aside time for homework every day and to use that time consistently for
      homework or learning enrichment.

   c. Help student schedule long-term assignments, projects, or test preparation with some work
      each day or week listed on a calendar.

   d. Encourage the student to do a good job and complete each assignment.

   e. Express and show interest in homework by knowing what the student is doing and praising
      good work and good study habits. Focus comment and praise on the task and what is learned.

   f.   Encourage independent work and assist only as necessary

   g. Remind the student to seek and schedule make-up work after an absence from school.

   h. If there is a problem with homework, contact the teacher, counselor, or principal by telephone
      of with written note.

   i.   Schedule enjoyable learning enrichment activities as well as homework. Enrichment activities
        include reading together, word games, and story telling for younger children and reading for
        pleasure, family journals, hobbies, club memberships, and co-curricular activities for older

   j.   Be a model for learning with your own personal development and enrichment schedule, which
        you discuss and share with your children.

   k. Provide a family schedule in which homework, enrichment, recreation, special activities, and
      leisure all have an important place.

10. Guidance for Students. Students should be provided instruction and guidance for homework by
    teachers to develop the following homework and study techniques through the years.

   a. Know homework expectations and record assignments and due dates in a notebook.

   b. Pay attention to homework directions and ask for explanations if assignments are not clear.

   c. Set your own learning goals for each assignment.

   d. Schedule and use a certain time for homework each day.

                                                                                       6154 (e)

   e. Plan completion of long-term assignments in steps by scheduling parts on a calendar.

   f.   Do self-evaluations on learning goals and schedules for each assignment.

   g. Develop a note-taking system for important learning.

   h. Review important learning from homework and classes regularly.

   i.   Have a suitable place for study with study materials and resources handy.

   j.   If absent or behind schedules, discuss and plan make-up work with the teacher.

   k. Ask parents and teachers for clarification and assistance with homework when it is needed.

   l.   Keep yourself responsible for reaching learning goals.

                                                           BOARD OF EDUCATION
Rule adopted: May 17, 1998                                 Sheboygan Area School District
GPL:ams                                                    830 Virginia Avenue
                                                           Sheboygan, Wisconsin 53081


                 Monthly Instructional Mentor Checklist

   Discuss:

                 AODA/SAP (pg. 99-100)

                 PACE Student Nomination Form (pg. 101-102)

                 Special education referral terminology/procedures (pg. 103-107)

                 Staff development

                 Reading/Language Arts Folder (pg. 116-119)

                 Grade Advancement for Kindergarten through 8th Grade (pg. 120)

          Prepare for parent/teacher conferences (pg. 86-91)

          Mentee observes mentor and other colleagues (pg. 178-206)

          Review items from August list that are appropriate

          Meeting with principal to discuss mentor program

          Review Points to Ponder (pg. 176-177)

          Review “The First Days of School” and share highlights with your mentor and other

                           PARENT-TEACHER CONFERENCES

As parent-teacher conferences approach, these suggestions may be helpful to you.

Before Conferences
1. Stagger the schedule so that more difficult conferences don’t come one right after the other
2. Allow yourself break time in your conference schedule.
3. Consider having materials available to occupy younger siblings who may attend the conferences.
   This will eliminate interruptions at the conference.
4. Invite additional staff, as needed, counselors, therapists, principals, etc.
5. For each student, prepare a folder of his report card, samples of his work, and any materials you
   intend to share with the parents.
6. Be prepared to jot down any notes on what you may need to follow up on after conferences.
7. Have students prepare the displays on tables and counters for parents to review.

At Conference Time
1. Have chairs available for parents waiting their turn. If it is in the hallway, have an interesting
    display of children’s work to keep parents interested and at ease.
2. Greet the parent professionally. Welcome them to the room. Provide adult-sized chairs. Be careful
    of seating at a table. Don’t sit on one side, with the table as a barrier. It’s more comfortable to sit
    next to, or at the end of the table.
3. Keep in mind that some parents are not comfortable in a school setting. Use your best listening
    skills to what the parents are telling. Make their visit to school seem worthwhile to them.
4. At the start of the conference, go over your agenda to provide structure and save time.
5. At some point in the conference, allow parents to address their own concerns. Make a record of
    these on your sheet.
6. Develop an attitude of mutual cooperation.
7. Be sure to list the student’s strengths and accomplishments.
8. When addressing a child’s problems, avoid being totally devastating. Offer suggestive ways the
    parents could assist. Be very careful to include the student if he attends, and not talk negatively
    while the child plays off to the side.
9. Keep to your schedule. If a conference appears to need more time for discussion, arrange an
    additional meeting time.
10. Walk parents to your door, but not down the hall, etc. End the conference at the door. Thank the
    parents for coming, for their concern and input.
11. Dress comfortably - but professionally.
12. Sample questions:
    a. What does your child like best about school?
    b. What does your child do after school? (What are his/her interests?)
    c. Does your child have time and space set aside for homework?
    d. How is your child’s health?
    e. Are there any problems that may affect your child’s learning?
    f. What type of discipline works well at home?

Following Conferences
1. Save your notes for future references.
2. Follow up immediately on parents’ requests.
3. Use suggestions that were brought up at conference.
4. Start a new information, student-work folder for the next conference.
5. Report any concerns or findings to additional personnel, principals, school counselors, and school
   social workers.
6. Contact parents who did not attend. Attempt to arrange a conference - offer to come to their home
   (if your school approves), or to hold a phone conference.

                    Parent Communication Recommendations

1. Send a “before school starts” greeting to all parents and incoming students.

2. Communicate your expectations to parents.
    Discipline procedures
    Homework
    Other procedures you have set up for your classroom. (classroom schedule, how
     to reach you, classroom volunteers, how you will communicate during the school

3. Communicate to parents positive student behavior on a regular basis.

4. Consider a classroom newsletter, a journal that the student writes at the end of the
   week to share information that happened in class, or some other method to share
   classroom learning and events.
5. Always show your concern for the child whenever you interact with parents.

6. Keep a record of your parent contacts.

                     GET READY FOR CONFERENCES

Share information about your child with the teacher. Include outside interests and
hobbies, any medical or health concerns, and things that are happening at home that
may affect work at school.

School conferences are a great way for parents and teachers to learn more about children.
The key to a successful conference is two-way communication. Here are some
suggestions to prepare for conferences:

 Ask what he or she would like you to talk about with the teacher?
 Ask what he or she thinks the teacher will say?

 How are my child’s work habits? Does he/she use time well?
 Does my child read at the level you would expect for this grade?
 Is my child able to do the math you would expect for this grade?
   What are your expectations for homework? Has my child missed any assignments?
   Does my child get along well with others?
   What can I do at home to help my child be more successful at school?
   Ask the teacher to explain anything you don’t understand.

                           AFTER THE CONFERENCE
Talk with your child. Emphasize the positive things the teacher discussed. Include your
child’s ideas when talking about suggestions for improvement.

If you’ve followed the preceding steps, routine parent conferences will be just that - routine. The
meetings will be easy and pleasant for both you and the parent.

Remember: Parents should not receive any negative surprises during parent conference time
          or on report cards. Major behavioral and academic problems should have been
          brought to their attention the moment they occurred.

Routine Parent-Conference Time Should Be Used to:
        Update parents on their child’s progress in school.
        Discuss the child’s strengths.
        Discuss minor behavioral problems.
        Offer parents specific suggestions to improve weak academic areas.
        Explain your grading procedure.
        Explain ambiguous categories on report cards such as, “Work Habits,” “Social Skills,”
         “Initiates Projects.”
        Allow parents to air any concerns or problems they have regarding their child.
        Inform parents of any upcoming projects or new curriculum you are planning to introduce.

                                                                Contact Parents at First Sign of Problem

   Do’s for Routine Parent Conferences
        Arrive at the conference site before the parent.
        Greet the parent warmly.
        Usher the parent to the seat you’ve selected.
        Look the parent in the eyes when speaking.
        Address the parent often by name.
        Mention some commendable trait about the child early in the conference.
        Hand the parent the child’s work to look over. Refer to points, which should be noted.
        End the conference on time, and schedule another one if needed.
        Make detailed notes of what was discussed.

   Don’ts for Routine Parent Conferences
    Don’t surprise parents with new problems. Parents should be notified the moment a problem
        Don’t make small talk. Use every moment of the parent’s time to discuss the student’s
        Don’t do all the talking. You do want to maintain control of the conference, but you should
         allow the parent to discuss his or her concerns and ideas. You may learn an important piece
         of information that can be useful in helping the child.

   The following guidelines will further enhance your ability to communicate assertively.

            Your son is a leader in the class.
            Your daughter is an excellent math student.
            She always looks neat and well-dressed.
            He’s a great basketball player.
            In the past two weeks, your daughter has been late to school six times.
            Your son does not do his work. He spends too much time talking to a neighbor.
            She comes to school unprepared every day - no pencils, paper, books, or homework.
            He had a fight in the cafeteria on Monday and a fight in the yard on Wednesday.
            Other parents have tried . . .

   * Refer to Lee Canter’s Assertive Discipline for Parents.

       I’m really sorry you had to come to school tonight. (Why should a teacher apologize when
       feeling concern over an important issue about the child?)
       There’s a small problem with Johnny. (In truth, the problem may be very serious, one that
       is potentially harmful to another child and disruptive to the class.)
       I’m having such a hard time. I really don’t know what to do with him. (Of course you know
       what is needed. You need the cooperation of the parent in disciplining his or her child.
       Remember, you can’t do it alone.)
       I don’t know what will happen to him. (When in reality you do know what will happen. The
       child may be suspended or fail the subject.)

   Don’t hold a conference if you are not prepared for it. If a parent enters the class
   during the day for an unscheduled visit, greet him or her pleasantly, but suggest
   another time for a conference. Explain that you want to give him or her your full
   attention and can only do so when the class is not present.

Source: Lee Canter’s Parent Conference Book by Lee Canter, Santa Monica, CA: Canter and
        Associates, 1984.

                                      ACTIVE LISTENING
Active listening is when you understand how the person talking to you feels about a situation and your
response to that person makes him feel that you really do under stand. Concentrating first on the feelings
that a person has concerning a particular experience does not mean we do not need data or a deeper
understanding of dynamics of behavior. It merely means that for a person to feel understood the listener
must first come through with a response (verbal or nonverbal) that indicates an awareness of the feeling.
To begin with questions or fact-finding is to get the “cart before the horse.” The facts of a situation are
seldom if ever as important as we feel about the situation.

Active Listening:
Level 1:       The listener’s expressions are clearly unrelated to what the first person is feeling at the
               moment. The listener tends to respond to the content of the discussion and either does
               not attend to the feelings being expressed or avoids them.
Level 2:       While the listener does respond to the expressed feelings of the second person, he does
               so in a very surface or minimal way. The second person is likely to respond, “No, that’s
               not quite what I was feeling.”
Level 3:       The verbal or behavioral expressions of the listener are essentially interchangeable with
               the talker, in that they express essentially the same effect and meaning. The second
               person (client, child, or parent) responds: “Right, that’s how I feel!”
Level 4:       The responses of the listener add noticeably to the expressions of the second person in
               such a way that he continues to explore his feelings at a deeper level.
Level 5:       The listener responds to the second person in such a way as to add significantly to the
               feelings and meaning the second person is trying to express. Not only does the second
               person feel that you are with him, he feels you deeply understand both his feelings and

Tips for Active Listening:
       1. Face your speaker.
       2. Use nonverbal encouragement.
       3. Don’t agree or disagree.
       4. Remember what the subject is.
       5. Don’t be afraid of moments of silence.
       6. Don’t talk about yourself.
       7. Summarize what you hear.
       8. Don’t be afraid to interrupt.
       9. Try to understand.
       10. Don’t ask “why” questions.
       11. Don’t offer solutions or give advice.

Source:        Green, Brad; “Roadblocks to Communication” Intra-Staff Communication Training,
               Teachers’ Manual. (I.C.T. Corp., 1971).

Good Listening Questions:
     1. “I hear you saying that . . .”
     2. “What happened then?”
     3. “What kinds of things do you mean?”
     4. “Can you expand on that?”
     5. “Wait, I don’t understand?”
     6. “Yeah, it sounds like . . .”
     7. “Let’s get back to what you were saying about . . .”
     8. “I sense you feel pretty strongly about that.”
     9. “Is that important to you?”
     10. “I’m not sure if I am following you.”

Bad Listening Questions:
      1. “Why do you feel that way?”
      2. “What can you do to improve your situation?”
      3. “Have you tried . . . ?”
      4. “Are you sure you really think that way?”
      5. “Don’t you want to be different?”
      6. “Do you want to know what I think?”
      7. “Can you figure out why you got that way?”
      8. “What are you going to do about it now?”
      9. “What’s your problem?”

Clarifying Responses:
Paraphrasing:                      Restating the other person’s message in similar but fewer words.
                                   Summarizing the meaning or intent of the message without
                                   judgment or evaluation of the content.

Advancing examples:                Stating a specific example of a general statement made by the
                                   other person (based on your knowledge of the person and the

Requesting further information:    Asking a question. If you can’t paraphrase or state an example,
                                   you need more information.

                             Typical Beginnings of Clarifying Responses:
                                        “Are you saying . . . ?”
                                      “Does that include . . . ?”
                                  “Would this be an example . . . ?”
                                       “I hear you say that . . . ”
                                         “You think that . . . ”
                                      “It seems you to that . . . ”


                                 ROADBLOCKS TO LISTENING
There are nine roadblocks to effective listening and communication. Some you use consistently: others
you may use with certain people or in particular situations; others you don’t use at all. Everyone uses
listening blocks sometimes, but it is helpful to be aware of your personal blocks and to consider their
impact on effective communication.

Comparing makes it hard to listen because you are always trying to assess who is smarter, funnier,
more competent - you or the other. Some people focus on who’s suffered more, who has bigger
problems. While someone’s talking you think to yourself: “Could I do that well? . . .” “I’ve had it
worse, he doesn’t know what bad is . . .” “She’s so much more together than me.” You can’t let much
in because you’re too busy worrying about how you measure up.

You don’t have much time to listen when you’re rehearsing what to say. Your attention is on the
preparation and crafting of your next comment. You look interested, but your mind is somewhere else
as it remembers a story to tell or thinks of a point to make.

Mind Reading
The mind reader is busy trying to figure out what the other person is really thinking and feeling: “She
says . . . but I’ll bet she’s really thinking . . .” The mind reader is interpreting and analyzing, and
typically pays less attention to words than to interactions and subtle cues, in an effort to see through to
the “truth.”

Negative labels or judgments have enormous power. If you prejudge someone as incompetent,
uncaring, or stupid, you don’t have to pay much attention to what they say. You’ve already written
them off. A basic rule of listening is that judgments should only be made after you have heard and
evaluated the content of the message, and then the judgment should be considered tentative and subject
to modification.

When you identify, you take everything a person tells you and refer it back to your own experience. A
parent waits to tell you about their child’s tantrums, but that reminds you of the time little Stephanie
lay on the floor and screamed for an hour. You launch into your story before the parent can finish.
Everything you hear reminds you of something you’ve felt or done. There’s no time to listen and
empathize or to get to know the other person because you’re so tied into your own experiences.

You are always ready with help and suggestions. You don’t have to hear more than a few sentences
before you start searching for the right advice. However, while you are thinking up solutions, you
don’t hear the feelings; and you diminish others’ personal power to solve their own problem. Advice is
best given after you have fully heard another, and generally when you are asked.

When you divert, you typically change the subject, district, or humor the other person. You tend to
divert when you get bored or uncomfortable with a conversation. You may try to joke with the other
person to help avoid the discomfort. Or you may completely change the subject to distract attention
from uncomfortable issues. “Let’s not talk about . . .” “Did you hear about . . .” “I’ve got a funny story
about . . .” All these responses serve to divert attention from listening to the concerns of another.

Being Right
Being right means you have the correct answer and you’ll go to great lengths not to be wrong. Your
convictions are unshakable. You often warn, order, admonish, or command others to adhere to your
beliefs; or you may find that you preach or moralize - anything to try to let the other see how right you
are. “Do this or else; You should . . .; You need to . . .; You had better. .” This tactic produces
defensiveness and resistance.

“Right . . . right . . . I know . . . yes . . . really . . . it’ll be OK . . .” You want to be nice and you want
people to like you, so you agree with everything. You may be half listening, but you’re not really
involved. You aren’t tuned in to what’s being said.


Which of these blocks apply to you? In this space list the roadblocks that seem typical of the ways you
avoid listening to parents.





    From:     “Exceptional Training for Caregivers,” Barb Wolfe, Portage Project and The Greater
    Minneapolis Day Care Association, 1987.

Generally, you will rarely have problems with parents who share your perception that their child is
doing fine. It is when discrepancies arise in the parents’ and teachers’ perceptions, or even when both
agree that the child is having problems that difficulties may tend to arise. The UNM Institute for Parent
Involvement suggests “Tips for Dealing with Aggression,” (1979), should you ever encounter an angry,
hostile, or verbally aggressive parent. Their “tips” are listed verbatim and require little elaboration:

“Write down what they say.”
“When they slow down, ask them what else is bothering them.”
“Exhaust their list of complaints.”
“Ask them to clarify any specific complaints that are too general.”
“Show them the list and ask if it is complete.”
“Ask them for suggestions for solving any of the problems that they’ve listed.”
“Write down the suggestions.”
“As much as possible mirror their body posture during this process.”
“As they speak louder, you speak softer.”

“Defend or become defensive..”
“Promise things you can’t produce.”
“Own problems that belong to others.”
“Raise your voice.”
“Belittle or minimize the problem.”

Source: Bluestein, Jane. The Beginning Teacher’s Resource Handbook. Albuquerque, NM: I.S.S.
        Publications, 1982.

When speaking with a difficult parent, it is easy to become flustered and lose your train of thought.
Use any of these phrases to assert your authority.
    I have a right to your help.                            I need your support.
    I cannot do this job alone.                             I understand, but . . .
    It is in your child’s best interest that we work together to solve this problem.
    You are the most important person in your child’s life.
    I need you to take stronger disciplinary action at home.
    If this problem isn’t solved, it could lead to greater problems later on.
    I will be involved with your child for 10 months of his life. You will be in the picture a lot
    Your child is your responsibility 24 hours a day.
TIP: When talking to parents: Stay calm, speak slowly, keep it short, and don’t
     become defensive or angry.

With the increase in minority students enrolled in school, you may find that you need to communicate
with parents with limited English skills. This is unfamiliar territory for most of us. Here are some tips
to make it easier.

Your students’ parents may speak sufficient English to discuss a behavior or school problem. If you
don’t know if they speak English, check it out. We have two bilingual interpreters, Hmong and
Hispanic, who know the individuals in the respective communities well.

Houa Yang is our Hmong bilingual translator (803-7770) and Adriana Uribe is our Hispanic bilingual
translator (459-3698). Both are located in the Department of Student and Instructional Services, third
floor at Central. They both are tremendous resources for translation and knowledge of individual
families and cultural issues. They work with the school social workers and psychologists and
frequently translate special education terminology and concepts. They understand confidentiality.

It is important to use an adult translator when discussing a student’s academic or behavior problems
with a parent. Use a school system translator as much as possible, not a family member. Sometimes
parents will have someone they trust to use as a translator. This often works well if the person is not a
brother or sister of the student in question.

If you have a bilingual educational assistant, you may want to use her for messages or minor academic
or behavior problems. When the issue of concern involves family issues, confidentiality or special
education, please consider using Houa or Adriana. Remember, your educational assistant must
continue to work with the student in your classroom. Respect your student’s right to privacy when
discussing a sensitive issue with parents. Allow your non-English proficient parents and students the
same courtesy and confidentiality you would your English-speaking students.

Attached is a set of guidelines for using a foreign language translator, which was adopted by the
Sheboygan Area School District Minority Student Committee several years ago. The guidelines were
prepared by the Madison Metropolitan School District.

Once you take the plunge of talking with your limited English-proficient parents and using our
bilingual interpreters, you will find these parents helpful and problems will be resolved. Good luck!


What is a Translator?     A translator is one who speaks two languages and is able to convey the
                          meaning of a conversation or dialogue from one language to the other. The
                          following guidelines are meant to serve as just that—guidelines. They are
                          intended to provide a framework for you in your work.

1. Meet with the translator to assure that you and he/she are aware of what is to be discussed.
2. Many of the terms used in English for special education or technical information simply DO NOT
   exist in other languages.
3. Discuss the school’s concerns or what you want to accomplish during the interview or meeting.
   Come to an agreement on what words will be used to communicate the concepts. This will prevent
   you and the translator from having to “invent” a word on the spot.
4. Make sure that the translator has had time to ask questions BEFORE any and all meetings.
5. Discuss the following strategies with the translator:
   a. Where will the translator sit? It is best to have him/her next to the person who is doing most of
       the talking.
   b. Have all people who speak look directly at the parent or guardian and NOT at the translator.
       This provides validation of the parent/guardian’s position and importance in this meeting.
   c. Speak in regular volume and pace, allowing the translator time to translate. Usually one to three
       regular length sentences is the maximum amount.
   d. It is necessary to remember that the school personnel are dealing with a very special vocabulary
       (when discussing special education).
6. Be culturally sensitive. Remember that translators are usually from the cultural groups in our
   community and that these groups are very tight-knit. Therefore, there may be certain pressures
   placed upon the translator, such as:
   a. Translators may be seen as employees of the “government” and therefore able to help with or
       do almost anything.
   b. It can be embarrassing for a translator from the same cultural group to relay certain information
       about a child to the parents or guardians (i.e., that the child is retarded or not able to do the
       work other students can do).
   c. Most, if not all, special education programs do not exist in many cultures (i.e., the Hmong,
       Laotian or Cambodian). Therefore, the terminology we use also does not exist. Translation is at
       best difficult to do and has not been codified in any way.
   d. Strong beliefs about special problems may exist in different cultures. For example, a physical
       impairment may be seen as intellectual impairment. While information is clearly conveyed to
       parents, they may not be able to accept this or become angry with them for their beliefs. It may
       take a long time for individuals to become acculturated, if they ever do.

     (Our thanks for Madison Metropolitan School District/LEP Programs for these guidelines.)

                                Sheboygan Area
                                 School District

                               Student Assistance

AOD/SAP District Coordinator      January 2003
     Maureen McAvoy

What is the Student                    There are several ways students        What Happens as A Result of
Assistance Program?                    may be referred to the Student         a Referral to the Student
                                       Assistance Program                     Assistance Program?
Sometimes students have
personal concerns that interfere       Self - Students can seek assistance    Upon receiving a referral to the
with their ability to do well in       from their school counselor or SAP     SAP, the building coordinator will
school (for example, alcohol or        Building Coordinator.                  gather behavioral information
drug use of someone close to                                                  and determine the appropriate
them, divorce, low self-esteem, or     Family - Often parents have            action to be taken. This could
death of a loved one). Often it is     concerns about their children or       include:
very difficult to leave these          other family members. Parents can
feelings at the classroom door,        refer their children to the SAP by     1. No immediate action.
and they can negatively affect         contacting the Building Coordinator.   2. One to one meeting with a
students' academic achievement.                                                  counselor or other resource
                                       Peer - Students who are concerned         person.
The Student Assistance Program         about a friend are encouraged to       3. Participation in an in-school
(SAP) is a collaborative process,      discuss this with their school            concerned persons, insight, or
provided within the Sheboygan          counselor or SAP Building                 other issue -focused group.
Area School District, to provide       Coordinator.                           4. Referral for outside evaluation
students the opportunity to                                                      or treatment.
                                       Community - Community agencies
address these concerns. Building                                              5. Referral to community
                                       may be in a position to have
SAP Coordinators will explain the                                                services.
                                       concerns about students, and may
Student Assistance Program to                                                 6. Parent contact.
                                       make referrals to the SAP Building
students, parents and staff within
the buildings they serve. Parents                                             For more information, contact your
must make a request, in writing,                                              school office for the name of the
                                       School staff - Staff members may       SAP Building Coordinator.
to the building principal if they do   have concerns about students at
not wish their children to             school. Referrals to the school
participate in the SAP.                counselor or SAP Building
                                       Coordinator may be appropriate.

     AREAS OF                               CREATIVE FUNCTIONING                                      parental status, sexual orientation, or physical, mental,
                                                                                                      emotional, or learning disability or handicap in its
                                            Creativity cuts across all areas of
POTENTIAL GIFTEDNESS                        giftedness and is exhibited in oral,
                                                                                                      educational programs or activities. Federal law prohibits
                                                                                                      discrimination in employment on the basis of age, race,
                                                                                                      color, national origin, sex, or handicap.
                                            written, and nonverbal ways. Creative
                                            students demonstrate flexible and
Children who show early and rapid
                                            elaborate thinking. They possess
development of language ability;
                                            strong visualization and imagination
advanced vocabulary; strong powers
                                            abilities, and resist conformity. They
of reasoning, analysis, or synthesis;
                                            often identify problems and invent
and advanced ability in critical
                                            solutions; they seek and offer
thinking and problem solving are
                                            alternatives to routine thinking; they
candidates for identification as
                                            ask questions that are advanced and
intellectually gifted. These children
                                            may be controversial.
usually retain information with ease,
have wide interests, which they             ARTISTIC FUNCTIONING
pursue     tenaciously,   and     show      Students in this category show high
potential for unusual learning capacity     potential significant contributions to
in most academic areas.                     the visual and performing arts,
                                            including acting, painting, sculpting,
                                            singing, dancing, playing a musical
Students     may     demonstrate       a
                                            instrument, and composing.
“consuming” desire for knowledge in
a specific area and achieve goals           LEADERSHIP
several grade levels above other            Students show unusual ability to
students. This student tends to read        relate to and motivate others. They are
extensively in the special area, apply      self-assured and display an interest in
knowledge with little assistance, and       and understanding of other people.
give extended attention to this interest.   Often they see the “whole issue” and
The academic areas may include, but         as problem-solvers are willing to take
are not limited to, mathematics,            risks. They are good organizers.
reading, and writing.
                                            THE SHEBOYGAN AREA SCHOOL DISTRICT does not
                                            discriminate against pupils on the basis of sex, race,
                                            national origin, ancestry, creed, pregnancy, marital or


 rogram for
 cademic and


Name of Student _____________________________________               Grade _________________

School ___________________________________ Date of Birth _____ / ______ / _________
                                                         Month     Day      Year
Name of Nominator ____________________________ Date ____________________________

Relationship to Nominee (parent, teacher, peer, etc.) __________________________________

If not a staff member, please provide the following:

Phone __________________________________ E-Mail ________________________________

GENERAL DEFINITION: Gifted students are those who give evidence of high performance
capabilities in one or more of the following areas: intellect, specific academic areas, creativity,
art, music, or leadership. (See descriptions of potential areas of giftedness on reverse.) These
students may need adjustments in the rate or depth of instruction in order to maximize their

Give any evidence that you believe shows this student is gifted. A screening committee will
review this nomination and other information to determine how best to meet the student’s

Specify and describe below only the area(s) of potential giftedness. Other areas may be
left blank.


SPECIFIC ACADEMIC AREA(S) (Math, Reading, Writing)




                               CHILD WITH DISABILITY

CD   Cognitively Disabled
CD-B Cognitively Disabled-Borderline       -2, -3     S.D. Mild Handicapping Condition
                                           -3, -4     S.D. Moderate Handicap Condition
CD-S Cognitively Disabled-Severe           -4, -5     S.D. Severe Handicapping Condition
                                           -6         S.D. Profound Handicap Condition
      Measured by: Intelligence
        Adaptive Behavior Functioning
        Academic Functioning

EBD Emotional Behavioral Disability
     severe, chronic, frequent behavior manifested in 2 or more of the child’s social
      systems (home, school, community)

SLD   Specific Learning Disability
      Specific learning disability means a severe learning disability due to a disorder in one
      or more of the basic psychological processes involved in acquiring, organizing or
      expressing information that manifests itself in school as an impaired ability to listen,
      reason, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations, despite appropriate
      instruction in the general education curriculum. Specific learning disability may include
      conditions such as perceptual disability, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction,
      dyslexia and developmental aphasia.
      Exclusions for SLD Consideration
      A) Other handicapping conditions
           1) cultural
           2) economic disadvantage
           3) environment
      B) Learning problems resulting form extended absence, continuous inadequate
         instruction, curriculum planning, or instructional strategies
      C) Discrepancies between ability and school achievement due to motivation
      D) Functioning at grade level but with the potential for greater achievement

SP    Speech/Language
      Speech and language handicaps are characterized by a delay or deviance in the
      acquisition of pre-linguistic skills, or receptive skills or expressive skills or both of oral
      communication. The handicapping condition does not include speech and language
      problems resulting from differences in paucity of or isolation from appropriate models.

TBI   Traumatic Brain Injury
      Traumatic brain injury means an injury to the brain caused by an external physical
      force or by an internal occurrence such as stroke or aneurysm, resulting in total or
      partial functional disability or psychosocial maladjustment that adversely affects
      education performance. The term includes open or closed head injuries resulting in
      mild, moderate, or severe impairments in one or more areas, including cognition;
      language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving;
      sensory perceptual and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions;
      information processing; and speech. The term does not include brain injuries that are
      congenital or degenerative, or brain injuries induced by birth trauma.

AU    Autism (Pervasive Development Disorder)
      Autism means a development disability significantly affecting verbal and non-verbal
      communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three that
      adversely affects educational performance. Characteristics of autism include
      irregularities and impairments in communication, engagement in repetitive activities
      and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily
      routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term does not include
      children with characteristics of the disability of serious emotional disturbance.

HI    Hearing Impaired
      1) Auditory handicap
      2) Medically determined (audiologic evaluation)
      3) Loss is hearing acuity which affects normal development of language
      4) Medically irreversible

VI    Visually Impaired
      1) Medically determined
      2) MVI – moderately visually handicapped 20/70 – 20/200 after correction in better
      3) SVI - severely visually handicapped 20/200 – 20/700 after correction in better eye

OI    Orthopedically Impaired
      Orthopedically impaired means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects
      a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by
      congenital anomaly (e.g., clubfoot, absence of some member, etc.), impairments
      caused by disease (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns which
      cause contractures).

OHI   Other Health Impaired
      Other health impairment means having limited strength, vitality or alertness, due to
      chronic or acute health problems such as a heart condition, tuberculosis, rheumatic
      fever, nephritis, asthma, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, epilepsy, lead poisoning,
      leukemia, or diabetes, which adversely affect a child’s educational performance.

EC         Early Childhood
IEP Team Individual Education Programming Team (Evaluation and Programming)
IEP        Individual Education Program (the Document of Choice)
CWD        Child with Disability – having a handicapping condition and requiring special
Non-CWD Non-Child with Disability – not qualifying for a CWD program
LRE        Least Restrictive Environment – Federal/State law requiring general education to
           the most extent possible; Non LRE programs justified by IEP

DVI        Designated Vocational Instructor
BCT        Building Consultation Team
ADD        Attention Deficit Disorder
ADHD       Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
SDPE       Specially Designed Physical Education
SDVE       Specially Designed Vocational Education
IDEA       Individual with Disabilities Education Act - federal government rules and
           regulations regarding the laws governing special education
PI-11      The Wisconsin Administrative Code regulating the special education programs at
           the state/local level

Content Mastery – Content Learning Program
   educational program for servicing students with learning disabilities
   true resource concept
   students receiving services in the CM classroom by CWD teacher
   develop education concepts with classroom interventions and curricular and
      instructional modifications

This term has generally been used to refer to the selective placement of special education
students in one or more “regular” education classes. Mainstreaming proponents generally
assume that a student must “earn’ his or her opportunity to be mainstreamed through the
ability to “keep up” with the work assigned by the teacher to the other students in the class.
This concept is closely linked to traditional forms of special education service delivery.

This term is used to refer to the commitment to educate each child, to the maximum extent
appropriate, in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend. It involves
bringing the support services to the child (rather than moving the child to the services) and
requires only that the child will benefit from the class (rather than having to keep up with the
other students). Proponents of inclusion generally favor newer forms of education service

This term is primarily used to refer to the belief that instructional practices and technological
supports are presently available to accommodate all students in the school and classrooms
they would otherwise attend if not disabled. Proponents of full inclusion tend to encourage
that special education services generally be delivered in the form of training and technical
assistance to “regular” classroom teachers.

Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf,
modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional
capabilities of children with disabilities.

Any service that directly assists a child with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of
an assistive technology device. The term includes:
   A) The evaluation of the needs of a child with a disability, including a functional evaluation
      of the child in the child’s customary environment;
   B) Purchasing, leasing, or otherwise providing for the acquisition of assistive technology
      devices by children with disabilities;
   C) Selecting, designing, fitting, customizing, adapting, applying retaining, repairing, or
      replacing assistive technology devices;
   D) Coordinating and using other therapies, interventions, or services with assistive
      technology devices, such as those associated with existing and rehabilitation plans
      and programs;
   E) Training or technical assistance for a child with a disability or, if appropriate, that
      child’s family; and
   F) Training or technical assistance for professionals (including individuals providing
      education or rehabilitation services), employers, or other individuals who provide
      services to, employ, or are otherwise substantially involved in the major life functions
      of children with disabilities.

School districts are now responsible for funding these services and when purchased for a
child, the device is used by the child but is the property of the school district. Schools need to
plan ahead for these services and budget appropriately. This does not mean, however, that
the child automatically qualifies for the “Cadillac” of equipment choices when it comes time
for purchasing a particular device. It does mean that some type of tool needs to be obtained
so that the child can meet their needs within the customary environment of the school setting.

States can add their own objectives to their provisional service plan, but they cannot do
anything less than what the IDEA Act states. An example would be devising their own
policies and procedures. In addition to the provision of the device, training also needs to be
provided in teaching people how to use the devices purchased. This includes training time for
the students, teachers, and related personnel.

Advocates for assistive technology must keep in mind that all through this process the code
of ethics for your individual professional area always adhered. The bottom line is doing the
best and what is right for the child. The children need advocates throughout this entire
process. Training is also a continuous process for all people that could potentially come into
contact with the child using technology. There are obviously degrees of involvement in terms
of necessary knowledge, but the fact of the matter is that the training never ceases and that it
is knowledge to be obtained from the administrative level on down.

                               CLASSROOM INTERVENTIONS
Below is a list of “possible” classroom interventions for you to refer to and try out in your classroom.
These interventions are specifically designed to help you deal with students who are struggling either
academically or behaviorally in your classroom. It is important that you select interventions with
regard to your own, as well as the individual student’s personal and cultural background (i.e., not all
interventions are appropriate for all students or all teachers). It is also beneficial for you to document
what interventions you have tried with a particular student. This information is invaluable at team
meetings and conferences, and is the first step of the referral process.

 Utilize outside resources: the library, speakers.
 Give students more choices.
 Utilize high interest activities.
 Break the task down into small steps.
 Utilize a different learning approach: visual, auditory, multi-sensory, tactile/ kinesthetic,
 Reduce the degree of difficulty of the task.
 Help the student get organized.
 Provide a list of make-up assignments.

 Change grouping of students.                                Change a student’s seat.
 Rearrange your room.                                        Utilize the Learning Lab.
 Utilize the library.                                        Use Time-Outs.

 Provide a routine schedule.
 Reduce the amount of task.
 Allow students more time to complete the task.
 Encourage after-school make-up.
 Allow student to make up failing grades.

    Reward student for desired behavior.                     Have students serve as tutors.
    Utilize individualized instruction.                      Utilize parents as tutors.
    Utilize cooperative learning techniques.                 Provide quick results of task.
    Send positive note home.                                 Utilize small group instruction.
    Conference with parent.                                  Discover and use students’ interests.
    Utilize a study carrel.                                  Ignore misbehavior.
    Call on student more/less.                               Provide extra help after school.

REWARD THE TASK: for starting, for continuing, for completing.

Please remember these are only suggestions. If you already utilize other interventions in your
classroom, or as you discover different interventions, please share them with your colleagues.

Modifying Means Allowing Students to Demonstrate Knowledge Meaningfully and
Written Language Modifications
      Provide models for writing tasks; patterned sentences or stories or a sample of the finished
      Have groups of students write the story/report together.
      Give students a story starter; first sentence or several sentences.
      Provide a series of questions for the student to answer, which will serve as a guide to writing
       the report.
      Revise and proof the student's writing only for assignments that are to be read by people other
       than the teacher.
      Allow students to conference with each other on writing assignments.
      Journals - Place a note card inside each student's journal with individual
       suggestions/expectations for each student.
       Example: 1. Write the date.
                     2. Write three sentences.
                     3. Use a capital letter to begin each sentence.
                     4. Use a punctuation mark at the end of each sentence.

   As students consistently demonstrate the expectations, new ones can be added.

Writing Alternatives
Oral or illustrated book reports, taped stories, dictate story to peer, use of a computer word processor,
provide a copy of notes to students (allow a capable student to make a copy of notes for student).

Spelling Modifications
       Allow students to spell orally.
       Allow students to spell words using manipulatives (letters from a Scrabble game, alphabet
        magnetic letters).
       Shorten the list.
       Use words from content area classes.
       Use high frequency words and/or left skill words.
       Demonstrate for the student a spelling study system. Put the steps on a note card to help the
        student remember.
       Allow the student to choose the correctly spelled word from a list of three words for the test.

Reading Modifications
     Students listen to the story on tape.
     Read the selection orally in class.
     Ask questions throughout the reading.
     Students work with a reading "buddy."
     Build background knowledge/pre-teach new vocabulary.
     Allow students to practice reading prior to orally reading in class.
     Use story mapping.

Content Area Class Modifications
     Teach the parts of a textbook; table of contents, glossary, index, chapter headings,
      introductions, and summaries.
     Use of study guides.
     Use of highlighted texts.
     Provide some alternatives to the text (videos, filmstrips, and computer programs).

Adapting the Regular Text
1. Instruct the student to read only the boldface type, italics, and certain crucially placed paragraphs.

2. Get the student to read the questions at the end of each section or chapter before reading the text.

3. Highlight the student's text.
         Highlight answers to questions at the end of each section/chapter.
         Highlight information needed for worksheets.
         Highlight vocabulary words; definitions, if necessary
         Highlight key words in questions.
         Number pictures and sentences if a sequence is indicated.

         Color code answers to questions from the textbook in one color.
         Color code vocabulary in one color.

          Put page numbers for questions at the end of the chapter. For low performing students,
           include the paragraph.
          If the answer is found in another section or resource than the text chapter, indicate as
           follows: "D" for dictionary, "THE" for thought questions, "M" for map, etc.

Math Modifications
       Use of calculator.
       Use of graph paper to help with alignment and spacing of problems.
       Shortening of assignments.
       Make copies of the assigned problems to reduce the amount of copying that needs to be
       Use "cue cards." List steps to different math problems on note cards. Laminate them.
        Students can tape the cards to the inside cover of their math texts.
       Use manipulatives whenever possible.


                           INSTRUCTIONAL MODIFICATIONS

1. Use charts and tables to illustrate concepts/directions whenever possible.

2. When explaining concepts to the class, illustrate on board or with pictures.

3. Supplement content area presentations with films and filmstrips.

4. Use bright colors for visuals such as charts, flashcards.

5. When asking for recall, have student close his/her eyes and attempt to re-visualize material.

6. Supplement verbal directions with cues on chalkboard or on individual assignment sheets.

7. Instruct student in self-recording techniques such as note taking with key words or phrases; use of
   personal assignment notebook.


1. Ask frequent questions or require feedback or materials presented.

2. Use color cueing to indicate to student where to begin and where to stop.

3. Use a marker for reading or a window card if the marker still allows for too much visual confusion.

4. Have necessary visual classroom components reduced and placed on student's desk whenever
   possible (number line, alphabet, daily assignment sheet).

5. Develop spelling list from sight word mastery list. Present student with three possible spellings,
   requiring him/her to choose the correct one.

6. Highlight essential material from content area textbooks.

                           INSTRUCTIONAL MODIFICATIONS

1. Give verbal as well as written directions for assignments.

2. Tape-record the essential material from content area textbooks.

3. Allow the student to take tests orally.

4. Provide the student with a tape recorder to recite information, play it back.

5. Allow the student to use a recorder for recording assignments.

6. Tape record oral presentations for the student to use as study notes.

7. Teach the student to re-auditorize, repeating key words and phrases.

1. Encourage the student to internally verbalize what is being presented.

2. Do not repeat directions and questions as initially presented when the student does not understand.

3. Teach the student to take notes of only key words, concepts.

4. Provide the student with a study outline or oral presentation, having him/her fill in key concepts.

5. Give verbal directions one step at a time.

6. Provide the student with written copy or oral directions.

7. After giving oral directions, have the student repeat these to you.

                                     (from LD Forum: Winter 1987)

1. Use of IEP criteria - Evaluation is based on the objectives in the IEP.

2. Narrative or written evaluations - The teacher describes in narrative form what the student has

3. Contracts - The student agrees to work toward predetermined criteria for each grade.

4. Pass/Fail - If the minimum criteria are reached, the student receives all the credit available.

5. Checklists - The task is broken down into subtasks, and the teacher records the student's progress
   toward mastery of the task as a whole.

6. Subscripts - Letter grades are given but with a subscript to indicate the level of work. Example: A
   "C" with a subscript "4" would indicate average work at the fourth grade level.

7. Point system - Points are given for appropriate classroom behavior and averaged as part of the final

8. If grades are broken into separate areas, i.e., tests, assignments, projects and notes, the lowest
   average is dropped.

9. Percentage of items attempted - The student's grade is determined by the percentage of items
   correct out of those attempted.

It is a broad civil rights law, which protects the rights of individuals with handicaps in programs, and activities
that receive federal financial assistance from the U.S. Department of Education.
It identifies all school-age children as handicapped who meet the definition of qualified handicapped person, i.e.,
(1) has or (2) has had a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits a major life activity, or (3) is
regarded as handicapped by others. Major life activities include walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing,
learning, working, caring for oneself or performing manual tasks. The handicapping condition need only
substantially limit one major life activity in order for the student to be eligible.

Due to substantial mental or physical impairments that limit one or more of the student's major life activities,
special accommodations to the student's program are required. A 504-accommodation plan is designed for each
student according to individual need.
Examples of potential 504 handicapping conditions not typically covered under IDEA are:
    communicable diseases - HIV, Tuberculosis
    medical conditions - asthma, allergies, diabetes
    temporary medical conditions due to illness or accident
    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD, ADHD)
    behavioral difficulties
    drug/alcohol addiction
    other conditions

If a district has reason to believe that, because of a handicap as defined under Section 504, a student needs either
special accommodations or related services in the regular setting in order to participate in the school program,
the district must evaluate the student; if the student is determined to be handicapped under Section 504, the
district must develop and implement a plan for the delivery of all needed services. Again, these steps must be
taken even though the student is not covered by the IDEA special education provisions and procedures.
What is required for the Section 504 evaluation and placement process is determined by the type of handicap
believed to be present, and the type of services the student may need. The evaluation must be sufficient to
accurately and completely assess the nature and extent of the handicap, and the adequate in some circumstances.
For example, in the case of the student with juvenile arthritis, the evaluation might consist of the school nurse
meeting with the parent and reviewing the student's current medical records. In the cases of students with ADD,
current psycho-educational evaluations may be used in combination with appropriate medical information if
such evaluation assessed the ADD issue. In other cases, additional testing may be necessary.
The determination of what services are needed must be made by a group of persons knowledgeable about the
student. The group should review the nature of the handicap, how it affects the student's education, whether
specialized services are needed, and if so, what those services are. The decisions about Section 504 eligibility
and services must be documented in the student's life and reviewed periodically.
In summary, it is important to keep in mind that some students who have physical or mental conditions that limit
their ability to access and participate in the education program are entitled to rights (protection) under Section
504 even though they may not fall into IDEA categories and may not be covered by law. It is also important to
realize that Section 504 is not an aspect of "special education". Rather, it is a responsibility of the
comprehensive general public education system. As such, building administrators and superintendents of
schools are responsible for its implementation within districts. Special education administrators are participants
but are not ultimately the responsible LEA administrators.

                  Special Education Forms
Please see the special education teacher in your building for all

              Progress and Report Cards
The following forms can be obtained in your building:
   4K through 5th Grade Progress and Report Cards

Name                                                     Student ID
       Last           First               Middle

           Sheboygan Area School District
       Elementary Reading/Language Arts Folder

            Reading and Writing Assessments
            Writing Samples
            Other Pertinent Information

Circle Grade Completed         K      1     2     3         4         5            Student D.O.B.

                                 EC - Grade 5 Language Arts Standards

Reading/Literature                                                    C.4.2 Listen to and comprehend oral communications.

A.4.1 Use effective reading strategies to achieve their               Language
purpose in reading.
A.4.2 Read, interpret, and critically analyze literature.             D.4.1 Develop their vocabulary of words, phrases,
A.4.3 Read and discuss literary and nonliterary texts                 and idioms as a means of improving communication.
in order to understand human experience.
A.4.4 Read to acquire information.                                    Research and Inquiry

Writing                                                               F.4.1 Conduct research and inquiry on self-selected or
                                                                      assigned topics, issues, or problems and use an
B.4.1 Create or produce writing to communicate with                   appropriate form to communicate their finds.
different audiences for a variety of purposes.
B.4.2 Plan, revise, edit, and publish clear and                           Program Services:
effective writing.
                                                                          PACE – Program for Academic and Creative Extension
Oral Language                                                             OHI – Other Health Impaired
                                                                          ELL – English Language Learners
C.4.1 Orally communicate information, opinions, and                       EEN – Exceptional Educational Needs
ideas effectively to different audiences for a variety of                 LD – Learning Disability
purposes.                                                                 CD – Cognitive Disability
                                                                          ED – Emotional Disability
                                                                          504 – Program Modification

                                      Running Record Assessment Levels
                         (Rigby PM and the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA)
Levels A-2                                                        Literacy language structures integrated with natural
Repeated word or sentence pattern                                     language
Natural Language structure                                        Three-twelves lines of print
One line of text; well spaced print                               Illustrations provide moderate to minimum support
Simple illustrations                                              Word count exceeds 266
10-36 words
                                                                  Levels 30-44
Levels 3-6                                                        Complex stories that include descriptions of setting,
Simple stories with repetitive words, phrases, actions              characters, problems, and resolution in greater detail
Predictable language structures                                   More sophisticated language and vocabulary
One-three lines of text                                           Realistic fiction, folk tale, or animal adventure
Pictures provide support                                          Background knowledge and higher-level thinking
47-75 words                                                         required
                                                                  Minimum of picture support
Levels 8-14                                                       Text size is smaller and fills full pages or partial pages
Stories about children and problems to which students can           with illustrations.
Repetition of events                                              Levels 44-60
Book and language structures are integrated                       Informational texts (e.g. biographies, historical fiction)
Use of high frequency words is expanded                           Inclusion of graphic features (diagrams/flowcharts) to
Illustrations provide moderate support                               reinforce information
Two-six lines of print
86-207 words                                                      Level 60
                                                                  Informational texts, realistic fiction and tall tales
Levels 16-28                                                      Biographies
Characters are either imaginary or animals with human             Maps and timelines reinforce information
  characteristics                                                 1260-1719 words
Context builds a basis with which to compare/contrast             Complex vocabulary and increased sentence length
  other stories
                                        6 Trait Writing Information
                  Lexile Framework                                                 The Six Traits of Writing
                Suggested Guidelines for                           Well developed writing examples display the following traits:
              Assessing Text Difficulty and                        Ideas: The paper is clear in purpose and conveys ideas in an
                Student Reading Ability                            interesting, original manner that holds the reader’s attention. Often,
                                                                   the writing develops as a process of discovery for both reader and
            Typical Reader                    Typical Text         writer. Clear, relevant examples, anecdotes or details develop and
Grade 1     Level 200-400                      200-350             enrich the central idea or ideas.
Grade 2     Levels 140-500                     350-500             Organization: The writer organizes material in a way that enhances
Grade 3     Levels 330-700                     500-750             the reader’s understanding, or that helps to develop a central idea or
Grade 4     Levels 445-810                     620-910             theme. The order may be conventional or not, but the sequence is
Grade 5     Levels 565-910                     730-960             effective and moves the reader through the paper.
                                                                   Voice: The paper bears the unmistakable stamp of the individual
Lexile scores vary within tests and within grades. The             writer. The writer speaks directly to the reader, and seems sincere,
Lexile Framework is one part of a comprehensive                    candid and committed to the topic. The overall effect is
                                                                   individualistic, expressive and engaging; this paper stands out from
assessment system. Students should be allowed to read
                                                                   the others.
above their Lexile Level if they express interest and
                                                                   Word Choice: The writer consistently selects words that convey the
persistence in the subject.                                        intended message in an interesting, precise and natural way. The
      Measurement of Academic Progress (MAP)                       result is full and rich, yet not overwhelming; every word carries its
        Spring Reading Screening (RIT values)                      own weight.
                                 GRADE LEVEL                       Sentence Structure: The paper is fluid, and reads easily throughout.
                          2        3      4            5           It has an easy-on-the ear flow and rhythm when read aloud.
                                                                   Sentences have a strong and rhetorically effective structure that
Grade Level Median       190      200    207          212
                                                                   makes reading enjoyable.
Gifted                   209      218    225          230
                                                                   Conventions: The writer’s skillful use of standard writing
At Risk/Special Needs
                                                                   conventions (grammar, capitalization, punctuation, usage, spelling)
 1 sd below grd mean     174      183         191     197          enhances readability. There are no glaring errors. In fact, while the
 2 sd below grd mean     159      169         176     183          paper may not be flawless, errors tend to be so minor that the reader
 1 grd level below       179      188         198     205          can easily overlook them unless searching for them specifically.
 2 grd level below       169      179         188     198          (Deliberate, controlled deviations from convention-in dialogue, for
                                                                   instance—are acceptable, provided they enhance the overall effect.)

 Department of Student and Instructional Services                                                      5123 Exhibit III (a)

                                    Grade Advancement for Kindergarten though 8th Grade
                 Academic Performance                         Criteria
C- or better in each subject area monitored quarterly         Obtained

                  Criteria not obtained                                              On track for promotion

              Teacher Recommendation
 Teacher determines quarterly if the child is on track
  for promotion or at risk of grade retention and in          Recommendation
  need of an Academic Improvement Plan when                   Obtained
  considering the following:
      Status as a student with an IEP, a 504 Plan, or                               On track for promotion
       ELL Programming
      Evidence child is working to ability (effort,
       previous evaluations)
      * At-risk Indicators (see back for list)

             Recommendation not obtained

           Academic Improvement Plan
 Teacher is responsible for developing an Academic
  Improvement Plan
     AIP team must include teacher and parent(s)             Quarterly AIP Review
     AIP may be developed as part of the Building            and Teacher
      Consultation Team process                               Recommendation
     The student may be included in the AIP process                             On track for promotion if:
      as appropriate
     AIP is developed and submitted to the building
                                                                                     Student meets
                                                                                 academic performance
 Quarterly AIP Review and Teacher Recommendation                                         criteria
                  Building Consultation Team                                      Teacher recommends
                        Recommendation                                           promotion to next grade
 BCT (including teacher and parent) make a                                               level
  promotion decision that is in the best interest of the
  student when considering retention research and the
      WKCE performance –scores of proficient in 3
       out of 5 areas or basic in all 5 areas provide
                                             th   th
       evidence for grade advancement (4 & 8                                              Promotion
      Evidence student is working to ability (effort,
       previous evaluations)                                  Recommendation
      Evidence student is making expected progress           for Promotion
       toward IEP goals                                       Obtained
      Evidence student is making expected progress
       through ELL programming or a 504 plan
      Evidence student may have an educational                                 Promote to next grade
       disability requiring an evaluation and promotion                         level – include statement
       decision by an IEP team                                                  of instructional
      Record of prior grade retention                                          recommendations
      Other data as appropriate

             Recommendation not obtained

Retain in current grade – include statement of
instructional recommendations

Exhibit of the Board of Education                                                   5123 Exhibit III (b)
Sheboygan Area School District
Department of Student and Instructional Services

                                At-risk Indicators for Retention
Teachers may use their discretion in identifying children who are in need of an Academic
Improvement Plan. The following is a list of indicators that may be used to identify children who are
at-risk of failing at their current grade level and in need of an Academic Improvements Plan (AIP).

1. Consistently does not show progress toward grade level benchmarks

2. Two or more grades of F within a quarter in academic classes

3. Inconsistent attendance which inhibits progress

4. Incomplete or missing work

5. Poor work quality

6. Assessments fail to show progress, (i.e. running records, district and classroom assessments)

7. Skill attainment and/or content knowledge not progressing

8. Failure to show progress after parent contact

9. Overall Grade Point Average (GPA) below 1.67 (below a C-)

10. Recommendation of Building Consultation Team (BCT)

Exhibit Adopted: July 24, 2001                              BOARD OF EDUCATION
Exhibit Revised: December 10, 2002                          Sheboygan Area School District
Exhibit Revised: January 28, 2003                           830 Virginia Avenue
JMB/JMS:mmm                                                 Sheboygan, Wisconsin 53081

Student and Instructional Services                                                     5123 Exhibit II

                           Academic Improvement Plan
Student                                                          1 2 3 4 (Please Circle)
Teacher                                                          Student Grade

Parent Contact: (check one)  mother  father       guardian    other (specify)
Method of Contact:  phone  conference

      The same AIP may be utilized for the length of the school year.
      AIP’s can be incorporated into the BCT process.
      For AIP’s utilized for more than one quarter, quarterly progress may be documented on the
       original AIP form.

   1. Please list courses with grades below "C-" or K-2 “Needs Improvement"
      (Or attach copy of report card)

               Course(s)            Quarter 1      Quarter 2    Quarter 3        Quarter 4

   2. Academic Improvement Plan
       A. Instructional Goals(s) – actions needed to improve this student's achievement:

       B. Strategies to Achieve Goals:
          1. Student Strategies
                  come to class on time
                  bring necessary materials
                  complete homework
                  read daily for enjoyment
                  follow classroom rules
                  utilize self-monitoring strategies
                _________________________________________________
                __________________________________________________
                _________________________________________________
                _________________________________________________
                                                                                    See Reverse Side

                                                                                        5123 Exhibit II

            2. Teacher Strategies
                   monitor daily homework journal
                   weekly progress reports
                   arrange after school tutoring/homework club
                   utilize Title I or other resource staff
                   consult with Building Consultation Team
                   arrange for YTY or other tutors
                   provide study guides or class notes
                   behavioral contracting or monitoring related to student strategies (see #1)
                 __________________________________________________
                 _________________________________________________
                 _________________________________________________

       3.      Home Strategies
                   monitor homework journal
                   provide structured time for homework
                   encourage daily reading
                   utilize community resources – list ideas parents may wish to consider:
                 _________________________________________________
                 __________________________________________________
                 _________________________________________________
                 _________________________________________________

            C. Plan for Evaluation
                  review grades at next grading period
                  BCT review at mid-quarter
                  BCT review at next grading period
                  parent contact at mid-quarter
                  parent contact following grading period
                  parent-teacher (and student if appropriate) follow-up conference
                      (specify date) ____________________________________
                 _________________________________________________
                 _________________________________________________

Parent(s)                                                    Other
Teacher(s)                                           Other
Student (if appropriate)

Adopted: July 24, 2001
Revised: January 28, 2003                                    BOARD OF EDUCATION
JMS/JMS:mmm                                                  Sheboygan Area School District
                                                             830 Virginia Avenue
                                                             Sheboygan WI 53081


                     Monthly Instructional Mentor Checklist

   Discuss:

          Classroom holiday activities/district policies (pg. 125-126)

          Working with children with special language needs (pg. 127-131)

          Snow day procedures

          Budget Requests

          Share information about staff holiday party

          Observation and feedback (implement peer coaching) (pg. 178-206)

          Review Points to Ponder (pg. 176-177)

          Teaching culturally diverse students

          Review “The First Days of School” and share highlights with your mentor and other

          Differentiated Instruction

POLICIES OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION                                                             6115 NC





The Sheboygan Area School District shall provide for proper observance of the following special
observance days in accordance with law, tradition, and practice.

               January 15                    Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
               February 12                   Lincoln’s Birthday
               February 15                   Susan B. Anthony’s Birthday
               February 22                   George Washington’s Birthday
               April 13                      American Creed Day
               Last Friday in April          Arbor Day
               September 28                  Frances Willard’s Day
               October 9                     Leif Erikson Day
               October 12                    Columbus Day
               November 11                   Armistice Day (Veteran’s Day)

(Also, if school is held on June 14, the day should be appropriately observed as Robert M. LaFollete,
Sr. Day.)

The administration, along with the teaching staff, shall be responsible for providing appropriate
activities for the observance of the above-specified days.

Legal Reference: Section 118.02 Wisconsin Statutes

Policy Adopted: July 15, 1980                               BOARD OF EDUCATION
                                                            Sheboygan Area School District
                                                            830 Virginia Avenue
                                                            Sheboygan, Wisconsin 53081

POLICIES OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION                                                               6115.1






It is the philosophy of the Board of Education that patriotic observances of our country and state shall
be a part of the instructional program.

Every elementary, middle, and high school shall offer the Pledge of Allegiance or the National Anthem
in grades one to 12 each school day. The Pledge of Allegiance or the National Anthem shall precede
athletic events or other special events at the high school.

No student may be compelled, against the student's objections or those of the student's parent(s) or
guardian, to recite the pledge or sing the National Anthem.

See also policy 3519 Display of Flags.

Legal Reference: Wisconsin Statutes 118.06

Policy Adopted: May 15, 1984                                 BOARD OF EDUCATION
Revised: November 13, 2001                                   Sheboygan Area School District
JMB/JMS:mmm                                                  830 Virginia Avenue
                                                             Sheboygan, Wisconsin 53081

                 ELL (English Language Learner)/Bilingual Terminology
LEP           Limited English Proficiency

LEP Level 1 The student uses little or no English, ELL center student.

LEP Level 2 The student uses English words and sentences with difficulty and needs beginning
            instruction in reading and other academics, ELL center student. These students may be
            mainstreamed for certain classes.

LEP Level 3 The student uses English words and sentences fairly smoothly but needs support for
            academics from ELL teacher and/or bilingual support person.

LEP Level 4 The student uses English very well orally but needs help from the ELL teacher to
            support his/her progress in the content areas.

LEP Level 5 The student is working close-to-grade level at the elementary level and needs only
            minimal support from the ELL teacher. At the middle and high school level these
            students receive resource/tutorial support may be reading below grade level.

LEP Level 6 The student is exited from the ELL program.

Exit          A term, which means the student performs in a successful way at school with no extra
              help from an ELL teacher or a bilingual educational assistant. The family is notified and
              the teacher and principal sign the student out of the ELL program.

Teacher       The ELL teacher who provides language/content area support primarily for LEP 3, 4,
              and 5 students.

Teacher       The teacher who works primarily with LEP 1 and 2 students, but may support LEP 2, 4,
              and 5 students.

Teacher       The teacher who works primarily with LEP 3, 4, and 5 students.

Classroom     A classroom in which LEP 1 and 2 students receive the greater part of their instruction.

Classroom     The regular education class in which the ELL student is assigned and where he/she
              receives part or all of his/her instruction.

                                      Hmong Learning Styles

                                       Mainstream        Minority

                                 Verbal Processing       Visual Processing

                               Listen to Instruction     See Then Do

                      Learning comes from Test or        Observational Learning
                         Direct Verbal Instruction       Learning by Example

           Individual Work with Structured Tasks         Work Best in Informal Group Settings

                                       Instructional Strategies
1. Group work – cooperative learning

2. Peer tutoring

3. Student centered

4. Provide constant feedback

5. Offer hands on, direct experience models

                                 Hmong Cultural Characteristics
1. The importance of family and friends, community, and personal qualities.

2. Respecting elders especially in one’s own family.

                       Suggestions for Working with Hispanic Children
1. Learn about the culture. Study and learn about the various Hispanic groups that you are working
   with. Try and utilize some of what you learn in your instructional activities. Stereotypes are likely
   to interfere with y our ability to work effectively with the children and their families.

2. Call children by their right names. Check with the student what he or she likes to be called. Try and
   watch your pronunciations as much as possible.

3. Work with the family. The family plays a very important role in the Hispanic cultures. It is
   especially important to work with the family during any referral and evaluation process. Recognize
   that the family may be very broad and include various extended family members.

4. Recognize the concept of “hijo de crianza.” Occasionally someone other than the child’s parent
   will be raising the child. Teachers and clinicians should be tolerant and nonjudgmental of these and
   other living situations.

5. Refrain from using the child as an interpreter during a family conference. Undue strain may be
   placed on the child, which is readily apparent. Such could lead to misunderstanding and the receipt
   of distorted information.

6. Understand that to the Hispanic, the Anglo-American is the stranger (or foreigner). Difficulty in
   establishing rapport may be encountered. A number of contacts with the family may be necessary
   before permission for evaluations/placements is obtained. Families may need to get to know you as
   a person before they allow you to become involved with their children. Don’t hesitate to share
   information about yourself, family, etc. This will only help in establishing your credibility, honesty,
   and reliability. Some family may feel that school personnel will be prejudiced, arrogant, and
   lacking in knowledge about their children. Staff who are patient, understanding, competent, and
   tolerant will likely be able to diminish these feeling and help the family realize that the child’s
   welfare is the concern of all involved.

                   Appropriate Strategies for Working with ELL Students
1. Adjust Language
   a. Simplify vocabulary
   b. Simplify syntax
   c. Shorten sentences
   d. Slow rate of speaking
   e. Avoid slang, idioms, and acronyms

2. Use Concrete Referents
   a. Relate what you are doing to student’s past experience
   b. Use props, realia, and visuals
   c. Provide models
   d. Use examples and demonstration

3. Use the Following Communication Strategies
   a. Repeat
   b. Rephrase
   c. Ask questions that require a physical response
   d. Avoid yes/no questions

4. Use Cooperative Learning
   a. Pair work
   b. Group work

5. Make Learning Meaningful

6. Simplify and Minimize Written Instructions

7. Respect the Student’s Need to be Silent
   a. Silent period in language acquisition
   b. Shyness
   c. Passive learners

8. Recognize that Eye Contact may be Considered a Sign of Disrespect

           What Teachers Can Do for ELL/Bilingual Students in the Classroom
1. Rephrase your questions and the answers other children give so that LEP children have more than
   one opportunity to understand what is said.

2. Change questions that require full content answers into questions that give the student a simpler
   choice when you see the child is having trouble understanding.

3. Use plenty of visual aids, such as writing on the chalkboard, or giving demonstrations where
   possible, to provide more than just an aural channel for comprehension.

4. Recycle your content so that children have multiple opportunities to understand what is going on in
   the classroom.

5. Use synonyms frequently to ensure LEP children’s understanding.

6. Have children give directions to each other.

7. Have the children work together in p airs or small groups to complete workbooks or worksheet
   exercises and to produce “collaborative” responses.

8. Ask students to read the questions together and help each other with spelling and correct terms.

9. Vary the composition of the groups to put LEP and native speakers together sometimes and for
   LEP children to work together sometimes.

10. Use comprehension checks questions, which require answers other than “yes” or “no”.

11. Attempt to establish that the learner is following what is being communicated.

                                    Diversity in the Classroom

1. Parent communication is key to student success - just because the student speaks English does
   not mean his parents do. Be sure to talk to the ELL teachers in you building to arrange for
   translations either phone or written for all aspects of your class. This needs to be done in a timely
   matter, in other words at the same time the English communication is made to parents the
   translations should go out, not later. This requires some planning on the part of teachers.

2. Understanding that minority students may come into the schools with different expectations
   than monolingual English speakers. In some cases boys may get more support from parents as far
   as academics are concerned than girls. Girls in many cases are expected to come home right after
   school to help with housework, and care for younger siblings. This limits after school participation
   in many activities. The cultural paradigm varies from culture to culture, even within the same
   language group. The variation can be cause by education social status and economic level.

3. Knowing about the student's home and cultural values will help you to understand the student
   and meet their specific needs. You cannot be expected to know everything, but the knowledge that
   the students are coming from different places where role, gender, values, and even personal space
   are different than the mainstream can be very helpful. This knowledge also helps in classroom
   management. Some of our students live at or below the poverty level. They do not have a quiet
   place to study, a computer at home, or even parents that can read in their own language. In some
   cases students do not have a bedroom, even to share. We must remember that we can assume

4. Realizing children from different cultures may learn best in different ways than our
   mainstream students, and using the teaching strategies necessary to meet these needs will assure
   student success. One good way to assure student understanding is to make frequent oral
   comprehension checks. Another is to access prior knowledge from their own country or culture,
   and compare and contrast to ours.

5. Teaching minority children will involve you on a "deep culture" level. Deep culture is a broad
   area. It includes values, male female roles, a definition of worth, social customs, morals, religion,
   personal space and attitudes. Deep culture is not holidays, food or music, yet these aspects of
   culture are fun to share and can be a positive way to involving minority students in the school
   community. An example of deep culture is that in our culture we value independence, education,
   personal wealth and accomplishment. In the Hispanic culture these things are valued, but not to the
   same degree as personal character, honor, ethics, wisdom, responsibility to each other and helping

6. Jim Cummins: It takes only 6 months to a year to acquire social English (Basic Interpersonal
   Communication Skills), while it takes from seven to 10 years to acquire the academic English
   (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency), students need to be successful in the classroom, and
   to compete equally with monolingual English speakers. The social English can be deceiving, and
   teachers tend to think because students speak and play well with other students they know English.
   The amount of time needed for academic English acquisition is in great part responsible for the
   lack of academic progress we sometimes see with ELL students, and also is responsible for the
   great amount of time many ELL students spend as LEP 3's.

                       SOME KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER

1. Poverty is relative. If everyone around you has similar circumstances, the notion of poverty and
   wealth is vague. Poverty or wealth only exists in relationship to known quantities or expectations.
2. Poverty occurs in all races and in all countries. The notion of middle class as a large segment of
   society in a phenomenon of this century. The percentage of the population that is poor is subject to
   definition and circumstance.
3. Economic class is a continuous line, not a clear-cut distinction. In 1994, the poverty line was
   considered $14,340 for a family of four. In 1994, 7% of the population made more than $100,000
   per year. Individuals are stationed all along the continuum of income; they sometimes move on that
   continuum as well.
4. Generational poverty and situational poverty are different. Generational poverty is defined as
   being in poverty for two generations or longer. Situational poverty is a shorter time and is caused
   by circumstance (i.e., death, illness, divorce, etc.).
5. This work is based on patterns. All patterns have exceptions.
6. An individual brings with him/her the hidden rules of the class in which he/she was raised.
   Even though the income of the individual may rise significantly, many of the patterns of thought,
   social interaction, cognitive strategies, etc., remain with the individual.
7. Schools and businesses operate from middle-class norms and use the hidden rules of middle
   class. These norms and hidden rules are not directly taught in school or in businesses.
8. For our students to be successful, we must understand their hidden rules and teach them the
   rules that will make them successful at school and at work.
9. We can neither excuse students nor scold them for not knowing; as educators we must teach
   them and provide support, insistence, and expectations.
10. To move from poverty to middle class or middle class to wealth, an individual must give up
    relationships for achievement (at least for some period of time).
11. Two things that help one move out of poverty are education and relationships.
12. Four reasons one leaves poverty are: It’s too painful to stay, a vision or goal, a key
    relationship, or a special talent or skill.

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1. In the Unites States in 2001, the poverty rate for all individuals was 11.7%. For children under the
   age of 18, the poverty rate was 16.3%, and for children under the age of six, the rate was 18.2%.
2. There were 6.8% million poor families (9.2%) in 2001, up from 6.4 million (6.7%) in 2000.
3. The foreign-born population in the United States has increased 57% since 1990 to a total of 30
   million. In 2000 one out of every five children under age 18 in the U.S. was estimated to have at
   least one foreign-born parent. Immigrant children are twice as likely to be poor as native-born
   children. Among children whose parents work fulltime, immigrant children are at greater risk of
   living in poverty than native-born children (National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia
   University, 2002).
4. Regardless of race or ethnicity, poor children are much more likely than non-poor children to suffer
   developmental delay and damage, to drop out of high school, and to give birth during the teen
   years (Miranda, 1991).
5. Poverty-prone children are more likely to be in single-parent families (Einbinder, 1993). Median
   female wages in the United States, at all levels of educational attainment, are 30 to 50% lower than
   male wages at the same level of educational attainment (TSII Manual, 1995, based on the U.S.
   Census data, 1993). See 2001 U.S. census data on page 151.
6. Poor inner-city youths are seven times more likely to be the victims of child abuse or neglect than
   are children of high social and economic status (Renchler, 1993).
7. Poverty is caused by interrelated factors: parental employment status and earnings, family structure,
   and parental education (Five Million Children, 1992).
8. Children under age six remain particularly vulnerable to poverty. Children living in families with a
   female householder and no husband present experienced a poverty rate of 48.9%, more than five
   times the rate of children in married-couple families, 9.2% (U.S Bureau of the Census, 2001).
9. The United States’ child poverty rate is substantially higher – often two or three times higher –
   than that of most other major Western industrialized nations.

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                Could you survive in poverty?
Put a check by each item you know how to do.
           1. I know which churches and sections of town have the best rummage sales.
           2. I know which rummage sales have “bag sales” and when.
           3. I know which grocery stores’ garbage bins can be accessed for thrown-
               away food.
           4. I know how to get someone out of jail.
           5. I know how to physically fight and defend myself physically.
           6. I know how to get a gun, even if I have a police record.
           7. I know how to keep my clothes from being stolen at the Laundromat.
           8. I know what problems to look for in a used car.
           9. I know how to live without a checking account.
           10. I know how to live without electricity and a phone.
           11. I know how to use a knife as scissors.
           12. I can entertain a group of friends with my personality and my stories.
           13. I know what to do when I don’t have money to pay the bills.
           14. I know how to move in half a day.
           15. I know how to get and use food stamps or an electronic card for benefits.
           16. I know where the free medical clinics are.
           17. I am very good at trading and bartering.
           18. I can get by without a car.

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         Could you survive in middle class?
Put a check by each item you know how to do.
            1. I know how to get my children into Little League, piano lessons, soccer, etc.
            2. I know how to set a table properly.
            3. I know which stores are most likely to carry the clothing brands my family
            4. My children know the best name brands in clothing.
            5. I know how to order in a nice restaurant.
            6. I know how to use a credit card, checking account, and savings account –
                and I understand an annuity. I understand term life insurance, disability
                insurance, and 20/80 medical insurance policy, as well as house insurance,
                flood insurance, and replacement insurance.
            7. I talk to my children about going to college.
            8. I know how to get one of the best interest rates on my new-car loan.
            9. I understand the difference among the principal, interest, and escrow
                statements on my house payment.
            10. I know how to help my children with their homework and do not hesitate to
                call the school if I need additional information.
            11. I know how to decorate the house for the different holidays.
            12. I know how to get a library card.
            13. I know how to use most of the tools in the garage.
            14. I repair items in my house almost immediately when they break – or know
                a repair service and call it.

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                 Could you survive in wealth?
Put a check by each item you know how to do.
            1. I can read a menu in French, English, and another language.
            2. I have several favorite restaurants in different countries of the world.
            3. During the holidays, I know how to hire a decorator to identify the
                appropriate themes and itmes with which to decorate the house.
            4. I know who my preferred financial advisor, legal service, designer,
                domestic-employment service, and hairdresser are.
            5. I have at least two residences that are staffed and maintained.
            6. I know how to ensure confidentiality and loyalty from my domestic staff.
            7. I have at least two or three “screens” that keep people whom I do not wish
                to see away from me.
            8. I fly in my own plane, the company plane, or the Concorde.
            9. I know how to enroll my children in the preferred private schools.
            10. I know how to host the parties that “key” people attend.
            11. I am on the boards of at least two charities.
            12. I know the hidden rules of the Junior League.
            13. I support or buy the work of a particular artist.
            14. I know how to read a corporate financial statement and analyze my own
                financial statements.

aha! Process, Inc. (800) 424-9484

                       Classroom Instruction that Works                      ®

             Participants will learn ways to incorporate a variety of research-proven classroom
                         instructional strategies that increase student achievement.

   Identifying               Summarizing &             Reinforcing Effort          Homework &
                                                          & Providing
  Similarities &              Note Taking                 Recognition

 Nonlinguistic                         Classroom                                    Cooperative
Representations                      Instruction that                                Learning

Setting Objectives                                                                 Teaching Specific
                               Generating &               Cues, Questions,
  & Providing                                                                          Types of
                                 Testing                   & Advanced
    Feedback                                                                          Knowledge
                                Hypotheses                  Organizers

  Research Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement
                                  Marzano, Pickering and Pollock
                                        ASCD McREL 2001

Identifying Similarities and Differences
Summarizing and Note Taking
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
Homework and Practice
Nonlinguistic Representations
Cooperative Learning
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
Generating and testing Hypotheses
Questions, Cues and Advance Organizers

View these as tools to do the job of educating children in ways that will increase their
achievement and enhance their learning. An important element to remember is to know
your tools. To understand their use and application. To know what tool to use when. When
a teacher is familiar and comfortable with these strategies, their use becomes second
nature when planning lessons and providing learning experiences for their students.

Alone, these strategies may not create higher levels of student achievement, as they are
one part of effective pedagogy, the science of teaching.

Elements of Effective Teaching
     Instructional Strategies
     Management Techniques
     Curriculum Design

Instructional strategies are not stand alone items, but are a significant part of the big
picture of what constitutes effective teaching and learning.

                           Identifying Similarities and Differences

Research and Theory
   1. Presenting students with explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences
      enhances student understanding of and ability to use knowledge. (teacher directed)
   2. Asking students to independently identify similarities and differences enhances
      student understanding of and ability to use knowledge. (student directed)
   3. Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form enhances
      student’s understanding of and ability to use knowledge.
   4. Identification of similarities and differences can be accomplished in a variety of
      ways. The identification of similarities and differences is a highly robust activity.

Classroom Practice

Comparing is the process of identifying similarities and differences between or among things or
Classifying is the process of grouping things that are alike into categories on the basis of their
Creating metaphors is the process of identifying a general or basic pattern in a specific topic and
then finding another topic that appears to be quite different but that has the same general pattern.
Creating analogies is the process of identifying relationships between pairs of concepts. In other
words, identifying relationships between relationships.

Comparing     (Provide   samples   from   text. Invite   staff   to   share   their   work.)
Classifying   (Provide   samples   from   text. Invite   staff   to   share   their   work.)
Metaphors     (Provide   samples   from   text. Invite   staff   to   share   their   work.)
Analogies     (Provide   samples   from   text. Invite   staff   to   share   their   work.)

                             Summarizing and Note Taking


Research and Theory
   1. To effectively summarize, students must delete some information, substitute some
      information, and keep some information.
   2. To effectively delete, substitute and keep information, students must analyze the
      information at a fairly deep level.
   3. Being aware of the explicit structure (organization) of information is an aid to
      summarizing information.

Classroom Practice
The rule based strategy deletes trivial and redundant material. Substitutes terms such as
“flowers” for “daisies, tulips and roses”.
Summary frames are applications of generalization. The teacher supplies a series of
questions designed to highlight critical elements and specific information.
       Narrative Frame
       Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame
       Definition Frame
       Argumentation Frame
       Problem/Solution Frame
       Conversation Frame
              (Provide samples of each from text, pgs. 35-41)
Reciprocal teaching has four components: summarizing, questioning, clarifying and
predicting. (Provide figure 3-10, from text page 43)

      Note Taking
Research and Theory
Verbatim note taking is, perhaps the least effective way to take notes.
Notes should be considered a work in progress.
Notes should be used as a study guide for tests.
The more notes taken, the better.

Classroom Practice
Teacher prepared notes provide students with a clear picture of what is important and
models how notes might be taken.
Different formats for notes should be introduced and varied as needed. i.e. outline or
Combination notes combines the elements of outlines and webbing that result in summary

Summarizing and note taking are not just study skills, they can be effective learning tools.

                    Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
                               (addresses attitudes and beliefs)

      Reinforcing Effort

Research and Theory
   1. Not all students realize the importance of believing in effort.
   2. Students can learn to change their beliefs to an emphasis on effort.

Classroom Practice
Teaching About Effort
Students may not be aware of the importance of believing in effort. Teachers can teach
this by specifically teaching that effort and achievement are connected. Personal stories
and examples in literature and life can be used.
                       (figure 4.2, pg. 52 Effort and Achievement Rubric)

Keeping Track of Effort and Achievement
As part of teaching the belief in effort and making the connection, having students track of
their effort and resulting achievement will strengthen this connection and reinforce the

      Providing Recognition

Research and Theory
   1. Rewards do not necessarily have a negative impact on intrinsic motivation
   2. Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard
      of performance
   3. Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective that tangible rewards
                    (figure 4.5, pg. 56 Guidelines for Effective Praise)

Classroom Practice
       Personalizing Recognition
       Pause, Prompt, and Praise
       Concrete Symbols of Recognition

Reinforcing effort helps teach the lesson that the harder you try, the more successful you
are. Specific recognition for specific achievements improves achievement and increases

                                Homework and Practice
               (deepen understanding and skills about content already presented)


Research and Theory
   1. The amount of homework assigned to students should be different from elementary
      to middle to high school.
   2. Parent involvement in homework should be kept to a minimum.
   3. The purpose of homework should be identified and articulated.
   4. If homework is assigned, it should be commented on.

Classroom Practice
   1. Establish a homework policy. (it is not what you think, see pg. 64-65)
   2. Design homework assignments that clearly articulate the purpose and outcome.
   3. Vary the approaches to providing feedback.


Research and Theory
Mastering a skill requires a fair amount of focused practice. (learning line)
While practicing, students should adapt and shape what they have learned.

Classroom Practice
       Charting accuracy and speed
       Designing practice assignments that focus on specific element of a complex skill or
       Planning time for students to increase their conceptual understanding of skills or

Homework and practice are ways to provide students with opportunities to refine and
extend their knowledge. Teacher involvement in planning and providing specific feedback
is a key to making these effective instructional tools.

                             Nonlinguistic Representations
                                 (generating mental pictures)

Research and Theory
   1. A variety of activities produce non-linguistic representations.
      … to produce pictorial images of knowledge in the minds of students, through graphic
      representations, making physical models, generating mental pictures, drawing pictures and
      pictographs and engaging in kinesthetic activity.
   2. Nonlinguistic representations should elaborate on knowledge.

Classroom Practices

Creating Graphic Organizers (pages 75-80) (teacher models)
      Descriptive patterns
      Time-sequence patterns
      Process/cause-effect patterns
      Episode patterns
      Generalization/principle patterns
      Concept patterns

Using Other Nonlinguistic Representations
      Making physical models
      Generating mental pictures
      Drawing pictures and pictographs
      Engaging in kinesthetic activity

Creating nonlinguistic representations is underused as an instructional tool, although it can
help students understand content in a new way.

                                   Cooperative Learning
                            (popular and if used well, it is powerful)

Research and Theory
       Five Defining Elements of Cooperative Learning
Positive interdependence (sink or swim together)
Face-to-face promotive interaction (helping each other learn, applauding success and efforts)
Individual and group accountability (each of us has to contribute to the group achieving its
Interpersonal and small group skills (communication, trust, leadership, decision making and
conflict resolution)
Group processing (reflecting on how well the team is functioning and how to function even better)

   1. Organizing groups based on ability levels should be done sparingly.
   2. Cooperative groups should be kept rather small in size. (3-4)
   3. Cooperative learning should be applied consistently and systematically, but not

Classroom Practice
Using a variety of criteria for grouping students
Informal, formal and base groups
Manage group size
Combining cooperative learning with other classroom structures

Cooperative learning is very flexible and can be used in a variety of ways in differing
situations. Can be a very powerful strategy.

                      Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
                                (establish a direction for learning)

       Goal Setting

Research and Theory
   1. Instructional goals narrow what students focus on.
   2. Instructional goals should not be too specific.
   3. Students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher’s goals.

Classroom Practice
Specific but (student) flexible goals

       Providing Feedback

Research and Theory
   1. Feedback should be corrective in nature.
   2. Feedback should be timely.

Classroom Practice
Criterion-referenced feedback (specific levels of knowledge and skill)
Feedback for specific types of knowledge and skill
Student-led feedback

Clear and focused objectives with a purpose coupled with timely and specific feedback
have positive effects on achievement.

                           Generating and Testing Hypotheses
                                (it’s not just for science anymore)

Research and Theory
   1. Hypothesis generation and testing can be approached in a more inductive or
      deductive manner. (Inductive thinking draws new conclusions using known information.
      Deductive thinking uses general rules or logic.)
   2. Teachers should ask students to clearly explain hypotheses and their conclusions.

Classroom Practice
Using a variety of structured tasks to guide students through generating hypotheses
       Systems analysis
       Problem solving
       Historical investigation
       Experimental inquiry
Making sure students can explain their hypotheses and their conclusions
       Provide students with templates for reporting their work
       Provide sentence stems for students to aid in explaining
       Students’ use of audio taped explanations
       Provide rubrics for the student explanations
       Science fair demonstrations and explanations

The cognitive skill of generating and testing hypotheses is not just for science anymore.

                     Cues, Questions, and Advanced Organizers
                                  (activating prior knowledge)

      Cues and Questions

Research and Theory
   1. Cues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.
   2. “Higher level” questions produce deeper learning than “lower level” questions.
   3. “Waiting” briefly before accepting responses from students has the effect of
      increasing the depth of students’ answers.
   4. Questions are effective learning tools even when asked before a learning experience.

Classroom Practice
Explicit clues
Questions that elicit inferences
Analytic questions
       Analytic skills
               Analyzing errors
               Constructing support
               Analyzing perspectives

      Advance Organizers

Research and Theory
   1. Advance organizers should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual
   2. “Higher level” advance organizers produce deeper learning than the “lower level”
      advance organizers.
   3. Advance organizers are most useful with information that is not well organized.
   4. Different types of advance organizers produce different results.

Classroom Practice
Expository Advance Organizers
Narrative Advance Organizers
Skimming as a form of advance organizer
Graphic advance organizers

Assisting students to think about new knowledge before experiencing it can improve
student achievement.


                Monthly Instructional Mentor Checklist
   Discuss:

         End of the semester procedures

         Report cards/records day

         Final grading

         Retention policies

         Spring programs/trips

         Secondary school scheduling

         Teaching strategies/learning styles (pg. 169-170)

         Employee Assistance Program (EAP) (pg. 171-172)

         Plan for second semester

         Meeting with principal (optional)

         Peer coaching observation and feedback (pg. 178-206)

         Review Points to Ponder (pg. 176-177)

         Use of community resources

         Review “The First Days of School” and share highlights with your mentor and other

                  Differentiation of Instruction

                         is a teacher’s response to learners’ needs

               guided by general principles of differentiation, such as

  respectful                                                   ongoing assessment
  tasks                                                        and adjustment
                                  flexible grouping

                              Teachers can differentiate

    Content                              Process                       Product

                                  according to students’

   Readiness                             Interest                 Learning Profile

       through a range of instructional and management strategies such as
multiple intelligences           tiered lessons            4-MAT
jigsaw                           tiered centers            varied questioning strategies
taped material                   tiered products           interest centers
anchor activities                learning contracts        interest groups
varying organizers               small-group instruction   varied homework
varied texts                     group investigation   compacting
varied supplementary materials   orbitals              varied journal prompts
literature circles               independent study     complex instruction
Etc.                             Etc.                  Etc.


Responding to the Needs of All
  Learners in the Classroom

   Students vary in their readiness to learn, their interests, their styles of
    learning, their experiences, and their life circumstances.
   The differences in students are significant enough to make a major impact
    on what they need to learn, the pace at which they need to learn, and the
    support they need from teachers and others to learn well.
   Students will learn best when they are moderately challenged, but not
   Students will learn best when they can make connections to the
   Students will learn best when learning opportunities are engaging and
   Students are more effective learners when classrooms and schools create a
    sense of community in which students feel significant and respected.
   The central job of schools is to maximize the capacity of each student.
   Distinguished teaching focuses on the essential understandings and skills
    of a discipline, causes students to wrestle with profound ideas, calls on
    students to use what they are learning in meaningful ways, helps students
    organize and make sense of ideas and information, and aids students in
    connecting the classroom with a wider world.

FROM: “Reconcilable Differences? Standards-Based Teaching and Differentiation” by Carol Ann Tomlinson in
Educational Leadership, September 2000

           Out With The Old . . .
                             Traditional Classroom
   Student differences are masked or acted upon when problematic.
   Assessment is commonly done at the end of learning to see who “got it.”
   A relatively narrow sense of intelligence prevails.
   A single definition of excellence exists.
   Student interest is infrequently tapped.
   Relatively few learning profile options are taken into account.
   Whole-class instruction dominates.
   Coverage of texts and curriculum guides drives instruction.
   Mastery of facts and skills out-of-context are the focus of learning.
   Single option assignments are the norm.
   Time is relatively inflexible.
   A single text prevails.
   Single interpretations of ideas and events may be sought.
   The teacher directs student behavior.
   The teacher solves problems.
   The teacher provides whole-class standards for grading.
   A single form of assessment is often used.

FROM: The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners by Carol Ann Tomlinson

                         In With The New
                          Differentiated Classroom
•      Student differences are studied as the basis for planning.
•      Assessment is ongoing and diagnostic to understand how to make
       instruction more responsive to learners’ needs.
•      Focus on multiple forms of intelligence is evident.
•      Excellence is defined in large measure by individual growth from a
       starting point.
•      Students are frequently guided in making interest-based learning
•      Many learning profile options are provided for.
•      Many instructional arrangements are used.
•      Students’ readiness, interests, and learning profiles shape instruction.
•      Use of essential skills to make sense of and understand key concepts
       and principles is the focus of learning.
•      Multi-option assignments are frequently used.
•      Time is used flexibly in accordance with student need.
•      Multiple materials are provided.
•      Multiple perspectives on ideas and events are routinely sought.
•      The teacher facilitates students’ skills at becoming more self-reliant
•      Students help other students and the teacher solve problems.
•      Students work with the teacher to establish both whole-class and
       individual learning goals.
•      Students are assessed in multiple ways.

FROM: The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners by Carol Ann Tomlinson

    Where Is This Coming From?
The research related to how students learn says:
   Learning is more natural when students see the big picture, understand the
    purpose of what they are doing, and grasp how parts fit together.
   Learning is more natural when it is interesting and relevant to the learner -
    when the learner sees a connection between the ideas and his life.
   Learning is more natural when the learner feels empowered by what is
    being learned and when what is being learned clearly has a use and
   The brain likes pattern-laden learning experiences. Concepts and
    principles or generalizations typically represent the building blocks of
    meaning and patterns in an area of study.
   The brain learns better with sense-making activities rather than rote-
    learning ones.
   The brain learns better with deep meaning than with surface meaning.
    Therefore, it makes better sense to study fewer things more broadly and
   Skills are mastered much more readily and deeply when they are taught in
    meaningful and meaning-laden context than when they are taught and
    practiced in isolation.
   Most of us retain only a few bits of information from even an extended
    learning experience. Therefore, it is important to plan teaching in such a
    way that we ensure that students learn what is more powerful (useful,
    transferable, memorable, meaningful).

How Does Differentiation
   Impact Students?
          Students exposed to differentiated
          instruction . . .
             think at higher levels
             see the connection between effort
              and success
             are able to multi-task
             anticipate how to solve problems,
              approach new tasks, and handle
             willingly collaborate with both
              peers and adults
             are engaged by the learning process
             feel self-confident and “in control”
             are satisfied by the reward of
              completing a task successfully
             expand their range of abilities
             set goals for themselves
             feel respected and supported
             manage their own behavior
             accept differences between
              themselves and others

             The Teacher’s Role
   Appreciate each child as an individual; model acceptance of differences
    for students.
   Remember to teach whole children.
   Continue to develop expertise.
   Hold students to high standards, but offer them lots of ladders.
   Strive to engage and motivate students.
   Acknowledge and help students make sense of their own ideas.
   Provide students with clear road maps for individual learning.
   Encourage and celebrate student independence.
   Use positive energy and humor.
   Collaborate with students frequently; share responsibility for structuring
    the learning with them.
   Be ever attentive to what constitutes powerful curriculum.
   Ensure students experience success and can connect it with hard work.
   Demonstrate flexibility in attending to individual student needs.
   Address behavioral concerns through shared problem solving with
   Encourage students to focus on personal growth versus competing with

              Elements Of Effective
               Curriculum Design
1. Identify Desired Results
     What should students know, understand, and be able to do?
        Key facts
        Organizing concepts
        Guiding principles
        Associated attitudes
        Essential skills
2. Determine Acceptable Evidence
     How will we know if students have achieved the desired results and met the
     standards? What will we accept as evidence of student understanding and
3. Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction
     What background knowledge and skills will students need to perform effectively
     and achieve desired results? What activities will equip students with the needed
     knowledge and skills? What will need to be taught and coached, and what is the
     best way to do it? What materials and resources are best suited to accomplish
     these goals? Is the overall design coherent and effective?

Where Does Differentiation
        Fit In?
•   Throughout the curriculum design process, individual student
    differences and needs must be taken into consideration.

•   Teachers can differentiate content, process, and/or product
    according to students’ readiness, interests, and learning profiles.

    Strategies For Differentiating

            Differentiating Content

•      Provide texts and supplementary materials at varied reading levels.
•      Reteach for students having difficulty.
•      Offer extended teaching groups for advanced students.
•      Use audiotapes and videotapes to supplement and support instruction.
•      Offer students choices on what to study.
•      Use students’ questions and interests to guide instruction and selection
       of materials.
•      Demonstrate ideas or skills in addition to talking about them.
•      Provide organizers to guide note taking.
•      Build in opportunities for student reflection.
•      Present in visual, auditory, and kinesthetic modes.
•      Use applications, examples, and illustrations from a wide range of

FROM: The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners by Carol Ann Tomlinson

       Strategies For Differentiating

•      Use tiered activities (activities at different levels of difficulty, but
       focused on the same key learning goals).
•      Make task directions more detailed and specific for some learners and
       more open or “fuzzy” for others.
•      Provide teacher-led mini-workshops on varied skills at varied levels of
       complexity to support student work.
•      Use flexible instructional grouping.
•      Use a variety of criteria for success, based on whole-class requirements
       as well as individual student readiness needs.
•      Vary the pacing of student work.
•      Design tasks that require multiple interests or the use of multiple
       perspectives for successful completion.
•      Encourage students to design or participate in the design of some tasks.
•      Balance competitive, collegial, and independent work arrangements.

FROM: The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners by Carol Ann Tomlinson

       Strategies For Differentiating

•      Use tiered product assignments.
•      Lead optional, in-class mini-workshops on various facets of product
•      Use similar-readiness critique groups during product development.
•      Develop rubrics or other benchmarks for success based on both grade-
       level expectations and individual student learning needs.
•      Allow students to use a range of media or formats to express their
       knowledge, understanding, and skill.
•      Provide opportunities for students to develop independent inquiries
       with appropriate teacher or mentor guidance.
•      Encourage students to work independently or with partner(s) on
       product development.

FROM: The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners by Carol Ann Tomlinson

              Sample Unit Schedule

Days 1 & 2          Whole-class instruction on key concepts and terminology
Days 3 & 4          Class moves to work individually and in small groups on new
                    material through tiered lessons.
Day 5               Class shares information as a whole group to clarify and
                    refine ideas.
Days 6 & 7          Tiered lessons.
Day 8               Class moves together to share and clarify.
Days 9 – 12        Explore and extend knowledge through tiered lessons, centers,
                   independent research, and contracts. Skill development
                   through flexible grouping, tiered lessons, centers, or contracts.
Days 13 & 14 Students share what they’re learning. New information given
             to complete the unit and begin work on products.
Days 15 – 19 Students complete work on differentiated activities and work
             on products.
Days 20 – 24 Final review of material, final assessment, and sharing of
             student products.

FROM: Dr. Kathie Nunley’s Layered Curriculum Web Site for Educators

                             Getting Started
    Start small—try one new idea or strategy at a time and select one
     curricular area to differentiate, not your whole curriculum.
    Acknowledge what you already do.
    Differentiate current units and activities.
    Talk with students about the fact that we all learn differently; help them
     to understand that assignments don’t have to be the same to be fair.
    Break students in slowly with brief tiered activities—grow from there.
    Set behavioral guidelines and discuss them with students.
    Arrange your classroom for group work.
    Establish routines for distributing and collecting materials and for
     turning in work.
    Discuss with students what to do when they finish a task early.
    Think through tasks ahead of time, and prepare and organize materials.
    Keep families informed.

FROM: Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom by Diane Heacox, Ed. D.

           Essential Principles Of

Principle 1:   Good curriculum comes first
Principle 2:   All tasks should be respectful of each learner
Principle 3:   When in doubt, teach up!
Principle 4:   Use flexible grouping
Principle 5:   Become an assessment junkie
Principle 6:   Grade for growth

             What’s In A Layer?

C Layer:
  Basic knowledge, understanding; builds on current level of core

B Layer:
  Application or manipulation of the information learned; problem
  solving or other higher level thinking tasks

A Layer:
  Critical thinking and analysis; highest and most complex thought

                                          Classroom Practices Inventory
Use this inventory to look at what you are already doing in your classroom to differentiate instruction.
Mark an “X” on each line to show where your current teaching practices lie on the continuum.

   Traditional classroom:                                           Differentiated classroom:

   Covering the curriculum is my first priority                     I base my teaching on students’ learning
   and directs my teaching.                                         needs as well as on the curriculum.

   Learning goals remain the same for all                           Learning goals are adjusted for students based
   students.                                                        on their needs.

                                                                    I emphasize critical and creative thinking and
   I emphasize mastery of content and skills.                       the application of learning.

                                                                    I match students to specific informational
   Students use the same informational resources                    resources based on their learning needs and
   (books, articles, Web sites).                                    abilities.

                                                                    I use several instructional formats (for
                                                                    example, whole class, small groups, partners,
   I primarily use whole-class instruction.                         individuals).

                                                                    As appropriate, I group students for
   I tend to group students heterogeneously.                        instruction based on their learning needs.

   All students move through the curriculum                         The pace of instruction may vary, based on
   together and at the same pace.                                   students’ learning needs.

                                                                    As appropriate, I give students opportunities
   All students complete the same activities.                       to choose activities based on their interests.

                                                                                                            Continued 

From Differentiated Instruction in the Regular Classroom: How to Reach and Teach All Learners, Grades 3-12 by Diane Heacox, Ed. D.,
copyright  2002. Free Spirit Publishing Inc., Minneapolis, MN; 800/735-7323; This page may be photocopied for
individual, classroom, or small group work only.

Classroom Practices Inventory continued . . .
Traditional classroom:                                           Differentiated classroom:
                                                                 I use a variety of instructional strategies (for
I tend to use similar instructional strategies                   example, lectures, manipulatives, role plays,
day to day.                                                      simulations, readings).

                                                                 Students complete different activities based
All students complete all activities.                            on their needs or learning preferences.

                                                                 I use methods for testing out of work and for
All students are involved in all instructional                   compacting (speeding up, eliminating,
activites.                                                       replacing) work, as appropriate.

                                                                 My enrichment work demands critical
My enrichment work provides more content                         and/or creative thinking and the production
or more application of skills.                                   of new ideas, thoughts, and perspectives.

                                                                 In reteaching, I use a different instructional
In reteaching, I provide more practice using                     method from the one I used to teach the
a similar instructional method.                                  material the first time.

My reteaching activities typically involve
lower-level thinking—knowledge and                               My reteaching activities demand higher-
comprehension—to reinforce basic skills                          level thinking while reinforcing basic skills
and content.                                                     and content.

                                                                 Before beginning a unit, I use preassessment
I assume that students have limited or no                        strategies to determine what students already
knowledge of curriculum content.                                 know.

                                                                 I use ongoing assessment to check students’
I usually assess students’ learning at the end                   learning throughout an instructional
of an instructional sequence.                                    sequence.

I typically use the same assessment tool,                        I allow for learner differences by providing
product, or project for all students.                            a variety of ways to show learning.

From Differentiated Instruction in the Regular Classroom: How to Reach and Teach All Learners, Grades 3-12 by Diane Heacox,
Ed. D., copyright  2002. Free Spirit Publishing Inc., Minneapolis, MN; 800/735-7323; This page may be
photocopied for individual, classroom, or small group work only.

                                   PSYCHOLOGY FOR KIDS
                             What’s Your Learning Style???
To learn, you depend on your senses to bring information to your brain. Most people tend to use one of
their senses more than the others.
Some people learn best by listening. They are called auditory learners. Other people learn best by
reading or seeing pictures. They are called visual learners. Still others learn best by touching and doing
things. They are called kinesthetic learners.
Knowing your learning style may help you learn. It may also explain why some things don’t make
sense to you.
For these questions, choose the first answer that comes to your mind. Don’t spend too much time
thinking about any question.

1. Which way would you rather learn how a computer works?
   a. Watching a movie about it
   b. Listening to someone explain it
   c. Taking the computer apart and trying to figure it out for yourself
2. Which would you prefer to read for fun?
   a. A travel book with a lot of pictures in it
   b. A mystery book with a lot of conversation in it
   c. A book where you answer questions and do puzzles
3. When you aren’t sure how to spell a word, which of these are you most likely to do?
   a. Write it out to see if it looks right
   b. Sound it out
   c. Write it out to sense if it feels right
4. If you were at a party, what would you be most likely to remember the next day?
   a. The faces of the people there, but not the names
   b. The names but not the faces
   c. The things you did and said while you were there
5. How would you rather study for a test?
   a. Read notes, read headings in a book, look at diagrams and illustrations
   b. Have someone ask you questions, or repeat facts silently to yourself
   c. Write things out on index cards and make models of diagrams
6. When you see the word “d-o-g,” what do you do first?
   a. Think of a picture of a particular dog
   b. Say the word “dog” to yourself silently
   c. Sense the feeling of being with a dog (petting it, running with it)
7. What do you find the most distracting when you are trying to concentrate?
   a. Visual distractions
   b. Noises
   c. Other sensations like hunger, tight shoes, or worry

8. How do you prefer to solve problems?
   a. Make a list, organize the steps, and check them off as they are done
   b. Make a few phone calls and talk to friends or experts
   c. Make a model of the problem or walk through all the steps in your mind
9. Which are you most likely to do while standing in a long line at the movies?
   a. Look at the posters advertising other movies
   b. Talk to the person next to you
   c. Tap your foot or move around in some way
10. You have just entered a science museum. What will you do first?
    a. Look around and find a map showing the locations of the exhibits
    b. Talk to a museum guide and ask about the exhibits
    c. Go into the first exhibit that looks interesting, and read directions later
11. When you are angry, which are you most likely to do?
    a. Scowl
    b. Shout or “blow up”
    c. Stomp off and slam the doors
12. When you are happy, what are you most likely to do?
    a. Grin
    b. Shout for joy
    c. Jump for joy
13. Which would you rather go to?
    a. An art class
    b. A music class
    c. An exercise class
14. Which of these do you do when you listen to music?
    a. Daydream (see images that go with the music)
    b. Hum along
    c. Move with the music
15. How would you rather tell a story?
    a. Write it out
    b. Tell it out loud
    c. Act it out
16. Which kind of restaurant would you rather not go to?
    a. One with the lights too bright
    b. One with the music too loud
    c. One with uncomfortable chairs

The answers indicate:
A’s – Visual
B’s – Auditory
C’s – Kinesthetic

It is not uncommon to use different learning styles for different tasks.

Find strength in the ordinary.             The Aurora Employee Assistance Program has
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The Aurora EAP: A free benefit for         quality services to help employees and
you and your family                        their families successfully meet home and
Your employer pays for this service. If    workplace challenges.
you or your family member need             As part of Aurora health Care, the
assistance beyond the scope of the         Employee Assistance Program is
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resources.                                 quality of life of the diverse populations we
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                                           providers addressing the full spectrum of
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treatment records. The Aurora EAP
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makes every effort to protect your
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participation in the program is
completely confidential.
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Welcome to Aurora’s Premier                   How it Works                                         Specialized Work-Life Services
Employee Assistance Program (EAP)             Help begins as soon as you make the first call        Child Care and Elder Care
The Aurora EAP has been serving               for assistance. An EAP specialist will listen to       Consultation, Information and
employees and families for nearly 25          your concerns and ask you relevant questions.          Referral. Our experts can guide you
years. Our dedicated team of                  Based on your needs, we will immediately:              through the array of options and help
professionals is committed to helping          connect you with a professional EAP                  you choose the most appropriate
you find healthy solutions for life:            counselor,                                           resources for you and your loved one.
solutions that can help you and your           schedule a consultation, or                         Educational Resource Assistance:
family deal with complications of your         link you with a specialized services to help you     K12 and Higher Education. We can
busy lives, solutions that get results –        balance the demands of work and family               match families with private and public
quickly, conveniently and confidentially.     If a telephone or in-person assessment is              schools and assist with choosing the
                                              indicated, the EAP counselor may offer a variety       most appropriate options, includng
Finding a Better Way                          of suggestions such as referral to a support           colleges and universities, as well as
Life is filled with change and uncertainty.   group, community resource or counseling.               understanding financial aid options and
The responsibilities and demands on           Sometimes the counselor’s suggestions may be           assisting in scholarship services.
our time can be overwhelming. It                                                                    Legal Consultation and Mediation
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happens to all of us. Calling the Aurora      concerns.                                              Services. If you need legal information
Employee Assistance Program can be                                                                   or guidance, your EAP privides a free
the first step towards taking charge of a     When to Use the Aurora EAP                             30-minute consultation with an
situation that is affecting your health       This varies with each individual. Generally, it is     experienced attorney in your area.
and well-being.                               wise to seek help when a problem:                      Mediation services offer a time- and
                                               occupies too much of your time,                       money-saving alternative for resolving
Eligibility                                    interferes with normal activities, or                 many legal issues.
The Aurora EAP is available to                 persists for more than two to three weeks.           Financial Consulation. Our certified
employees and family members                  Typical concerns may include:                          credit counselors can help you take
residing in the household.                     Adult stresses such as relationship issues,           control of your finances, whether you
                                               workplace concerns, anxiety and depression            need guidance in developing a budget
                                               Marital conflict                                      or a repayment plan to help you get
                                               Parent/child problems                                 and stay out of debt.
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                                               Divorce                                             Legal and Financial Resource Center
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                    Monthly Instructional Mentor Checklist

   Discuss:

             Contract signing

             Classroom inventories

             Year-end activities, awards

             Strategies for the final weeks of school

             Year-end reports

             Transfer possibilities

             Year-end cumulative folder information

             Summer school referrals

   Meeting with principal (March and June)

   Observation and feedback (pg. 178-206)

   Review Points to Ponder (pg. 176-177)

   Testing


   Review “The First Days of School” and share highlights with your mentor and other peers.

                                     POINTS TO PONDER

Readying the Learning Environment
1. Provide appropriate instruction, making sure no one sees himself or herself as a “dummy”.
2. Minimize unhealthy competition among students.
3. Personalize instruction in fact as well as in claim.
4. Solicit pupil interests as legitimate subjects to be studied.
5. Provide appropriate materials and methods of instruction.
6. Manage to have a pleasant and cheerful classroom setting.
7. Enlist the pupils in frequent campaigns to improve the classroom environment.
8. Help your pupils establish personal achievement goals.
9. Guarantee your pupils a relevant instructional program.
10. Allow for maximum self-directed learning.
11. Consider using contracts with pupils to improve performance and/or behavior.
12. Rearrange your classroom furniture.
13. Provide ample encounters with success.

Managing Classroom Routines
1. Provide a lot of physical involvement in learning.
2. Allow for different learning modalities to be served.
3. Solicit pupil suggestions daily and put them to use.
4. Use a signal system to help pupils remember.
5. Make all expectations perfectly clear.
6. Move freely about the classroom and interact with everyone.
7. Maintain eye contact with all students at their own level.
8. Provide an alternation of high-energy and low-energy activities.
9. Develop group pride in your class’ uniqueness and identity.
10. Keep your class members aware of the uniqueness of every individual.
11. Vary your voice as you address different groups.
12. Give all students an equal chance to participate.
13. Encourage pupils to undertake responsibility for their own welfare.
14. Move briskly through the day.
15. Change activities before interest starts to lag.
16. Use pupils’ names liberally during group interactions.
17. Overprepare to keep pupils’ attention engaged.
18. Solicit student input into selected problems.
19. Reduce your classroom rules to an absolute minimum.
20. Redirect the attention of those pupils whose actions are wandering from the task.
21. Catch your students being good.
22. Use examples of positive reinforcement instead of negative ones.
23. Plan strategies to deal with aggressive behaviors.
24. Incorporate behavior modification techniques for problem cases.
25. Change your location in the classroom itself.

Coping with Individuals
1. Confer with parents before problems escalate.
2. Confer with colleagues who are also familiar with the pupil.
3. Maintain anecdotal records on pupil behavior.
4. Ask the student to keep a log or a diary.
5. Use video or audio taping to analyze the setting and the pupil responses.
6. Assess pupils diagnostically rather than for group comparisons.
7. Provide appropriate resource areas and special materials.
8. Approach each pupil fresh each day.
9. Ask pupils to think of reasons for their misbehavior.
10. Ask pupils to tell how they felt while misbehaving.
11. Ask pupils to describe the situation from the other person’s point of view.
12. Require appropriate compensatory actions for misdeeds.
13. At times, let the offender help decide appropriate consequences.
14. Provide frequent reminders and ignore much of what you see.
15. Plan as carefully a punishment as you would plan any other learning activity.

“111 Alternatives to Abusive Discipline” was compiled by Hal Malehorn of Eastern Illinois University

                                50 Tips on Motivating Students
1. Know your students and use their names as             17. Accept students’ ideas and comments, even
   often as possible.                                        if they are wrong; correct in a positive
2. Plan for every class; never try to wing it.               manner.
                                                         18. Maintain eye contact and move toward your
3. Pay attention to the strengths and                        students as you interact with them; be sure
   limitations of each of your students.                     to nod your head to show that you are
   Reward the strengths and strengthen the                   hearing what they say.
   weak spots.                                           19. Give lots of positive feedback when
4. Set your room in a U-shape to encourage                   students respond, offer their ideas, perform
   interaction among the students.                           a task correctly, come to class on time,
5. Send lots of positive messages with posters,              bring their materials to class.
   bulletin boards and pictures.                         20. Foster an active student organization.
6. Be sure that your classroom is comfortable;           21. Use appropriate humor in your teaching and
   check the air circulation, temperature,                   in tests, to relieve anxiety.
   lighting and humidity.                                22. Post program-related cartoons, and use
7. Keep the laboratory well organized and                    them on overheads and in handouts.
   efficient.                                            23. Provide opportunities for the students to
8. Vary your instructional strategies; use                   speak to the class.
   illustrated lectures, demonstrations,                 24. Be available before class starts, during
   discussions, computers, tutoring, coaching                break, and after class to visit with students
   and more.                                                 who wish to see you.
9. Review the class objective each day. Be               25. Return assignments and tests to students
   sure the students see how the entire                      ASAP. Be sure to make positive comments
   program moves along.                                      and suggestions.
10. Make your instruction relevant. Be sure              26. Teach by asking lots of questions during
    your students see how the content relates to             introductions, presentations,
    them and the world of work.                              demonstrations, and laboratory work.
11. Open each presentation with an                       27. Plan laboratory activities so that all of the
    introduction that captures the interest of               necessary tools, equipment and materials
    your students.                                           are available when the students are ready to
12. Move around the room as you teach; walk                  use them.
    energetically and purposefully.                      28. Give the students an opportunity to
13. Be expressive with your face - SMILE!                    participate in the organization and
14. Put some excitement into your speech; vary               management of the classroom.
    your pitch, volume and rate.                         29. Be aware of those students requiring
15. Use demonstrative movements of the head,                 assistance, and then see that they get it.
    arms, and hands; keep your hands out of              30. Maximize the use of time so that the
    your pockets.                                            students keep busy with productive,
16. Use words that are highly descriptive; give              relevant activities.
    lots of examples.                                    31. Be a model of the work ethic in your dress,
                                                             language, support of the school and respect
                                                             for the profession.

32. Be consistent in your treatment of students.          By Richard Sullivan and Jerry Wircenski
33. Make sure that your tests are current, valid
    and reliable. They must be based on your
    curriculum objectives.
34. Organize a “student of the month” award.
35. Invite parents, advisory committee
    members and school administrators to visit
    your program for special activities.
36. Plan relevant study trips out of the school.
37. Bring a dynamic subject matter expert into
    your program.
38. Recognize appropriate behavior and reward
    it on a continuing basis.
39. Use a surprise - an interesting film, special
    break, or similar activity - to reward the
    class for good behavior.
40. Use games and simulations to spark
    interest, provide a break in the routine, and
    to supplement a unit in your curriculum.
41. Praise students in front of the class;
    reprimand them in private.
42. Explain why rules are used, why activities
    are important, and why some requests must
    be denied.
43. Involve all of your students in your
44. Provide clear directions for program
    activities and assignments.
45. Plan around 15-30 minute cycles - students
    have difficulty maintaining attention after a
    longer period of time.
46. Provide opportunities for the students to
    read alone and in a group.
47. Make home visits (in the summer) for new
    students entering your program.
48. Send “happy-grams” home to parents
49. Use task and job sheets to help students
    remember the steps to perform skills.
50. Be enthusiastic about yourself, your
    students, and your profession.


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