SOUTH CHINA SEA - 2nd TRACK DIPLOMACY

Document Sample
SOUTH CHINA SEA - 2nd TRACK DIPLOMACY Powered By Docstoc
					                        Hanoi, 26-27 November 2009


 SOUTH CHINA SEA - 2nd TRACK DIPLOMACY
                         By:
           Prof. Dr. Hasjim Djalal, MA


1.South China Sea Workshop Process: Some
 Backgrounds:
  a.There were already armed conflicts between
    China and Vietnam before 1990
  b.There were a number of bilateral, trilateral, and
    multilateral territorial disputes.
  c. There was rush to seek resources, either living
    or non-living/minerals.
  d.Some historical confrontation and conflicts
    between the countries in the area, including
    between China and Southeast Asia.



                                                    1
   e.The interest of outside powers on South China
     Sea, particularly in terms of navigation and
     over flight.




2.Indonesian Position;
   a. Indonesia borders on the South China Sea but
     not a participant in the multiple disputes over
     Spratly Islands group.
   b.In the 1980’sIndonesia was worried that the
     South China Sea may become new flash points
     of conflicts in the area that may affect peace
     and stability in Southeast Asia.
   c. At that time ASEAN did not have any
     perspective on the South China Sea. In fact,
     there are a lot of disputes between the ASEAN
     countries themselves.
                                                   2
   d.At that time ASEAN did not yet include
     Indochina (Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam).


3.Indonesian informal initiatives:
   a.In view of difficulties in taking formal initiative, I
     traveled across the other 5 ASEAN countries at
     that time to discuss what could be done. I
     found out that :
         i. Practically everybody thought that we
           should do something.
        ii. There was apprehension that territorial
           disputes could pose major difficulties in
           developing cooperative efforts.
        iii. It would be better if the approach was
           informal, at least at the initial stage.
        iv. There was some opinion that ASEAN
           members should coordinate their views
           first before engaging non-ASEAN states

                                                          3
          in the process. (I did not share this
          opinion).


4.In attempting to manage the potential conflicts
 in the South China Sea, I developed 3
 objectives:
   a.To device cooperative programs in which
     everyone could participate, no matter how
     small or insignificant it may appear in the
     beginning.
   b.Promote confidence building process.
   c. Encourage dialogue between the parties to
     seek solutions to their problems.


5.Seeking cooperative programs:
   a. The first meeting of the workshop in 1990 (in
     Bali) was attended only by the Six ASEAN
     Countries.

                                                  4
   b.I devised six topics for discussion, on which
     each ASEAN country was requested to take
     the lead;
        i. Territorial   and   sovereignty     issues:
           Malaysia
        ii. Political and security issues: Singapore.
       iii. MSR    and    environmental    protection:
           Indonesia.
       iv. Safety of navigation:-Philippines
        v. Resources management : Thailand
       vi. Institutional mechanism for cooperation:
           Brunei Darussalam


6.In the subsequent meetings of the workshop, we
 were able to bring in China, Taiwan (Chinese
 Taipei), Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, particularly
 after the achievement of peace in Cambodia, and
 the entry of the Indochinese countries into ASEAN.

                                                        5
7.It was not easy to bring in China into the workshop
 process, perhaps because of;
     a.its dislike to “regionalize” or “internationalize”
       the South China Sea problems;
     b.the inclusion of Chinese Taipei in the
       process.
     c. China regarded that whatever problems it
       had with the other countries, China would
       solve it directly and bilaterally.


8.The workshop process has continued annually in
 Indonesia since 1990 and the 19th workshop is now
 being planned in November 2009. In addition, the
 workshop process also worked through various
 Technical Working Groups (TWG’s) and Group of
 Expert Meeting (GMS) and Study Groups (SG) in
 various places around the South China Sea Area,
 hosted by their respective countries.

                                                        6
9.There are five TWG’s, namely on (1) Marine
 Scientific Research, (2) Resource Assessment, (3)
 marine environmental protection, (4) safety of
 navigation, shipping and communication, and (5)
 on legal matters.


10. The cooperation on MSR is perhaps the most
 advance,   particularly   after   the   bio-   diversity
 expedition around Anambas Islands. Now we are
 actively preparing and developing cooperation on
 how to deal with sea level rise as the result of
 global climatic change.


11. During the last meeting (18th Workshop in
 Menado in November 2008), China and Chinese
 Taipei agreed for the first time to submit a joint
 proposal before the next meeting (November 2009)
 combining the Chinese concept on Education,
 Training Course and Exchange of Marine Science
                                                        7
 and Technology in the South China Sea, and the
 Chinese Taipei proposal on “Southeast Asia
 Network for Education (SEA – ONE)”. Hopefully the
 Joint proposal would soon be approved and
 implemented, thus becomes another milestone in
 building up peace and cooperation in the South
 China Sea.


12. Confidence building process:


   a.After    several   meetings,    discussion    on
     territorial and sovereignty issues as well as
     on political and security issues have stalled,
     mainly because of the reluctant of the parties to
     go on. Yet, the discussions have brought better
     understanding of the problems involved.
   b.Discussion    on   confidence    building    had
     brought some results:

                                                     8
         i. No major expansion of military presence
            in the disputed area recently.
        ii. No major occupation of the reefs and the
            banks.
        iii. It    appears   that   more     contact   and
            transparency have developed between
            the authorities concerned.
        iv. More code of conducts between the
            parties have developed, such as:
                  1)   The China-Philippines code of
                   conduct (1995)
                  2)   Vietnam-Philippines     code     of
                   conduct
                  3)   ASEAN-China code of conduct
                   (2002)
China-Vietnam delimitation agreement in the Gulf of
T⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
                                                         9
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪policy and legislation.Need to take into
account the interest of the non parties that maybe
interested in the peaceful
solution⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪牜楳⨪⨪ㄴ⨪牜楳⨪⨪⨪〷牜楳
⨪ㄲ⨪ㄲ牜楳⨪⨪⨪㈲牜楳⨪⨪ㄲ⨪牜楳⨪ㄹ⨪㈴牜楳⨪⨪
⨪ㄷ牜楳ㅤ⨪⨪⨪尲獲摩ㄱ⨪⨪㈵牜楳ㅤ⨪〱⨪就獲摩ㄱ
⨪⨪⨪牜楳ㅤ⨪㌸⨪尷獲摩㈱⨪⨪㌹牜楳ㅤ〲〶⨪尴獲摩
㈱⨪⨪⨪牜楳ㅤ⨪⨪⨪尶獲摩㈱㈹⨪⨪牜楳ㅤ〳⨪⨪尳獲
摩㌱㈵⨪⨪⨪牜楳ㅤㄴ⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪汜湩尰瑩灡‰牜
汴档晜獣‱慜て慜獦⨪慜慬杮〱⨪尠瑬捲屨捦び尠獦
⨪汜湡ㅧ㌰尳慬杮敦〱㌳捜牧摩汜湡湧ㅰ㌰尳慬杮敦
灮〱㌳笠牜汴档晜獣‱慜てഠ尊瑬捲屨捦び尠湩牳楳⨪
⨪⨪ㄷ尠档瑦獮灥⨪⨪灜牡素屽瑬灲牡尠敳瑣⨪汜牴敳
瑣汜湩硥尰湥湤敨敲獜捥汴湩来楲㍤〶獜捥摴晥畡瑬
汣獜捥牴⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
                                                 10
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪___________________________
_______________________________________________
_____⨪﹨嘻⨪⨪割伀⨪儀⨪帀⨪_⨪꽨頄_⨪⨪⨪_⨪⨪⨪
⨪_j_⨪⨪⨪ ⨪唀Ĉ⨪⨪윓
⨪洀H渄H甄Ĉ‫⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪؀‬
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪〶牜ど獜㍬〶獜浬汵ㅴ
睜摩瑣灬牡⨪橜汣獩瑴扡瑜⨪〶睜慲摰晥畡瑬慜灳污桰
屡獡湰浵晜慡瑵屯獬就摡番瑳楲桧屴楲の汜湩⨪尰瑩
灡尰慰慲獲摩㈱⨪⨪㌹笠牜汴档晜獣‱慜ㅦ尠瑬捲屨
捦び尠ㅦ晜㑳尲湩牳楳ㅤ⨪⨪㈵尶档牡獲摩ㄱ⨪⨪⨪匠
畯桴⨪楨慮匠慥屻尪浸捬潬敳⁽潗歲桳灯倠潲散獳›筽⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
                                             11
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪a borders on
the South China Sea but not a participant in the multiple
disputes over Spratly Islands group.In the
1980’sIndones⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪慜ㅦ尠瑬捲屨捦び尠ㅦ晜
㑳尲湩牳楳㉤⨪㈸⨪捜慨牲楳ㅤ⨪㌸⨪‷漠桴⨪⨪屻尪
浸潬数屮浸湬㉳屻慦瑣楯湤浡⨪汰捡絥卽畯桴⨪楨慮匠
慥屻尪浸捬潬敳⨪⨪慦瑣筽牜汴档晜獣‱慜ㅦ尠瑬
捲屨捦び尠ㅦ晜㑳尲湩牳楳ㅤ⨪⨪⨪尵档牡獲摩ㄱ⨪⨪
⨪⨪筽牜汴档晜獣‱慜ㅦ尠瑬捲屨捦び尠ㅦ晜㑳⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪慨牲楳ㅤ⨪㌸⨪‷湩筽牜汴档晜獣‱慜ㅦ尠瑬
捲屨捦び尠ㅦ晜㑳尲湩牳楳㉤⨪㈸⨪捜慨牲楳ㅤ⨪㌸⨪‷
琠歡湩⨪潦浲污椠楮楴瑡癩⨪⨪琠慲敶敬⨪捡潲獳琠敨
筽牜汴档晜獣‱慜ㅦ尠瑬捲屨捦び尠ㅦ晜㑳尲湩牳楳
ㅤ⨪⨪⨪尵档牡獲摩ㄱ⨪⨪⨪†瑯敨⨪紵⨪尊瑲捬屨捦ㅳ
尠晡‱汜牴档晜獣‰晜就⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
                                                       12
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪
⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪⨪獲摩⨪㈷㈱‷
桜捩屨晡就扤档慜て汜捯屨ㅦ⨪尮慴絢屽慰摲尠瑬灲
牡煜晜⨪⨪尰楬⨪尰楲尰汳⨪尰汳畭瑬就楷捤汴慰⨪尊
捪楬瑳慴屢硴⨪尰ㅤ




                             13

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Stats:
views:83
posted:3/11/2012
language:English
pages:13
Description: By: Prof. Dr. Hasjim Djalal, MA Hanoi, 26-27 November 2009