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Febrian A. Ruddyard Director for International Security and Disarmament Ministry of Foreign Affairs 31 May 2009
A QUEST FOR WORLD PEACE THROUGH DISARMAMENT Febrian A. Ruddyard Director for International Security and Disarmament Ministry of Foreign Affairs 31 May 2009 Outline of Presentation 1. Introduction: In Search of Peace 2. The Concept and Scope of Disarmament 3. Disarmament Machinery 4. Conventional Weapons 5. Weapons of Mass Destruction 6. Challenges to the Disarmament 7. Indonesia and Disarmament 8. Conclusion 1. Introduction: In Search of Peace Threats toward: • Political security • Economic development • Human rights and international law 2. The Concept and Scope of Disarmament • Concept: Disarmament as a process: a process of eliminating weapons Disarmament as an end: the absence of weapons Disarmament >< Arms Control General and Complete Disarmament • Scope: Prohibition of Use, Production, Development, Transfer, Stockpiling Excluding activities for legitimate peaceful uses, i.e: health, energy, industry, agriculture. 3. Disarmament Machinery • The Conference on Disarmament • The First Committee of UNGA on Disarmament and International Security • The UN Disarmament Commission • Special Sessions on Disarmament 4. Conventional Weapons • Anti Personnel Landmines Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and Their Destruction (Ottawa Convention) : 1 March 1999, States parties: 156 • Cluster Munitions Convention on Cluster Munitions : will enter into force on 1 August 2010 Signatories: 106, Ratifying states: 34 (as of May 2010) • Small Arms and Light Weapons Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat, and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons, in All Its Aspects Adopted at 2001 UN Conference on the Illicit Traffic in SALW in All Its Aspects • Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons The Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects (Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons/CCW) States parties: 109, Indonesia is not a party 5. Weapons of Mass Destruction • Nuclear weapons - Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT): 5 March 1970 - Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT): - • Biological weapons Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (BTWC): 26 March1975 • Chemical weapons Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (CWC): 29 April 1997 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Overview • An internationally-negotiated and -agreed treaty to limit the spread of nuclear weapons • Entered into force in 1970; 189 state parties to the treaty; only four recognized sovereign states are not: India, Israel, Pakistan, and North Korea • Three pillars: nuclear disarmament, non- proliferation, the inalienable right to peaceful uses of nuclear energy: 6. Challenges to the Disarmament • Universalization not yet universal, CTBT has not even entered into force • Verification mechanism BTWC has not a verification mechanism yet • Proliferation WMD terrorism, illicit trade of SALW • Discrimination NPT: NWS ~ NNWs Con’t • Bind state actors but not non-state actors • A balance between disarmament, non-proliferation and peaceful uses • “Effective multilateralism” outside the UN Selective, discriminative, non-inclusive and unilateral initiatives, i.e.: PSI, Megaport Initiative, Container Security Initiative, Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT), Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) • Export control regime establishment Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG), Wassenaar Arrangement dan Australian Group 7. Indonesia and Disarmament • Indonesia to ratify CTBT • Indonesia complies with its obligations under NPT, BTWC, CWC, Ottawa Convention (non-proliferation, destruction, reporting) • Indonesia is the Coordinator of NAM Working Group on Disarmament • Chairman of the NPT Prepcom in 2004 8. Conclusion • Disarmament for international security As a process As an end • Response to challenges ahead by multilateral approach THANK YOU QUESTIONS? COMMENTS?
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