Chapter 23 section 4 by dfhdhdhdhjr

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									Chapter 23 section 4
        1917
Bad results of the year
1) Russia Leaves the war
2) Offenses were terrible against them
Good results of the year
 1) U.S. joins the war
    This brings a psychological boost
    Also more weapons and men to fight
     A New Offensive
   Germans decided to
    launch a new
    offensive to end the
    stalemate
   Erich Ludendorff
    was the planner of
    this offensive.
   1 last gamble for the
    Krauts….I mean
    Germans.
     Offensive Launched

   March of 1918, it began
   By April, they were within 50 miles of Paris
   The offensive was stopped at the second battle of
    the Marne.
   August 8, second battle of the Somme took place
   1 million Americans poured into France
   Germans were pushed back
   Ludendorff said all was lost.
Opinions Change

   Public opinion in Germany began to
    change
   Many wanted the war over
   William II stepped down in Germany
   Friedrich Ebert, a social democrat took
    over in Germany
   He officially signed the Armistice in
    ending the war on Nov. 11th, 1918.
     Revolutionary Forces

   The war in Germany was not over
    however…
   Radical socialists formed the German
    Communist Party
   They attempted to seize power in Berlin
    and Munich.
   Both attempts were defeated, but it left the
    German people with a deep fear of
    communism.
Revolutionary Forces in
Eastern Europe
   Austria-Hungary broke apart after the
    war
   Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and
    Yugoslavia, were all new nations.
   The ethnic rivalries in these countries
    would continue however.
Europe Before WWI
Europe After WWI
    Peace Settlements
 January 1919, Representatives of 27
  victorious nations met to form a
  peace agreement.
 As the course of the war changed,
  so did the reasons for fighting it.
 This was especially true for
  Woodrow Wilson, President of the
  United States
    Wilson’s Proposals
   He had very idealistic reasons for fighting
    the war. (what does idealistic mean?)
   The war to end all wars was his main
    philosophy
   He called for open peace talks where
    every nation could hear the discussion.
    No secret deals made behind closed
    doors could be made.
     Wilson Continued
   He also called WWI, the
    war against absolutism
    and militarism.
   He called for cooperation
    around the world for his
    ideas
   Many loved the ideas, but
    felt they were too
    idealistic.
     Paris Peace Conference
    This is where the countries met to work out the
     treaty at the end of the war
    There were 2 major problems though:
1)   There were many secret agreements made
     before the war. Most of these were promises
     from one nation to another.
2)   National interests of nations were more
     important than the idealistic proposals of
     Wilson. For example: The French had one thing
     on their mind….Punish the Germans.
David Lloyd George, Giorgio Sonnino,
Georges Clemenceau, Woodrow Wilson
     George Clemenceau
   Believed France suffered the most
   He was very concerned about his country’s
    national interests due to their proximity to
    Germany
   He also believed in reparations from Germany:
    No weapons for Germany in addition to
    payments to the allies
   He also wanted a buffer zone between France
    and Germany in the Rhineland. (Region along
    the Rhine river bordering France and Germany)
   He also had a tremendous hatred of Germany
The Rhineland is in yellow.
     Treaty of Versailles

   Consisted of 5 separate treaties for
    Austria, Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and
    Turkey. (The losers in the war)
   The key nation was of course Germany
   Here were the conditions they faced in
    the treaty.
     Conditions for Germany
   War guilt clause: Germany was blamed
    for the war
   Reparations: Had to make payments to
    the winners of the war, especially France
    and England
   Military was cut: Could only have
    100,000 men, Navy was cut, No Air force
   Territorial provisions: Land was taken
    away: Lorraine and Alsace given back to
    France.
   Eastern Germany became Poland
Alsace Region of France
     Legacies of the War
   The war completely redrew the map of
    Europe
   Nation states emerged: Finland, Latvia,
    Estonia, Lithuania, Poland,
    Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary
   Mixtures of people made it impossible to
    draw lines based solely on ethnicity
   This led to many ethnic minorities in every
    European nation.

								
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