Chapter 23 section 4 1917 Bad results of the year 1) Russia Leaves the war 2) Offenses were terrible against them Good results of the year 1) U.S. joins the war This brings a psychological boost Also more weapons and men to fight A New Offensive Germans decided to launch a new offensive to end the stalemate Erich Ludendorff was the planner of this offensive. 1 last gamble for the Krauts….I mean Germans. Offensive Launched March of 1918, it began By April, they were within 50 miles of Paris The offensive was stopped at the second battle of the Marne. August 8, second battle of the Somme took place 1 million Americans poured into France Germans were pushed back Ludendorff said all was lost. Opinions Change Public opinion in Germany began to change Many wanted the war over William II stepped down in Germany Friedrich Ebert, a social democrat took over in Germany He officially signed the Armistice in ending the war on Nov. 11th, 1918. Revolutionary Forces The war in Germany was not over however… Radical socialists formed the German Communist Party They attempted to seize power in Berlin and Munich. Both attempts were defeated, but it left the German people with a deep fear of communism. Revolutionary Forces in Eastern Europe Austria-Hungary broke apart after the war Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, were all new nations. The ethnic rivalries in these countries would continue however. Europe Before WWI Europe After WWI Peace Settlements January 1919, Representatives of 27 victorious nations met to form a peace agreement. As the course of the war changed, so did the reasons for fighting it. This was especially true for Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States Wilson’s Proposals He had very idealistic reasons for fighting the war. (what does idealistic mean?) The war to end all wars was his main philosophy He called for open peace talks where every nation could hear the discussion. No secret deals made behind closed doors could be made. Wilson Continued He also called WWI, the war against absolutism and militarism. He called for cooperation around the world for his ideas Many loved the ideas, but felt they were too idealistic. Paris Peace Conference This is where the countries met to work out the treaty at the end of the war There were 2 major problems though: 1) There were many secret agreements made before the war. Most of these were promises from one nation to another. 2) National interests of nations were more important than the idealistic proposals of Wilson. For example: The French had one thing on their mind….Punish the Germans. David Lloyd George, Giorgio Sonnino, Georges Clemenceau, Woodrow Wilson George Clemenceau Believed France suffered the most He was very concerned about his country’s national interests due to their proximity to Germany He also believed in reparations from Germany: No weapons for Germany in addition to payments to the allies He also wanted a buffer zone between France and Germany in the Rhineland. (Region along the Rhine river bordering France and Germany) He also had a tremendous hatred of Germany The Rhineland is in yellow. Treaty of Versailles Consisted of 5 separate treaties for Austria, Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and Turkey. (The losers in the war) The key nation was of course Germany Here were the conditions they faced in the treaty. Conditions for Germany War guilt clause: Germany was blamed for the war Reparations: Had to make payments to the winners of the war, especially France and England Military was cut: Could only have 100,000 men, Navy was cut, No Air force Territorial provisions: Land was taken away: Lorraine and Alsace given back to France. Eastern Germany became Poland Alsace Region of France Legacies of the War The war completely redrew the map of Europe Nation states emerged: Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary Mixtures of people made it impossible to draw lines based solely on ethnicity This led to many ethnic minorities in every European nation.
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