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					       World War II
“Yesterday, December 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy
– the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately
attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.”
                    Franklin Delano Roosevelt asking for a Declaration of War
                                    Congressional Record, December 8 , 1941
        Timeline of Events
• 1931
• The Empire State Building opens in New
  York City
• Japan conquers Manchuria in northern China
         Timeline of Events
• 1932
  – Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected
    president
• 1933
  – Adolf Hitler is appointed German
    chancellor and sets up Dachau
    concentration camp
  – Prohibition ends
        Timeline of Events
• 1934
• Stalin begins great purge in U.S.S.R.
• Chinese communists flee in the Long March
         Timeline of Events
• 1936
  – Jesse Owens wins four gold medals in
    Olympics in Berlin, Germany
  – Ethiopia’s Halle Selassie asks League of
    Nations for help against Italian invasion
  – General Francisco Franco leads a fascist
    rebellion in Spain
  – Roosevelt is reelected
         Timeline of Events
• 1937
  – Amelia Earhart mysteriously disappears
    attempting solo round the world flight
• 1938
  – Orson Welles broadcasts The War of the
    Worlds, a fictional alien invasion
  – Kristallnacht – Nazis riot, destroying
    Jewish neighborhoods
          Timeline of Events

• 1939
  – Germany invades Poland, Britain and France
    declare war on Germany
• 1940
  – Roosevelt is elected to a third term
  – Italy, Germany, and Japan sign a mutual defense
    pact becoming the Axis Powers
  – Selective Service begins
          Timeline of Events

• 1941
  – Lend-Lease Act is passed by Congress
  – Japan bombs Pearl Harbor
  – United States enters World War II
  – A. Philip Randolph demands that war industries
    hire African Americans
  – Hitler invades the Soviet Union
           Timeline of Events
• 1942
  – Roosevelt creates the War Production Board to
    coordinate mobilization
  – Japanese Americans are sent to relocation
    centers
  – In the Pacific, the Battle of Midway turned the
    tide in favor of the Allies
         Timeline of Events
• 1942
  – Nazis develop the “final solution” for
    exterminating Jews.
  – Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) is
    founded
  – Manhattan Project begins
           Timeline of Events

• 1943
  – Zoot-suit riots rock Los Angeles
  – Rommel’s forces surrender in North Africa
• 1944
  – On June 6, the Allies launch D-Day, a massive
    invasion of Europe
  – Roosevelt is elected to a fourth term
           Timeline of Events

• 1945
  – U.S. marines take Iwo Jima
  – Harry S Truman becomes president when
    Roosevelt dies
  – Nazi retreat begins after the Battle of the Bulge
  – Japan surrenders after atomic bombing of
    Hiroshima and Nagasaki
   Failures of the World War I
        Peace Settlement
• The Treaty of Versailles caused anger and
  resentment
• Germany was angry that they were blamed for
  starting the war, and were forced to pay
  reparations
• These problems overwhelmed the Weimar
  Republic—the democratic government put in
  place after WWI
• The Soviets were also angry with the carving up of
  their territories
Europe 1914---Europe 1919
  Failures of the World War I
       Peace Settlement
• The world was still not “safe for democracy”
• New democratic governments that emerged
  floundered
• Without a democratic tradition, people
  turned to authoritarian leaders to solve their
  economic and social problems
• Eventually many democratic governments
  collapsed
• Dictators seized power
 Emerging
Superpowers
Joseph Stalin transforms Soviet
             Union
• In Russia, democracy gave way to civil war
• The result: a communist state officially called
  the Soviet Union
• 1922—Lenin died
• 1924—Joseph Stalin took control of the
  country
• He focused on creating a model communist
  country
• He made agricultural and industrial growth the
  prime economic goals
Joseph Stalin transforms Soviet
             Union
• He abolished all privately owned farms and
  replaced them with collectives—large
  government owned farms—each worked by
  hundreds of families
• By 1939, Stalin had established a totalitarian
  government that tried to exert complete control
  over its citizens
• In a totalitarian state, individuals have no rights
  and the government suppresses all opposition
      The Rise of Fascist Italy
• Benito Mussolini was establishing his own
  totalitarian government
• High unemployment and inflation produced
  bitter strikes
• Alarmed by the threats, the middle and upper
  classes demanded stronger leadership
• Mussolini took advantage of the situation and
  played on fears of economic collapse and
  communism
• Mussolini easily won the support of Italians
       The Rise of Fascist Italy
• 1921—Mussolini established the Fascist Party
• Fascism—stressed nationalism and placed the
  interests of the state above those of individuals
• Power must rest with a single strong leader and a
  small group of devoted party members
• 1922-Mussolini and thousands of his followers,
  called “black shirts”, marched on Rome
• When important government officials, the army,
  and the police sided with the Fascists, the Italian
  king appointed Mussolini head of government
    The Rise of Fascist Italy
• Calling himself Il Duce, or “the leader”, he
  extended control to every aspect of Italian
  life
• Tourists marveled at how even the trains
  were on time
• He completed his goals through the crushing
  of all opposition and by making Italy
  totalitarian
           Nazis in Germany
• Hitler followed the same path Mussolini did to
  gain power
• After WW1, Hitler was a jobless soldier
• 1919—he joined the National Socialist German
  Workers’ Party (NAZI)
• He was a powerful public speaker
• He quickly became the party’s leader
• Calling himself Der Fuhrer, “the leader”, he
  promised to bring Germany out of chaos
           Nazis in Germany
• Adolph Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
• In the book, Hitler set forth the basic beliefs of
  Nazism that became the plan of action for the
  Nazi Party
• Nazism—German form of Fascism—based on
  extreme nationalism
• Hitler was born Austrian and dreamed of uniting
  all German speaking peoples in one empire
           Nazis in Germany
• Hitler wanted to enforce
  racial “purification”
• Germans—blue-eyed,
  blond-haired “Aryans”—
  formed a “master race”
  destined to rule the world
• “Inferior races”—Jews,
  Slavs, and all non-whites
  were deemed only fit to
  serve the Aryans
Nazis in Germany
         • National expansion
         • He believed that for
           Germany to thrive, it
           needed more living
           space
         • One of his goals was
           to secure the land
           entitled to the
           German people by
           any means necessary
           Nazis in Germany
• The Great Depression helped the Nazis come to
  power
• War debts and dependence on American loans
  and investments caused Germany’s economy was
  hit hard
• 6 million Germans were unemployed by 1932
• Many men out of work joined Hitler’s private
  army—Storm Troopers (brown shirts)
• Germans were desperate and turned to Hitler for
  help
          Nazis in Germany
• By mid 1932, the Nazis had become the
  strongest political party in Germany
• January 1933—Hitler appointed Chancellor
  (prime minister)
• Hitler quickly dismantled Germany’s democratic
  republic
• He established the Third Reich, or Third German
  Empire
• Hitler said the Third Reich would become the
  Thousand-year Reich
Militarists Gain Control in Japan
 • On the other side of the world nationalistic
   military leaders were trying to take control
   of the imperial government of Japan
 • These leaders shared Hitler’s belief for more
   living space
 • Ignoring protests from moderate officials,
   the militarists launched a surprise attack and
   seized control of Manchuria in 1931
Militarists Gain Control in Japan
 • The attack proved to be the greatest test of
   the newly formed League of Nations
 • Representatives were sent to investigate
 • Their report condemned Japan
 • Japan quit the League
 • The Militarists were now firmly in control of
   the Japanese government
Heading For War
Aggression in Europe and Africa
 • The League of Nations failed and European
   dictators noticed
 • In 1933, Hitler pulled out of the League
 • In 1935, he began a military buildup—
   violating the Treaty of Versailles
 • He then sent troops into the Rhineland—
   had been demilitarized as a result of the war
 • The League of Nations did nothing
 Aggression in Europe and Africa
• Mussolini also began building his own empire
• His first target: Ethiopia
• 1935—tens of thousands of Italian soldiers were ready to
  march on Ethiopia
• The League reacted with brave talk of “collective
  resistance to all acts of unprovoked aggression”
• When Mussolini attacked, the League reacted with an
  economic boycott
• The Ethiopian emperor who had been overthrown
  appealed to the League for help, but to no avail
• He replied to the League—”It’s us today, it will be you
  tomorrow”
    Civil War breaks out in Spain
• General Francisco Franco and other army officers rebelled
  against the Spanish republic
• Revolts broke out all over Spain
• The Spanish Civil War broke out
• The war aroused passions all over the world
• 3000 Americans formed the Abraham Lincoln Battalion
  and traveled to Spain to fight against Franco and Fascism
• Among the volunteers were African Americans still upset
  about Italy attacking Ethiopia the year before
• The limited aid was not enough to stop fascism
   Civil War breaks out in Spain
• The Western democracies remained neutral
• The Soviet Union sent equipment and advisers
• Hitler and Mussolini backed Franco’s forces with
  troops, weapons, tanks, and fighter planes
• The war forged a strong alliance between German
  and Italian dictators
• After a loss of almost 500,000 lives, Franco’s
  victory in 1939 established him as Spain’s fascist
  dictator
   Americans Cling to Isolationism
• In the 1930’s, many books were written arguing
  that the U.S. had been dragged into WW1 by
  greedy bankers and arms dealers
• Public outcries led to a congressional committee
• Led by North Dakota Senator Gerald Nye, the
  committee fueled the controversy by
  documenting the large profits that banks and
  manufacturers made during the war
• As the furor grew over these “merchants of death,”
  Americans became more determined than ever to
  avoid war
   Americans Cling to Isolationism
• to avoid appearing militaristic, the Girl Scouts
  changed their colors from green and khaki
• American isolationism eventually had an impact
  on Roosevelt’s foreign policy
• He officially recognized the Soviet Union in 1933
  and agreed to exchange ambassadors with Moscow
   Americans Cling to Isolationism
• He continued the nonintervention in Latin
  America with his Good Neighbor Policy and
  withdrew armed forces stationed there
• In 1934, he pushed the Reciprocal Trade
  Agreement Act through Congress
  – This act lowered trade barriers by giving the president
    the power to make trade agreements
  – It also aimed at lowering tariffs by as much as 50%
• Congress then passed a series of Neutrality Acts in
  1935
Americans Cling to Isolationism
• The first two Neutrality Acts outlawed arms
  sales or loans to nations at war
• The third act was passed in response to the
  fighting in Spain
  – This act extended the ban on arms sales and
    loans to nations engaged in civil wars
        Neutrality Breaks Down
• Despite efforts to legislate neutrality, Roosevelt found
  it impossible to remain neutral
• When Japan formally declared war on China in 1937,
  Roosevelt found a way around the neutrality acts
• The U.S. continued sending arms and supplies to
  China
• A few months later, Roosevelt spoke out against
  isolationism
• He called on peace-loving nations to “quarantine”
  aggressor nations in order to stop the spread of war
     Neutrality Breaks Down
• Isolationist newspapers spoke out claiming
  Roosevelt was leading the nation into war
• Roosevelt backed off in the face of criticism,
  but his speech began to shift the debate
             The War in Europe
• Hitler met with his advisers and declared that the only
  way to solve the “German Question” is through force
• The first phase was to absorb Austria and
  Czechoslovakia into The Third Reich
• On March 12, 1938, German troops marched into
  Austria unopposed
• There were about 3 million Germans living in the
  Sudetenland
• Hitler charged the Czechs were abusing the Sudeten
  Germans and began massing troops on the Czech
  border
             The War in Europe
• France and Britain both swore to protect Czechoslovakia
• Hitler invited both the French premier Edouard Daladier
  and British prime minister Neville Chamberlain to
  Munich
• When they arrived, Hitler promised this would be his “last
  territorial demand”
• They two leaders chose to believe him
• On September 30, 1938 all three signed the Munich
  Agreement, which turned the Sudetenland over to
  Germany without a single shot being fired
        The War in Europe
• Chamberlain returned home proclaiming
  peace
• Winston Churchill was not as satisfied with
  the Agreement
• Churchill believed France and Britain had
  adopted a form of appeasement—or giving
  up principles to pacify an aggressor
• Churchill responded with a warning of war
  on the horizon
       German Offensive Begins
• Churchill was right
• March 15, 1939, Hitler invaded the remaining part of
  Czechoslovakia
• About two months later, Hitler charged that the Poles
  were mistreating Germans in Poland
• He began massing an army to invade Poland
• Some thought he was bluffing
• An attack on Poland would bring Germany at odds
  with the Soviets
• At the same time it would also provoke war with France
  and Britain who had promised to protect Poland
    German Offensive Begins
• As tensions rose over Poland, Stalin signed a
  nonaggression act with Hitler
• Once bitter enemies, Stalin and Hitler now
  promised not to attack one another
• They then signed a second agreement
  promising to split Poland between each
  other
• With the danger of a two-front war
  eliminated, the fate of Poland was sealed
          Blitzkrieg in Poland
• Dawn, September 1, 1939—the German Luftwaffe
  began bombing Poland
• German tanks raced across the countryside
• This invasion was the first test of Germany’s
  blitzkrieg, or lightning war
• They made use of military technology to take the
  enemy by surprise and then quickly crush all
  opposition
• Two days later Britain and France declared war on
  Germany
        Blitzkrieg in Poland
• The blitzkrieg tactics worked perfectly
• Major fighting was over before the allies
  could mount an offensive
• In the last week of fighting, the Soviet Union
  attacked from the east and grabbed a portion
  of Poland
• By the end, Poland ceased to exist and WW2
  had begun
           The Phony War
• For the next several months, French and
  British soldiers sat on the Maginot Line
  staring into Germany waiting for something
  to happen
• A few miles away, the Germans sat on the
  Siegfried Line staring back
• The Germans called this the sitzkrieg “sitting
  war”
• Some newspapers called it the Phony War
               The Phony War
• Stalin began annexing the Baltic states of Estonia,
  Latvia, and Lithuania
• Late in 1939, Stalin sent troops into Finland
• After three months of fighting Finland surrendered
• In April 1940, Hitler suddenly attacked Denmark and
  Norway in order “to protect [those countries’]
  freedom and independence.”
• Hitler really wanted their sea coasts for his naval bases
• Next, Hitler turned on Belgium, Luxembourg, and
  the Netherlands
• The Phony War had ended
             The Fall of France
• The Maginot Line proved to be ineffective
• The German threatened to bypass the line by going
  through Belgium
• Hitler sent his generals through the Ardennes avoiding
  British and French troops
• The Germans marched toward Paris
• The Germans had trapped almost 400,000 French,
  British and Belgian soldiers
• They fled to the beaches of Dunkirk and escaped the
  Germans by crossing the Channel on fishing barges and
  small tugboats
         The Fall of France
• A few days later, Italy entered the war on the
  German side and began attacking France
  from the south
• On June 22, 1940, at Compiegne, Hitler
  handed French officers his terms of surrender
• Germans would occupy the northern part of
  France, and a Nazi-controlled puppet
  government, headed by Marshal Philippe
  Petain, would be set up at Vichy in the south
          The Fall of France
• Charles de Gaulle
  fled to England
  where he set up a
  government-in-
  exile and proclaimed
  “France has lost a
  battle, but France
  has not lost the war.”
           The Battle of Britain
• In the summer of 1940, the Germans assembled an
  invasion fleet along the French coast
• Even though they could not compete with Britain’s
  naval power, Germany launched an air war at the
  same time it launched a naval war on Britain
• The Luftwaffe began making bombing runs over
  Britain
• Its goal was to control the skies and defeat the RAF
• Hitler had over 2600 planes—in one day—August
  15—he sent over 2000 towards London
• For two solid months, London was pounded
          The Battle of Britain
• The fight lasted through the summer and fall
• At first the Germans targeted airfields, but then
  went after the cities
• With the help of radar, the RAF brilliantly fought
  against the Germans
• On September 15, 1940, the RAF shot down 185
  German planes, and lost only 26 of their own
• Six weeks later, Hitler called off the invasion
• But German bombers still continued to bomb
  British cities in order to disrupt production
Genocide
                The Holocaust
• When Hitler took control, he ordered all “non-Aryans”
  out of government jobs
• Jews were not the only victims of the Holocaust, but they
  were the center of the Nazis’ targets
• Anti-Semitism, or hatred of Jews, had a long history in
  many European countries
• For years Germans blamed the Jews for the economic
  struggles
• Hitler found many willing to share his belief that Jews
  were responsible for Germany’s economic problems and
  defeat in WW1
               Kristallnacht
• November 9-10, 1938, became known as
  Kristallnacht, or “night of broken glass”
• Storm Troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses
  and synagogues across Germany
• Around 100 Jews were killed
• Hundreds more injured
• 30,000 were arrested
• Afterward, the Germans blamed the Jews for the
  destruction
             Jewish Refugees
• Nazi’s tried to speed Jewish emigration, but ran
  into difficulty
• Jews were having trouble finding nations that
  would take them in
• France already had 40,000 refugees and did not
  want more
• Britain worried about fueling Anti-Semitism and
  refused to admit more than 80,000 refugees
• The U.S. allowed 100,000 refugees, but people
  wanted to close the doors
       Plight of the St. Louis
• Official indifference to the plight of the Jews
  was evident in the case of the ship St. Louis
• The German Ocean Liner passed by Miami in
  1939
• 740 of the 943 passengers had U.S.
  immigration papers, the Coast Guard
  followed the ship in case anyone decided to
  jump ship
• The ship was forced to return to Europe
            Final Solution
• By 1939, only about a quarter million Jews
  remained in Germany
• Other nations the Nazi’s occupied had
  millions more
• Obsessed with ridding Europe of Jews, Hitler
  imposed his “Final Solution”—a policy of
  genocide, or the systematic killing of an
  entire population
             The Condemned
• To accomplish the preservation of “the master
  race” Jews and other races were enslaved and killed
• Other groups that were targeted included:
  – Gypsies: Nazi’s believed were inferior
  – Freemasons: Nazis charged them with supporting the
    “Jewish conspiracy” to rule the world
  – Jehovah’s Witnesses: who refused to join the army or
    salute Hitler
• Other German’s were also targeted—thought to
  be unfit to be in the “master race”
The Condemned
       • Hitler began
         implementing his
         “final solution” in
         Poland with special
         Nazi death squads
       • Hitler’s “security
         squadrons” rounded
         up Jews and shot
         them on the spot
            Forced Relocation
• Jews were ordered into dismal, overcrowded
  ghettos—segregated Jewish areas in certain Polish
  cities
• The Nazis sealed off the ghettos with barbed wire and
  stone walls
• Life inside was miserable
• Bodies of victims piled up faster than they could be
  removed
• Factories were built alongside the ghettos
• The people were forced to work in these factories
• Jews formed resistance movements inside the
  ghettos—some public and some underground
      Concentration Camps
• Jews in communities not reached by the
  killing squads were shipped out to
  concentration camps
• Families were often separated
• Originally used to house political opponents
  and protesters
• Turned over to the SS and expanded to
  include other “undesirables”
      Concentration Camps
• Prisoners were crammed into wooden
  barracks—1000/barrack
• They shared quarters, meals, and fleas
• Jews worked from dawn till dusk or until
  they collapsed
• If they were too weak to work, they were
  killed
            The Final Stage
• The Final Solution reached its final stage in
  1942
• Hitler and his officials instituted the final
  phase of the mass killings—poisonous gas
• The overwork, beatings, bullets and
  starvation were not killing fast enough for
  the Nazis
• 6 death camps were built in Poland
              The Final Stage
• Each camp had several gas chambers where as
  many as 12,000 people could be killed in a day
• When prisoners arrived at Auschwitz, the largest
  of the camps, they were paraded in front of SS
  doctors
• The doctors would separate the ones that were
  weak from the ones that were strong
• They were then told to leave all their belongings
  with a promise of getting them later
           The Final Stage
• The ones destined to die were ushered into a
  room next to the chamber and told to
  undress to prepare for a shower
• The prisoners were even given pieces of soap
• They were then taken into the chamber and
  poisoned with cyanide gas
            The Final Stage
• The mass extermination was sometimes
  accompanied by cheerful music played by
  prisoners temporarily spared execution
• At first, the bodies were put in huge pits dug
  by other prisoners
• But other camps installed crematoriums to
  better hide the evidence of the mass killing
• If prisoners weren’t gassed, they were shot,
  hanged or injected with poison
            The Final Stage
• Others died of the horrible medical
  experiments carried out by camp doctors
• Some were injected with deadly germs in
  order to study the effect of disease on
  different groups of people
• Many others were used to test methods of
  sterilization as another way of improving the
  “master race”
Survivors
     • About 6 million Jews
       were slaughtered or
       died as a result of the
       concentration camps
     • Still, others escaped
       death—either with
       help or because the war
       ended
America Joins
the War Effort
   America Moves Towards War
• 1939—Roosevelt asked Congress to pass a “cash-
  and-carry” provision that allowed warring nations
  to buy U.S. arms as long as they paid cash and
  transported them in their own ships
• Roosevelt argued it would help France and Britain
  defeat Germany but keep the U.S. out of the war
• Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1939—
  ”cash-and-carry” act
                 Axis Threat
• The cash-and-carry policy was nearly too little to
  late
• By 1940, France had fallen and Britain was under
  siege
• By September 1940, the U.S. had provided Britain
  with hundreds of thousands of weapons and over
  50 ships for leases on British bases
• Churchill later remarked that this was a “decidedly
  unneutral act”
               Axis Threat
• September 27—Germany, Italy, and Japan
  signed a mutual defense treaty, the Tripartite
  Pact
• They became known as the Axis Powers
• This treaty aimed at keeping the U.S. out of
  the war
• If the U.S. did enter the war, they would be
  fighting a two ocean war
         Building U.S. Defenses
• Meanwhile, Roosevelt asked Congress to increase
  military spending
• In spite of years of isolationism, Nazi victories in
  1940 changed minds
• Congress also passed the nation’s first peace-time
  draft—Selective Training and Service Act
• 16 million men between 21 and 35 were drafted for
  one year and served only in the Western
  Hemisphere
 Roosevelt Runs for a Third Term
• 1940—Roosevelt broke the tradition of a two-
  term presidency and decided to run for a third
  term (T.R. had done this nearly 40 years before
  with non-consecutive terms)
• The Republican candidate, Wendell Willkie,
  supported Roosevelt’s policies and they both
  promised to keep us out of the war
• Since there was very little difference between the
  two, the majority of voters chose the only one
  they knew best
Roosevelt   Wendell Willkie
           Lend-Lease Plan
• After the election, Roosevelt explained that
  it would be impossible to negotiate a peace
  with Hitler
• By late 1940, Britain had no more money for
  the war
• Roosevelt suggested the Lend-Lease Policy
• Under this plan, the president lends or leases
  arms and other supplies to any country
  whose defense was vital to the U.S.
             Lend-Lease Plan
• Isolationists
  argued against the
  plan, but most
  Americans favored
  it
• Congress passed
  the Lend-Lease
  Act in March 1941
          Supporting Stalin
• In June 1941, Hitler broke his agreement
  with Stalin
• Roosevelt began sending lend-lease supplies
  to the S.U.
• Some Americans opposed working with
  Stalin
• Roosevelt agreed with Churchill when he
  said, “if Hitler invaded Hell, Britain would be
  willing to work with the devil himself.”
           German Wolf Packs
• To send the supplies, supply lines had to be kept open
• Hitler tried to stop the lend-lease supplies by sending
  U-Boats to attack the convoys
• From spring to fall of 1941, individual surface attacks
  by individual U-boats gave way to what became
  known as the wolf pack attack
• U-boats were successful in sinking as much as
  350,000 tons of shipments in a single month
• September 1941—Roosevelt gave the navy permission
  to attack German U-boats in self-defense
          German Wolf Packs
• By late 1943, the
  submarine menace
  was contained by
  electronic detection
  techniques and by
  airborne
  antisubmarine
  patrols
              Atlantic Charter
• In 1941, the House extended the term of draftees
• Roosevelt began planning for the war he knew would
  come
• Roosevelt and Churchill met secretly at a summit aboard
  the USS Augusta
• Both agreed to the Atlantic Charter—both countries
  pledged collective security, disarmament, self-
  determination, economic cooperation, and freedom of
  the seas
• Roosevelt told Churchill he could not ask Congress to
  declare war on Germany, but that he would do everything
  to “force an incident”
          Atlantic Charter
• The charter became the basis of a new
  document—”A Declaration of the United
  Nations”
• The term United Nations was suggested by
  Roosevelt to express the common purpose of
  the Allies
• The declaration was signed by 26 nations
              Shoot on Sight
• When German U-boats fired on the U.S. destroyer
  Greer in the Atlantic September 4, 1941, Roosevelt
  ordered the navy to shoot on sight
• Two weeks later, the Pink Star, a merchant ship, was
  sunk off the coast of Greenland
• Again in October, U-boats sank the U.S. destroyer
  Kearny and 11 lives were lost
• Days later, Germans sank the Reuben James killing
  more than 100 sailors
• “…history has recorded who fired the first shot.”
Japan’s Ambitions in the Pacific
• Japan’s expansion began with Manchuria
• Only U.S. territories remained in their way
• Japan began with French military bases in
  Indochina
• U.S. responded by cutting off trade with Japan
• The embargoed goods included oil—Japan
  could be defeated without oil
• Japan had a choice—persuade the U.S. to end
  its oil embargo or seize the oil fields in the
  Dutch East Indies
     Peace Talks are Questioned
• Hideki Tojo (prime minister) met with the emperor
  Hirohito
• He promised to preserve peace with the U.S.
• But on November 5, 1941, Tojo ordered the Japanese
  navy to prepare for an attack on the U.S.
• The U.S. had broken Japanese codes and learned they
  were preparing for attack, but didn’t know where
• Late November—Roosevelt sent out a “war warning”
  to the commanders in the Pacific
• Roosevelt wanted Japan to commit the first act
  Peace Talks are Questioned
• The Peace talks went on for a month
• On December 6, 1941, Roosevelt received a
  decoded message that instructed Japan’s
  peace envoy to reject all American peace
  proposals
• “This means war,” Roosevelt declared
                Pearl Harbor
• December 7, 1941
• Early in the morning, a Japanese dive-bomber
  swooped low over Pearl Harbor
• Followed by more than 180 Japanese warplanes
  launched from six aircraft carriers
• For an hour and a half, the Japanese planes were
  barely disturbed by antiaircraft guns
• In less than 2 hours, the Japanese had killed 2,403
  Americans and wounded 1,178 more
• They sank 21 ships and severely damaged or
  destroyed 300 aircraft
Pearl Harbor
      • The Pacific Fleet was
        nearly wiped out
      • Only three aircraft
        carriers escaped the
        destruction—this
        proved vital to the
        outcome of the war
             Pearl Harbor
• In Washington, Roosevelt listened to report
  after report realizing we now had to fight a
  war on two fronts
• December 8—Roosevelt gave his famous
  “Infamy” speech
• The greatest damage done by Pearl Harbor
  was to the cause of isolationism
• Now, Americans felt that war was the only
  way
  Americans Join the War Effort
• After Pearl Harbor, Japan boasted that the U.S.
  was now reduced to a third-rate power and was
  “trembling in her shoes”
• Americans set out to prove Japan wrong
• Eager young Americans jammed recruiting offices
• 5 million volunteered, but this was not enough
  for all-out war
• The Selective Service System expanded the draft
  and provided another 10 million soldiers
• After 8 weeks of basic training the 15 million
  soldiers were ready for the fight
The Home Front
        Expanding the Military
• The military’s work force needs were so great that
  Gen. George Marshall pushed for the formation of
  the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)
• Women would serve in non-combat positions
• Some in Congress thought it to be “the silliest
  piece of legislation”
• The law gave women salary and status but few of
  the benefits granted to men
• In 1943, the Army dropped the Auxiliary part and
  granted full Army benefits to WAC’s
  Recruiting and Discrimination
• For many minority groups, they questioned
  whether this was their fight
• “why die for democracy for some foreign country
  when we don’t even have it here?”
• On receiving his draft notice, an African American
  responded unhappily, “Just carve on my
  tombstone, ‘Here lies a black man killed fighting a
  yellow man for the protection of a white man’”
       Dramatic Contributions
• Despite discrimination, more than 300,000
  Mexican Americans joined the armed forces
• 1 million African Americans served—they lived
  and worked in segregated units and were limited
  mostly to non-combat roles until 1943
• 46,000 Asian Americans served as spies and
  interpreters in the Pacific
• 25,000 Native Americans enlisted too, including
  800 women
                  Production
• Early 1942, newspapers reported the end of car
  production for private use
• The nation’s automobile plants had been retooled
  to produce tanks, planes, boats, and command cars
• Other factories across the nation were converted as
  well
• A maker of mechanical pencils turned out bomb
  parts
• A bedspread manufacturer made mosquito netting
• A soft drink company filled shells with explosives
          Labor’s Contribution
• By 1944, despite the draft, nearly 18 million workers
  were laboring in war industries, three times as many as
  in 1941
• More than 6 million of the new workers were women
• Industries feared that women lacked the necessary
  stamina for factory work
• Once women proved they could operate welding
  torches or riveting guns as well as men, employers
  could not hire enough of them
• Women would only earn about 60 percent as much as
  men doing the same jobs
          Labor Contribution
• Defense plants hired more than 2 million minority
  workers (janitors) during the war years
• To protest discrimination, A. Philip Randolph,
  founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
  Porters, organized a march on Washington
• July 1, 1941—marched under the banner “We
  Loyal Colored Americans Demand the Right to
  Work and Fight for Our Country”
• Roosevelt called Randolph in and asked him to
  back down
• In the end, it was Roosevelt who backed down
          Labor Contribution
• The president issued
  an executive order
  calling on employers
  and labor unions to
  provide African
  Americans and other
  minorities jobs
  without
  discrimination
   Mobilization of Scientists
• 1941—Roosevelt created the Office of
  Scientific Research and Development
• OSRD spurred improvements in radar and
  sonar
• It encouraged the use of pesticides like DDT
• As a result, U.S. soldiers were probably the
  first in history to be free of body lice
• It also pushed the development of “miracle
  drugs,” such as penicillin
   Mobilization of Scientists
• The most significant achievement—atomic
  bomb
• Interest in such a weapon began in 1939, after
  German scientists succeeded in splitting
  uranium atoms
• Albert Einstein, German refugee, wrote a
  letter to Roosevelt warning that Germans
  could construct a weapon of enormous
  destructive power
      Mobilization of Scientists
• Roosevelt created an Advisory Committee on
  Uranium
• In 1941, the committee told Roosevelt it would
  take 3-5 years to build an atomic bomb
• The OSRD set up an intensive program in 1942 to
  develop the bomb as quickly as possible
• Much of the early research was done at Columbia
  University in Manhattan giving it the code name
  the Manhattan project
      Government takes control of Economy 1942-1945
Agencies and Laws                  What they did
  Office of Price   Fought inflation by freezing wages, prices
 Administration                       and rents
National War Labor Limited wage increases, allowed negotiated
      Board         benefits, kept unions stable by forbidding
                            workers to change unions
 War Production Rationed fuel and materials vital to the war
      Board                             effort
Department of the    Issued war bonds to raise money for the
     Treasury             war effort and to fight inflation
 Revenue Act of    Raised the top personal-income tax rate to
       1942                              88%
 Smith-Connally         Limited the right to strike, gave the
 Anti-Strike Act   president power to take over striking plants
                   Rationing
• The OPA set up a system for rationing
• Under this system, households received ration books
  with coupons to be used for buying such scarce goods
  as meat, shoes, sugar, coffee, and gasoline
• Gas rationing was particularly hard on those who lived
  in western regions
• Most accepted rationing as a personal contribution to
  the war effort
• Many carpooled or rode bicycles
• Others bought scarce goods through the “black
  market”
  New Strategy on
the Western Front
                War Plans
• The Allied strategy after 1941:
  – First objective: Italy and Germany
  – Second objective: Japan—after defeat of Hitler
• Churchill and Roosevelt agreed to the terms
  of the strategy at the White House at the
  end of 1941
         Battle of the Atlantic
• After Pearl Harbor, Hitler ordered sub raids
  against ships along America’s east coast
• Hitler hoped to starve Britain and the Soviet
  Union by cutting off their supply lines
• For a while, it looked like Hitler would succeed
• In the first 4 months of 1942, the Germans sank
  87 ships
• Seven months into the year, 681 Allied ships were
  sunk
       Battle of the Atlantic
• Convoys were organized and reversed the
  damage
• At the same time, the U.S. launched a crash
  shipbuilding program—by mid-1943, 140
  Liberty ships were produced each month
• By mid-1943, the tide had turned in the
  Atlantic
• The Allies were beginning to sea significant
  victories on land as well as sea
           Battle of Stalingrad
• Germans had been fighting in S.U. since 1941
• Winter 1941—stopped short of Moscow and
  Leningrad
• Summer 1942—Hitler focused his attention on the
  oil fields in Caucasus Mts. and Stalingrad
• The Russians harvested their fields and burnt their
  own buildings to keep the Germans from being
  successful
• The Luftwaffe bombed Stalingrad while soldiers
  fought hand-to-hand combat
• The Germans had taken 9/10 of the city by September
           Battle of Stalingrad
• Another winter came—Soviets took this
  opportunity to roll fresh tanks in for a massive
  counterattack
• They cut off German supply lines and surrounded
  the city
• Hitler ordered the Germans to stay and fight
• Winter turned Stalingrad into a frozen wasteland
  and the fighting continued
• January 31, 1943—the German commander
  surrendered and two days later his troops did too
        Battle of Stalingrad
• In defending Stalingrad, the Russians lost
  1,100,000 soldiers
• The battle marked a turning point in the war
• From that point on, the Soviets moved
  westward toward Germany
         North African Front
• While Stalingrad was being bombarded, the U.S.
  and Britain launched Operation Torch
• The Allies, commanded by Dwight D. Eisenhower,
  invaded Axis controlled North Africa
• In November 1942, 107,000 Allied troops landed
  in Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers
• They sped eastward chasing General Erwin
  Rommel through the desert
• He surrendered in May 1943
             Italian Campaign
• Before Africa was won, the Allied powers met at
  Casablanca and agreed to accept the unconditional
  surrender of the Axis powers
• They also decided their next attack would come
  on the Italian Peninsula
• In summer 1943, Sicily fell quickly
• Stunned by the collapse of their army, the Italian
  government forced Mussolini to resign
• July 25, 1943—Mussolini was stripped of his
  power and arrested
• Italy was not a threat anymore
               Heroes of War
• The Tuskegee Airmen registered their first victory
  at Sicily
• They won two Distinguished Unit Citations for
  their outstanding aerial combat against the
  Luftwaffe
• The 92nd Infantry “Buffaloes,” in just 7 months of
  combat, won 7 Legion of Merit awards, 65 Silver
  Stars, and 162 Bronze Stars for courage under fire
                Heroes of War
• 17 Mexican Americans were awarded the Medal of
  Honor
• All Mexican-American unit--Company E of the 141st
  Regiment, 36th division became one of the most
  decorated of the war
• The 100th Battalion, consisting of 1300 Hawaiian Nisei
  became known as the Purple Heart Battalion
• Later they formed the all-Nisei 442nd Regimental
  Combat Team and became the most decorated unit in
  U.S. History
                   D-Day
• June 6, 1944—Operation Overlord
• Turning point of the Western Front
• 3 million Allied soldiers stormed the beaches
  of Normandy
• This would be the largest land-air-sea
  invasion in army history
• German retaliation was brutal, particularly at
  Omaha beach
       The Allies Gain Ground
• Despite heavy casualties, the Allies held the
  beachheads
• After 7 days, they held an 80 mile strip of land
• After a month, they had landed millions of
  soldiers, 567,000 tons of supplies, and 170,000
  vehicles in France
• Gen. Omar Bradley unleashed massive air and land
  bombardment at St. Lo providing a gap in German
  defenses
• Gen. George Patton could now advance
     The Allies Gain Ground
• On August 23, Patton reached the Seine
  River south of Paris
• Two days later Paris was liberated from a 4
  year German occupation
• By September 1944, the Allies had freed
  France, Belgium and Luxembourg
• The good news helped elect Roosevelt to his
  fourth term with Harry Truman as his V.P.
             Battle of the Bulge
• In October 1944, Americans captured their first
  German town, Aachen
• Hitler responded with a desperate last-gasp offensive
• He ordered his troops to break through the Allied
  lines and to recapture the Belgian port of Antwerp
• December 16, eight German tank divisions broke
  through weak American defenses
• Tanks drove 60 miles into Allied territory creating a
  bulge in the lines that gave the desperate offensive its
  name, the Battle of the Bulge
         Battle of the Bulge
• The Germans captured 120 GI’s and mowed
  them down with machine guns
• The battle raged for a month
• The Germans lost ground and 120,000
  troops, 600 tanks, and 1600 planes
• From that point on, the Nazis could do little
  but retreat
The Pacific Front
        American Strategy
• Following the liberation of Europe (D-Day),
  America set its eye toward the Pacific
• Due to Japan’s strategy of “fight to the
  death”, America formed an “Island Hopping”
  strategy
• Formed in order to get closer to Japan
• For the most part this strategy worked
                   Midway
• Midway:
  – Turning point on the Pacific Front
  – Major Naval battle took place Jun 4-7, 1942
  – The Japanese plan was to lure America's few
    remaining carriers into a trap and sink them.[6]
    The Japanese also intended to occupy Midway
    Atoll to extend their defensive perimeter. This
    operation was considered preparatory for an
    invasion of Hawaii.
  – Put a stop to Japan’s advance toward Hawaii
                        Iwo Jima
• February-March 1945
• The Marine invasion was charged with the mission of
  capturing the airfields on the island
• Once the bases were secured, they could then be of use in the
  impending invasion of the Japanese mainland.
• One of the first objectives after landing on the beachhead was
  the taking of Mount Suribachi
• Even after Iwo Jima was declared secured, about three
  thousand Japanese soldiers were left alive in the island's caves
  and tunnels.
• Eventually most surrendered and were surprised by many
  Americans’ compassion
                   Okinawa
• March-June 1945
• was the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific
  Theater
• The battle has been referred to as the "Typhoon
  of Steel“
• The battle has one of the highest casualties
• Okinawa would serve as a springboard for the
  planned invasion of the mainland islands
• Japan surrendered before an invasion took place
Surrender and
    Liberation
  Liberation of the Death Camps
• Meanwhile, Allied troops pressed eastward into the
  German heartland, and the Soviet army pushed
  westward across Poland toward Berlin
• Soviet troops were the first to enter a death camp
• The German troopers worked to bury and burn all
  evidence of their crimes
• The Soviets arrived to find a thousand starving
  prisoners, the largest crematory in the world, and a
  store house filled with 800,000 shoes
• Other death camps were in similar conditions
    Unconditional Surrender
• April 25, 1945, the Soviet army had stormed
  Berlin
• As shells burst overhead, the city panicked
• Soldiers in hiding ran out in the streets and
  were shot on the spot or hanged from the
  nearest tree
• On their chests they had placards reading
  “We betrayed the Fuhrer (leader)”
       Unconditional Surrender
• In his underground headquarters in Berlin, Hitler
  prepared for the end
• On April 29, he married his long time companion, Eva
  Bratun
• The same day, he wrote out his last address to the
  German people
• He blamed the Jews for starting the war and his
  Generals for losing it
• The next day, Hitler shot himself, and Eva drank poison
• The two bodies were dragged out and burned in the
  street
Unconditional Surrender
           • A week after Hitler’s
             death, Eisenhower
             accepted the
             unconditional
             surrender of the Third
             Reich
           • May 8, 1945—the Allies
             celebrated V-E-Day—
             Victory in Europe
            Roosevelt’s Death
• Roosevelt did not live to see V-E Day
• He died April 12, 1945, while posing for a portrait
  in Warm Springs, Georgia
• The President had a stroke and died
• That night, V.P. Harry S. Truman was sworn in as
  the 33rd president
   Ending War in the Pacific
• War still waged between Japan and the U.S.
• Truman was given two choices:
  – Send in troops to fight to the death against
    Japanese soldiers
  – Use a new weapon to end the war (Atomic
    Bombs)
• Not wanting to lose so many lives, Truman
  chose to use the weapons created from the
  Manhattan Project
      Ending War in the Pacific
• Manhattan Project:
  – The project to
    develop the first
    nuclear bomb
  – Developed between
    Canada, United
    Kingdom, and U.S.
  – J. Robert
    Oppenheimer took
    nuclear research on
    the fast track
        Potsdam Conference
• Potsdam Conference—Germany
  – July 11, 1945
  – Allied leaders met and agreed upon the
    unconditional surrender of Germany and
    Japan—specifically stating “the alternative for
    Japan is prompt and utter destruction” if they
    did not surrender (this in part to their
    destruction of Pearl Harbor)
             Atom Bomb
• Japan refused to accept the terms of the
  Potsdam Conference
• Truman ordered the dropping of two atomic
  bombs
• The first on August 6, 1945 “Little Boy” was
  dropped on Hiroshima
• Japan did not surrender
• The second on August 9, 1945 “Big Boy” was
  dropped on Nagasaki
      A World without War
• In order to maintain peace:
  – The Allies formed the United Nations
  – Decolonization began taking place in many parts
    of the world
  – Germany’s lands were divided up—even Berlin,
    the capital of Germany, was split into 4 between
    the Allies
• Unfortunately, peace would not last

				
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