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					What is Community Psychology

*     The sub-discipline of psychology that is concerned with:

      *     understanding people in the context of their communities

      *     the prevention of problems in living

      *     the celebration of human diversity

      *     the pursuit of social justice through social action

The Emergence of CP

*     Progressive period (1890-1914)

      *     Many social programs had their roots during this time period, including

            *    mental health associations

            *    YM C A

            *    Big Brothers Big Sisters

            *    Scouts,

            *    Juvenile Courts

            *   Settlement Houses
Jane Adams and Hull-House

*     Settlement on West side of Chicago provided support to immigrants (Italians, Polish/Russian Jews,

*     Base for community organization, social action, the labor movement, and the peace movement.

The Roots of CP in the US: 3 Factors
1. The growth of mental health services

      * VA hospitals
      * Joint Commission on Mental Health and Illness
      * Community Mental Health Centers
The Roots of CP in the US: 3 Factors

*     2. Shifts in clinical psychology

      *     Rapid emergence as major subfield of psych.

            *    Boulder Model

            *    Often relegated to testing

      *     NIMH established after WWII provided funding for training/research on mental health
The Roots of CP in the US: 3 Factors

*     3. 1960’s and social reform

      *      Changing times

             *    Women’s right, civil rights, Vietnam, peace

             *    A pivotal moment was the Swampscott conference, 1965

             *    CP became a Division of APA (27), started AJCP and JCP, graduate programs in CP

Factors Leading to Emergence of CP in US

*     1. Gap between Scope of mental health problems and available resources

      *     Albee “no mass disorder in human history has ever been eliminated or significantly controlled
            by attempts at treating the affected individual, nor by training large numbers of individual
            treatment personnel”
Factors Leading to Emergence of CP in US

*     2. Dissatisfaction with the medical model

      *      Middle class bias of psychotherapy, YAVIS--young, attractive, verbal, intelligent, and

      * Insurance dependent
      * Most people depend on informal sources of support
Factors Leading to Emergence of CP in US

*     3. Recognition of the importance of the social environment

      *      Disorder related to social class

      *      Powerful role of social environment found in other strands of psych (behaviorism, group,
             organizational, family systems, etc.)

W eek 2 :
Issues, Values and Tools
What concerns you? Are you involved in solving it? How could you get more involved?
Big Picture

*     The central problem with which CP is concerned Is that of OPPRESSION

*     The central goal

      *      To work in solidarity with disadvantaged people in their quest for justice and well-being
* Society has constructed stories about the oppressed that distance us from “them”
* They also disconnect oppressed from their stories and strengths
*ppresOinoengoal of CP is help people tell their stories so that the dominant narrative can be challenged
O     s
A state of domination where the oppressed suffer the consequences of

      * Deprivation
      * Exclusion
      * Exploitation
      * Control of culture
      * Violence
Levels of oppression
Traditional psychologist

*     Help is typically in in the form of therapy or intervention that strives to change individuals so they
      can adjust to unjust conditions

*     To create change, community psychologists must

       * Reframe problems
       * Listen to the voices of disadvantaged
       * Make the invisible visible
Issues and problems

*     Manifestations vs. root causes

       *    Problems in living

       *    Isolation from networks of support

       *    Victim blaming

            *     E.g., women sexually assaulted

       *   Complacency of privileged
Cornell West

Pr                  P

* Ecology
* Prevention and promotion
* Psychological sense of community
Understanding Ecology

The behavior of individuals cannot be understood without considering ecological context (surrounds that
      affect individual)
      Or Lewin’s notion that B = f (P, E)

James Kelly: Four ecological principals

*      Adapted concepts from biological field of ecology.

*       Characteristics of settings, not individuals

       *      Interdependence

       *      Cycling of resources

       *      Adapation

       *      Succession

              *     Ecologies change over time


*      Different parts of an eco-system are connected so changes in one part will affect other parts

Cycling of resources

*      Identification, development, and allocation of resources within systems

*      Draws attention to untapped resources in a system


*ccesIsniodnividuals and systems must cope with adapt to changing conditions

* Alalnnnign-gtefromr peprrsepfeecrtrievde ftuhtautrdraws attention to the historical context of a problem and the need for
                      a                             e

Why Ecology?

*      Mainstream psychology has focused too much on individual psych. Processes

*      Environments affect individuals in distinct ways

      * Person-environment fit
      * What type of environment is good for you?
Linney—3 ways of assessing environment

*      Perceived environments
* Setting characteristics
*rceivTerdanEsnavcitrionamleanntalysis of relationships between context and behavior

* Rtutpd:o//lwMwo.esmhca.scdmeivcehl.oepdeud/cshcaarlaecstethreadt /acsesse.shstmarious environments
                f o

*       Has argued that there are 3 dimensions of an environment

                *      Relationships

                *      Personal Development
                       *       Self-determination, opportunities for growth/autonomy

                *      Systems Maintenance and Change
                       *       Balance between predictability and change

Objective characteristics

* Observations, demographics, social indicator, GPS
*ransaEt.igo.n, aKl aAtrpinparoaches
T     c

* “behavior Settings”—Barker
         *      Standing or routine pattern

         *      Physical or temporal aspects

                *      understaffing

      * Problems should be framed in terms of systems
      * Interventions that try to change one thing will change others
      * Members need to take ownership
      * Interventionists must forge collaborative relationships
      * Long term perspective
Who is John Snow?

*       Roots in public health

         *      Reduce environmental stressors/agents and improve host resistance

         *      Reduce incidence (number of new cases)
Three kinds of prevention

* Primary Prevention
* Secondary Prevention
*hree DeefritniairnygPFreeavteunretison

* New cases do not occur
* Focus on mental health
* Not aimed at individuals, but populations
       *     Decrease incidence


*      Proactive/universal

       *     policies and programs to promote wellness

*      Proactive/high-risk

     *      Policies and programs to prevention maltreatment and other problems

*      Reactive

       *     Policies and programs to prevent deterioration

Health Promotion

*      Prevention—reducing incidence of problems

*      Promotion—enhancing the health and well-being in populaiton

Key characteristics of mental health promotion

* Proactive
* Population based
* Multi-dimensional
*ey paOhnwgaoyinsgto mental health promotion
K     t

* Attachment
* Competencies
*     Social environments

*     Empowerment

*     Resources

Albee Equation

      *           risk factors=organic causes+ stress + exploitation
Incidence = ________________________________________
      Protective factor=coping skills + self-esteem +Support systems
Risk and protective factors

*     Individual

*     Family

*     community

Resilience-how do we overcome risk?

*     Rutter

       * Reduce risk impact
       * Interrupt the negative chain reactions stemming from life event
       * Enhance self-esteem and self-efficacy
       * Create opportunities for personal growth
Social Stress Theory

*     Stressful life events and changes, esp. negative ones, create “stress reactions”

*     Long-term consequences can be negative, neutral or positive

*     Stress creates opportunities for growth as well as negative outcomes

*     Psychological and situational factors “protective factors” that can moderate the impacts of stressful
      life events

      *    Social support, coping skills, etc
Advances in research on social stress


      *     Daily Hassles

      *     Life Transitions
       *     Ambient/Chronic Stressors

       *     Vicious Spirals

       *     Stressors in Community Psych. Research

       *     Homelessness

       *     School Transitions

       *     Natural Disasters

*     Primary Appraisal-estimation of strength or intensity of stressor
*     Secondary-estimation of resources and coping options for responding
       *     BOTH are affected by personality factors
             * Locus of control
*     Reappraisal
       *     Reframing
*     Appraisal
       *     Matters more when resources are ample and threats are moderate
       *   Matters less when major stressor, and similarly appraised by man
Coping Responses
*     Problem focused
       *     More adaptive when stressor is controllable
*     Emotion Focused
       *     More adaptive when uncontrollable
       *     Sometimes avoidant

*     P ar t 1

       *     What is stress

       *     The language of coping

       *     What is good coping

       *     The role of positive emotion

Stress as

     A physiological fight or flight response

     A stressor (life event)

     An imbalance of demands vs. resources
                                                                  •    WHAT’S MISSING??
Ways of thinking about stress
Fight or flight—physiological response
Life events—something that happens to you

Life Events measures

*       Idea was to identify objective stress

Characteristics of the person that make a difference

* Priorities and goals
* Values
* Beliefs
* Developmental history
*ognitPvseycthheoolorygiocfals,trpehsyssical, and social resources for coping
C     i

* Key concepts
        *      Stress is contextual, it ivolves the person in a particular environment or situation

        *      Stress is a dynamic process

        *      The process is influenced by

               *      COGNITIVE APPRAISAL

               *      COPING

               *   (Lazarus and Folkman)
Relational definition of stress

*       A situation is stress when

      * You appraise it as a harm, threat, or challenge
      * It is personally meaningful—it matters to you
      * It taxes or exceeds your resources for coping, it is not easy to deal with
Cognitive appraisal

*       What’s happening, am I ok

*       What can I do

*       Does it matter (this is what makes the difference!)
Appraisals are tied to emotion

*     HARM OR LOSSS: Something>>>>>anger, sadness, guilt bad has happened

*     THREAT: Something bad >>>>>Worry, fear, anxiety

*     Nun Study

      *     Hand written autobiographies of 180 catholic nuns

      *     Scored for emotion

            *      Negative emotions did not predict survival

            *      Positive emotions DID

*     Not PollyAnna

*     Not denial

*     Third form of coping

      *     Meaning-focused coping (generate positive emtions)

      *     Relinquish untenable goals

      *     Substitute new goals that are realistic and meaningful

            *      Helps sustain a sense of control, purpose, and optimism

            *      Taking an ordinary event and infusing it with meaning

            *      Focus on what really matters (rearrange priorities)
Social Support

*     Generalized--ongoing support
*     Specific Support
      *     Encouragement
      *     Informational
      *     Tangible
*     Optimal Matching
      *     Emotional--uncontrollable
      *     Encouragement--job loss, work stress
      *     Trangible--financial strain
            * Some require multiple types

Coping Outcomes
*     Psychological or physical disorders

*     Thriving

      *     Going beyond previous levels

*     Resilience

      *     Maintaining or returning to previous level

*     Wellness

      *     The experience of positive outcomes (life satisfaction, job satisfacation,
            self esteem, academic achievement

Generalized and
specific support

*     Generalized—relationships sustained over time

      *     Not tailored to one specific stressor

      *     Most clearly measured in term of perceived support

*     Specific—pertaining to a specific stressor

      *     Could include emotional encouragement, information or advice, or tangible assistance (loaning

Social Support

*     Sources of support

*     Relationships as stressors

*     Social Networks

      *     Dimensionality

            *      Co-worker also a friend Jim and Pam

      *     Density

            *      friends in network are friends with each other

      *     Reciprocity
The relationship context of support

*     Natural helpers, mentors

*     Relationships as stressors

*     Families and contexts
        *     Greater commitment, obligation

        *     Gender differences in helping styles

Mutual Help Groups
Voluntary associations of people who share some status that results in difficulties with which the group
      tries to deal

        *     Focal concern

        *     P eer

        *     Reciprocity

        *     Community narrative that embodies the experience

        Online mutual help

Social Class, Power, Ecology, and Prevention

*ychoGoegoircgael Selnbseee’osfECsosamympugn9it7y
Ps   l

* Oiutrhnpeeeodpfleoraat faflillioatthioenr tiinmteim.e sof sorrow, our need for sharing in times of joy, and our need to be
     w                                              s

* Defined as:
*domaTinhse osfenpssec that one belongs in and is meaningfully a part of a larger collectivity

* Membership
* Influence
* Integration and fulfillment of needs
*cial Sahpairteadl emotional connection
So    c

* Collective resources consisting of
        *     Civic participation

        *     Networks

        *     Norms of reciprocity and organiztion that foster

              *       Trust among citizens

              *       Actions to improve the common good

Effective Programs: Best practices
* Address risk and protective processes
* Involves families, peers, schools, comm. To address multiple goals
* Are appropriate to age
* Strengthen skills and values
* Focus on second order change (settings, communitie)
* Involve skill training and support for staff
*plemMnotniintgorPlroocgarlanmeseds and program quality to promote continuous improvement
Im      e

* Active administrative support
* Ongoing training and professional development
*cial IPnotewgerra/tCiohnanogfethe program into the school
Social Action

*      Alinsky-

       *     Social power comes in 2 forms:

             *    Organized money

             *    Organized people

       *     Citizens using social action must


             *    Find a situation (Shop-in)

       *     Effective Action

             *    Clear goal

             *    Reasonable actions required

             *    Cause disruption

             *  Credible threat
Key Points of today’s lecture

*      Definition and dicussion of

       *     Citizen participation,

       *     Empowerment

       *     Social action

*     A process, a mechanism by which people, organizations, and communities gain mastery over their
      affairs” Rappaport

*     An intentional, ongoing process through which people lacking an equal share of resources gain
      greater access to and control over those resources

*      Broader than citizen participation. May lead to it but involves more than just behavior. It’s an
      overarching theme with many meanings and implications.

      * centered in the local community,
      * involving mutual respect, critical reflection, caring, and group participation
Key qualities of empowerment

*     Multilevel

*     Bottom-up approaches

*     Process of Empowerment—develops over time

*     Collective—occurs through linkages with others

Elements of Psychological Empowerment

*     Psychological empowerment involves thoughts, skills, motivation, etc. of person involved in
      community change. Created by becoming involved in community work.

      *     Critical awareness

            *      Critical judgement about situations

            *      Search for underlying causes of problems and their consequences

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