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					                                                 http://www.fao.org/aims/




                     FAO projects
                   in the area of the
                 Semantic Technologies

                        23rd APAN Meeting
                         Manila, Philippines
                       margherita.sini@fao.org


Margherita Sini, FAO
                                   http://www.fao.org/aims/



                       Outline
      • Introduction
      • The AGROVOC/CS Workbench
      • Future works




Margherita Sini, FAO
                                      http://www.fao.org/aims/




                       Introduction




Margherita Sini, FAO
                                            http://www.fao.org/aims/


        FAO as a Knowledge Organization
  • Knowledge Exchange & Capacity Building
    Division
  • Teminological resources (AGROVOC,
    FAOTERM, Glossaries, etc.)
      – Avian Influenza Glossary (Avian Influenza/Pandemic
        Influenza Glossary in collaboration with World
        Health Organization)
  • Subdomain ontologies
  • Agricultural IM standards: http://www.fao.org/aims

Margherita Sini, FAO
                               http://www.fao.org/aims/




                  The AGROVOC/CS
                      Workbench




Margherita Sini, FAO
                                               http://www.fao.org/aims/



                       Background (1/2)
      • AGROVOC
          –   Used worldwide
          –   Multilingual (online 11 languages)
          –   Term-based (as opposed to concept based)
          –   Limited semantics (NT, BT, RT, USE/UF)
          –   Maintained as a relational database
          –   Distributed in several formats (RDBMS,
              TagText, ISO2709, ...)

Margherita Sini, FAO
                                              http://www.fao.org/aims/



                       Background (2/2)
      • Draft versions available in TBX, SKOS, OWL
      • Access to full thesaurus through seven Web
        Services




      • Agricultural Ontology Service (AOS)

Margherita Sini, FAO
                                     http://www.fao.org/aims/


           AGROVOC/CS Workbench: a
      collaborative ontology development tool

      • Support and manage the
        multi-language terminology
        work of information
        management specialists in
        the development,
        maintenance, and quality
        assurance of the CS.



Margherita Sini, FAO
                                 http://www.fao.org/aims/



          AGROVOC/CS Workbench: Users

      •   Term editors
      •   Ontology editors
      •   Validators
      •   Publishers
      •   Administrators

       distributed user-base!
Margherita Sini, FAO
                                                    http://www.fao.org/aims/


              AGROVOC/CS Workbench:
                    Features
      •   Text processing            • Other functionalities
      •   Corpus Creation               –   Search
      •   Corpus Analysis               –   Import / Export
                                        –   Validations
      •   Manage
                                        –   Administration
          – Concepts, Terms,
            Relationships               –   Help
          – Classification Schemes
      • Quality Assurance


Margherita Sini, FAO
                                     http://www.fao.org/aims/

              AGROVOC/CS Workbench:
                  Overall design
 Concept Hierarchy


                       text corpus
                                                .doc, .pdf,
                                                .xml, etc.




 AOS/CS Workbench
 concordance
 pattern-matching
 multilingual
Margherita Sini, FAO
                                                                                                           http://www.fao.org/aims/


                 AGROVOC/CS Workbench:
                      Home Page

                                               AGROVOC/AOS/CS                       Language of the interface   English
                  Select Ontology              CWR                      memorize
                                               Fishery
                                                                                          (1 choice)            French
                     (1 choice)                                                                 memorize        Spanish
                                                                                                                Arabic
                                                                                                                Chinese
                                                                                                                Thai
               Login                                                                                            Hindi
                                                                                                                Lao
                 Username           user1                memorize
                                                                                    Concept Server languages    English
                 Password           ******               memorize
                                                                                        (multiple choice)       French
                                                                                               memorize         Spanish
                                                                                                                Arabic
                                                                                                                Chinese
                                                               Enter the Concept Server                         Thai
                                                                                                                Hindi
                                                                                                                Lao




           23 July 2006: added defintion for concept "water"
           12 July 2006: new term added "rice"
           2 July 2006: xxxxx
           24 June 2006: cvcvxv
           22 June 2006:
           15 June 2006:




Margherita Sini, FAO
                                                                                                                                        http://www.fao.org/aims/

              AGROVOC/CS Workbench:
                   Search Page
               Search
                                                                    Show languages
              AOS/CS Workbench                   Main Menu            English    Français                 Español          Czech
              You are logged in as: user1
                                                                          中文           Thai               Lao          .....                             All

                 Search by URI                                                                                                 Search by string
                   Concept URI: http://www.fao.org/aos/agrovoc#c_1234                               Search                      water                Search

                                                                                                                                    Exact match
                 Search by Termcode                                 Search by status                                                Starting with
                  AGROVOC thesaurus                    1234                                                                         Containing
                                                                        Accepted / deprecated / proposed
                  FAOTERM terminology system                                                                                        Fuzzy
                  CABI CODE
                  ISO country code                         Search                                                                                 Case sensitive
                                                                        Search within Classification scheme
                                                                         Agris/Caris Classification Scheme
                                                                         FAO Priority Area                                     Search concepts related with
                 Search within Sub-vocabulary                            NAL categories
                   Geographical concepts – above country                 CABI subject codes
                   Geographical concepts – country
                   Geographical concepts – below country
                   Taxonomic animals
                   Taxonomic plants                                     Search by date
                   Taxonomic virus
                   Chemical terms                                       Created/Modified           from .... to ....


                 Results
                                        URI                                    EN                  FR                    ES
                    Http://www.fao.org/aos/agrovoc#c_1234                    water                 eau                    aqua
                    Http://www.fao.org/aos/agrovoc#c_135                  waste water              ----
                    Http://www.fao.org/aos/agrovoc#c_34                   Body water          Eau corporelle
                    Http://www.fao.org/aos/agrovoc#c_56434               Water manage
                    Http://www.fao.org/aos/agrovoc#c_944                     .......




Margherita Sini, FAO
                                                                                                                    http://www.fao.org/aims/

                 AGROVOC/CS Workbench:
                      Export Page
             Exports

            AOS/CS Workbench                     Main Menu
                                                             Show languages
            You are logged in as: user1                        English    Français       Español          Czech
                                                                中文         Thai          Lao          .....
                  Select exporting format                                                                                    All

                    SKOS                                     Date range
                    TBX                                       Modified / created               from    12/05/2006   to 24/08/2006
                    OWL – Simple format
                    Owl – Complete format
                    RDBMS – SQl format                       Preview
             Select data to export                            <skos:Concept rdf:about="http://www.fao.org/aos/agrovoc#c_3">
                 Sub-vocabulary                                <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">ABA</skos:prefLabel>
                                                               <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="fr">ABA</skos:prefLabel>
                  -- all --                                    <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="es">ABA</skos:prefLabel>
                  Chemical terms                               <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="ar"> </skos:prefLabel>
                  Taxonomic (virus)                            <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="zh">脱落酸</skos:prefLabel>
                  Taxonomic(Plant)                             <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="pt">Aba</skos:prefLabel>
                  Geographical (below country level)           <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="th">      </skos:prefLabel>
                                                               <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="ja">アブシジン酸</skos:prefLabel>
                  Classification Scheme                        <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="sk">ABA</skos:prefLabel>
                                                               <skos:altLabel xml:lang="cs">kyselina abscisová</skos:altLabel>
                  -- all --                                    <skos:altLabel xml:lang="en">Abscisic acid</skos:altLabel>
                  Agris/Caris classifications scheme           <skos:altLabel xml:lang="es">Ácido abscísico</skos:altLabel>
                  FAO Knowledge organization sche.             <skos:altLabel xml:lang="fr">Acide abscissique</skos:altLabel>
                  NAL forestry scheme                          <skos:altLabel xml:lang="ja">アブシジン酸</skos:altLabel>
                  .....
                                                             <skos:broader rdf:resource="http://www.fao.org/aos/agrovoc#c_3397"/>
                   From concept in the hierarchy             <skos:broader rdf:resource="http://www.fao.org/aos/agrovoc#c_32543"/>
                        Agriculture            select         </skos:Concept>
              ID range
               AG termcode       from 123     to 45563
                                                                                         Filename_20060501.rdf            Export




Margherita Sini, FAO
                                                                                                                      http://www.fao.org/aims/

                 AGROVOC/CS Workbench:
                    Navigate Concepts
            Concepts page
                                                                  Show languages
            AOS/CS Workbench                     Main Menu          English    Français      Español          Czech
            You are logged in as: user1
                                                                    中文         Thai          Lao          .....                                 All


                                                       Search                                                                      Edit
              Navigate Concepts      ? Enter Text                                 Concept Relationships
                    Agriculture (EN), agricola (EN)                              Has pest           insect (domains: plant, cwr, ...
                   Forestry (EN), foreste1 (ES), foreste2 (ES)                   Has part          tree leaves
                        forestry products, prodotti forestali, ...               Related to          production
                         wood, legno
                             legno
                                  legno vivo
                        plants, piante
                         Trees, tree, albero, alberi, ...                         Concept information             Images   ...   ...      ...
                             acacia                                               Concept created 12/4/2005 (has_date_created
                             ....                                                 Last modified 23/3/2006 (has_date_last_updated
                         ...                                                      Status: accepted/active

                   ....
                    ....
                    ....

             Concept URI: http://www.fao.org/aos/agrovoc#c_1234
                                                                                                                                 Edit
              Selected Concept Lexicalizations

              tree (EN), albero (ES), pianta (ES), arbre (FR), aaaa (TH), bbbb (TH), cccc (TH)




Margherita Sini, FAO
                                                                                                                      http://www.fao.org/aims/


               AGROVOC/CS Workbench:
                 Concept’s relationships
             Manage Concept relationship

             AOS/CS Workbench                     Main Menu
             You are logged in as: user1
                                                                          Selected Concept URI: http://www.fao.org/aos/agrovoc#c_1234
               Selected Concept Lexicalizations
                tree (EN), albero (ES), pianta (ES), arbre (FR), aaaa (TH), bbbb (TH), cccc (TH)

              Existing relationships (concept-to-concept)                                 Create a relationship
                    Has_pest                                               suggest
                                              insect (domains: plant, cwr, ... )                Agriculture (EN), agricola (EN)
                    Has_part                                                                   Forestry (EN), foreste1 (ES), foreste2 (ES)
                                               tree leaves                 suggest
                                                                                                    forestry products, prodotti forestali, ...
                    Contains                  organisms                    suggest                   wood, legno
                    -- select --              acacia                       suggest                       legno
                                                                select                                        legno vivo
                                                                                                    plants, piante
                                                                                                     Trees, tree, albero, alberi, ...
                                                                                                         acacia
              Suggest missing relationships                                                              ....
                                                                                                     ...           select
                 Suggest a new Relationship                                                    ....
                                           Domain                                               ....                           create
                                                                                                ....




Margherita Sini, FAO
                                                http://www.fao.org/aims/



                       Current status
      • AGROVOC/CS Workbench construction
        (ongoing)
          – CS OWL model described
          – Test project available
          – Full AGROVOC conversion procedure using
            the OWL model (ongoing)
          – Relationships definition (in collaboration with
            CNR, Italy) (ongoing)
          – Performance tests (ongoing)

Margherita Sini, FAO
                                                      http://www.fao.org/aims/



                           Next steps
      • Completion of the AGROVOC/CS Workbench
      • AGROVOC conversion and further refinement
      • Extensive testing on scalability, concurrent use of
        the Workbench etc.
      • Create a network of ontology experts
          – Multilingual subject experts: term editors, ontology
            editors, validators
          – Workshops/Trainings
      • NeOn

Margherita Sini, FAO
                                      http://www.fao.org/aims/




                       Future works and
                        collaborations

                              1

Margherita Sini, FAO
                                      http://www.fao.org/aims/

       The Semantic Web meets WEB 2.0:
           cataloguing and annotating
              Web Resources (1/3)
  • Producing semantically rich, multilingual
    knowledge repositories
  • Combine social bookmarking with Ontology
    based bookmarking
  • Composing, organizing and offering information
    from different knowledge repositories
    (distributed ontologies)

Margherita Sini, FAO
                                                     http://www.fao.org/aims/


  The Semantic Web meets WEB 2.0 (2/3)
  • Collaborative aspects
      – Distribution of ontological data
      – Collaborative semantic annotation
      – Collaborative editing of ontologies
  • Data Integration
      – Ontology Learning
      – Automatic discovery of ontologies (Ontology Crawling)
      – Linking/Merging of ontologies
  • Linguistic Aspects
      – Identity of concepts: discovering of linguistic phenomena like
        synonymy/homonymy
      – Linguistic Enrichment of Ontologies
      – Multilinguality

Margherita Sini, FAO
                                               http://www.fao.org/aims/


  The Semantic Web meets WEB 2.0 (3/3)
  • People/Expert discovery service
  • Working on the case study: avian flu
  • Partners
      –   FAO
      –   University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy
      –   Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand
      –   Yahoo, UK/Ireland
      –   Elsevier, Netherlands
      –   University of Bielefeld, Germany
      –   ....
Margherita Sini, FAO
                               http://www.fao.org/aims/




                       demos




Margherita Sini, FAO
                                             http://www.fao.org/aims/

                Semantic Turkey
       Università Tor Vergata Roma, Italy
  • Semantic Web technologies are offering standards for
    knowledge representation and for content exchange
  • Obtain a clear separation between pure knowledge data
    (the WHAT) and web links (the WHERE)
  • Offer innovative navigation of both the acquired
    information and of the pages where it has been collected
  • The project has been focused on innovative solutions for
    browsing the web and for organizing the information
    which is observed during navigation


Margherita Sini, FAO
                       http://www.fao.org/aims/




Margherita Sini, FAO
                                       http://www.fao.org/aims/

                    OntoLing
        Università Tor Vergata Roma, Italy
  • Exploiting Linguistic Resources for building
    linguistically motivated ontologies
  • Linguistic Enrichment of Ontologies
      – Manually
      – Automatically




Margherita Sini, FAO
                       http://www.fao.org/aims/




Margherita Sini, FAO
                                      http://www.fao.org/aims/




                       Future works and
                        collaborations

                              2

Margherita Sini, FAO
                                         http://www.fao.org/aims/


               Early warning systems (1/3)
  • Emerging infectious diseases warning system
  • Use cases: Bird Flu, Rice
  • Problem: today systems in many domains already
    exist but there is no efficient access to them. The
    information is scattered and not organized
  • Structured information (e.g. the CS) can be used
    to organize unstructured information (wikis and
    blogs)


Margherita Sini, FAO
                                                       http://www.fao.org/aims/


               Early warning systems (2/3)
  • Resources
      – FAO CS, Metadata and multilingual subject ontologies
      – AGRIS data
      – Department of Livestock data
  • Topics
      –   From unstructured information to structured information
      –   Distributed and collaborative knowledge building
      –   Knowledge mapping
      –   Topic map
      –   Knowledge engineering, knowledge mining, data mining
      –   Intelligent decision support systems (diagnosis analysis)
Margherita Sini, FAO
                                          http://www.fao.org/aims/


               Early warning systems (3/3)
  • Partners
      – Thai Ministry of Science and Technology (NECTEC)
      – Thai Ministry of Agriculture (Department of
        Livestock)
      – Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand
      – Thai Agris Center, Bangkok, Thailand
      – HAII, Bangkok, Thailand
      – FAO
      – Consortium of Asian countries (APEC)
      – .....

Margherita Sini, FAO
                                      http://www.fao.org/aims/




                       Future works and
                        collaborations

                              3

Margherita Sini, FAO
                                                 http://www.fao.org/aims/


                       Grid Technologies in
                       Digital Libraries (1/2)
  • Combine distributed repositories through
    ontologies by means of the grid technology
      – Several institutions
      – Repositories of scientific data, GIS, statistical data
      – Domain of fisheries / aquaculture




Margherita Sini, FAO
                                              http://www.fao.org/aims/

                       Grid Technologies in
                       Digital Libraries (2/2)
  • Partners
      – FAO
      – Italian National Research Center (CNR), Italy
      – Thai National Grid Center, Kasetsart University,
        Bangkok
      – Thai National Agris Center, Kasetsart University,
        Bangkok
      – NECTEC, Thailand
      – ....

Margherita Sini, FAO
                                                  http://www.fao.org/aims/




                            Thank you!
                           More information:
                       http://www.fao.org/aims/
                       margherita.sini@fao.org



                  … open discussion …

Margherita Sini, FAO

				
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