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					Bully Prevention in PBS


   Bruce Stiller; Rhonda Torki
Session Goals

   Review Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior
    Support (Stop/Walk/Talk) -- What we have learned
    after 3 years of implementation
   Present feedback from middle school students and
    staff regarding how to make Bully Prevention in PBS
    developmentally appropriate for secondary students
   Review results of School Climate Survey
   Present Expect Respect -- a program in development
    for Bully and Harassment Prevention at the
    secondary level
Bullying & Harassment
    Bullying and harassment are serious
     issues in schools that can influence a
     student’s ability to complete school
     and advance to higher education.

    30% of youth in the United States (or
     over 5.7 million)1 are estimated to be
     involved in bullying as either a bully, a
     target of bullying, or both.

1Nansel   et al. (2001). Bullying Behaviors Among U.S. Youth. JAMA.
Literature Review of Existing Bully
Prevention Programs

 Outcomes     less than ideal (efficacy data is
 sparse -- many have evidence only that
 student knowledge of what to do improves,
 not that actual behavior changes)
 Efficiency   a major issue
 Most   do not target behavior of bystanders
Core Features of Bully and Harassment
Prevention in Positive Behavior Support
            Define, teach and reinforce school-wide behavior
             expectations.

            Teach all students to identify and label disrespectful
             behavior.

            Teach students a universal Stop Signal to use when
             they experience disrespectful behavior.
                What to do as recipient
                What to do as perpetrator
                What to do as bystander
Stop/Walk/Talk Program
   One Primary Lesson -- 50 minutes -- delivered to all
    students the same day
      Class discussion of disrespectful behavior
      Introduction of Stop Signal
      Role Playing
   Follow Up Lessons as needed
      Gossip; Rumor Spreading
      Exclusion
      Cyberbullying
   Coaching from supervisory personnel is ongoing
    and critical
Lesson Delivery: Teach Students the
“Stop Signal”
    If someone is bothering you, or someone else,
     deliver the “Stop Signal”.

    Bystanders are asked to help by using the “Stop
     Signal” or by taking the victim away from the
     situation if they see someone else being harassed,
     teased, or treated disrespectfully.

    If disrespectful behavior continues after the stop
     signal is delivered, walk away and/or report to an
     adult
Coaching Students: Accepting Reports
When problem behavior is reported, adults follow a specific
   response:

   Reinforce the student for reporting the problem behavior
       (i.e. "I'm glad you told me.")

   Ask who, what, when and where.

   Ensure the student’s safety.
        Is the problem still happening?
        Assess severity of the incident
        Assess likelihood of retaliation
        Devise Safety Plan if needed

   Ask the Student if he/she Used the Stop Signal -- Coach
      as needed
Coaching Perpetrators


   If the problem behavior included harassment or
    physical assault, complete an Office Discipline
    Referral and turn in to office

   For chronic offenders, implement a reminder, warning,
    consequence correction sequence (timeout on the
    bench or an office referral, depending
    severity/frequency) in addition to the previously
    described coaching steps
Checking In -- Continued Follow-Up

   For chronic victims of bullying or harassment
       On a regular basis, an adult should check in with
        students to determine if the problem behaviors
        have ceased.
       Continue to reinforce students for confiding and
        seeking assistance
Problem Behavior During Recess

                            8


                            6


                            4
                                                                         Rob
     Incidents of Problem

                            2
      Behavior at Recess
                            0
                            8   1



                            6


                            4
                                                                         Jeff
                            2


                            0
                                1   6   11   16   21    26   31    36     41
                            8


                            6
                                                                         Bruce
                            4


                            2


                            0
                            8   1   6   11   16    21   26    31    36     41



                            6


                            4
                                                              Composite Peer
                            2


                            0
                                1   6   11   16   21    26   31    36     41

                                                  Day
                           Probability of Recip ient R esp onse follo win g Problem Behavio r
                           100
                            90
                                                                                     Bas eline P has e
Conditional Pr obability




                            80
                                                                                     Intervention Phas e
                            70
                            60
                            50
                            40
                            30
                            20
                            10
                            0
                                   s top      walk      pos itive   negative   no res pons e
                           Prob ability of Bystander Respo nse fo llowing Pro blem Beh avio r

                           100
                            90
                                                                                         Bas eline P has e
Conditional Pr obability




                            80
                                                                                         Intervention Phas e
                            70
                            60
                            50
                            40
                            30
                            20
                            10
                             0
                                   s top      walk      pos itive   negative   no res pons e
Key Findings: First 3 years of
Implementation of BP-PBS

   Contextual fit -- get student input on which
    hand signal students like best
   Re-teach/prompt on a regular basis -- students
    needs lots of reminder to use the Stop Signal,
    especially in context
   Cumulative effect is likely if the program is
    implemented over a period of several years and
    becomes more of a standard feature of the
    school culture
Fidelity Study - Spring 2009

   Fidelity Study Spring 2009 included playground
    observations; interviews with students and staff; and
    student focus groups
   Fidelity Study completed in a 4J elementary school -- one of
    the schools most invested in Stop/Walk/Talk
   Results:
      Students had learned the expected behaviors and could tell
       researchers what they were supposed to do
      Adults couldn’t remember all of the coaching steps

      Students complained that the adults weren’t listening to
       them
4J Climate Survey (Pilot):
       Overview
   Pilot study designed by 4J School District to
    assess harassment and bullying in schools
     24 questions about different types of
       harassment; where & when bullying occur;
       available resources and problem-solving
       strategies
   1581 students assessed from 4 schools in
    spring 2009
     1 high school (Churchill); 3 middle schools
       (Spencer Butte, Kelly, Roosevelt)
Safety and Respect*
Observations & Experiences of
Bullying, Teasing, Offensive
Language*
Bullied or Harassed* (in past year)
Participation in Bullying,
Harassment or Teasing*
Seeking Adult Help & Reporting Bullying
Problem-Solving Strategies for
Bullying and Harassment*
Harassment Observed on the
Bases of…*




                               *Data reported by
                             percent of responses.
    Significant Findings: Gender
Girls reported:
   observing more gender-related harassment
   feeling less safe from teasing
   that offensive language is a problem

Boys reported:
   fighting back is more likely to solve a problem
   using more computers and other devices to
    intimidate other students
   being less likely to talk to an adult for help
Stop/Walk/Talk for Middle
School?
   Pilot implementation at 4J Middle School
   Student input: “This will be lame if we let the adults do it”
   Student taught lessons with adult facilitation
   End of year Focus Group
       Steps for recipients need to be different for middle school
        students because reporting is plain old not going to happen
       Interrupting behaviors have to be more elegant and age
        appropriate (e.g. “I expect respect” v. “Stop”) Students choose
        the interrupting behavior
       Need for ongoing dialogue
       Only when there is danger of someone being hurt is it
        appropriate (from their point of view) to report
Stop/Walk/Talk for Middle
School = Expect Respect
   Critical Features of Expect Respect
       Student Driven (it won’t happen if it’s not)
       Removal of Social Reinforcers
       Interrupting Behavior (tools to interrupt bullying):
        catch phrase, stop signal, etc.
       Lessons: Combination of 4 adult lead lessons and
        4 student forums (on alternating months)
       Expect Respect on staff meeting agendas:
        School-wide initiative and staff buy-in necessary
Differences -- Stop/Walk/Talk
v. Expect Respect
   Stop/Walk/Talk                   Expect Respect
                                         Interruption behaviors more
       Hand signal paired with           developmentally advanced
        verbal                            with multiple options
       Role plays more                  More sophisticated role
        directed; specific                plays
                                         Strategies for interrupting
       Adult driven strategies           disrespect are student
        for interrupting                  driven
        disrespect and for               8 primary lessons including
        resolving conflicts               student forums
       One primary lesson               More emphasis on
                                          continuing dialogue and
       Most incidents                    follow through
        resolved with one or
        two adult contacts
Expect Respect: Creating the
Curriculum
   8 contacts with students throughout the year
   4 Adult-lead Lessons: Mix of discussion and
    experiential lessons (“Getting on the Bus;
    You-Tube vignettes)
   4 Student forums: All students invited, open
    forum with a lesson or topic for discussion,
    “take-away” point to share with classes
Plan for Next Year
   Expect Respect will be piloted in 2 middle
    schools that want to implement the program
   Participation in the pilot will involve:
       Key people at each school willing to coordinate
        implementation of the curriculum
       Teacher and staff participation
       Completion of pre and post surveys and
        questionnaires
       Updates at staff meeting and research team
        meetings

				
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