International politics and security

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					International politics
and security


            Kusnanto Anggoro
On terminology
      International (institutions) and global
       (phenomenology)
      Politics of security or securitization of
       politics
      International treaties, public diplomacy,
       politics and security; international
       cooperation (Kemhan, POLRI, State’s
       Intelligence Agency), policy support
       (Sekretariat Negara), defence and military
       attache dll


                                                    2
Changing context of security
    Military security (exogenous factor, military
     character, sovereignty related)
    Comprehensive security

            Understanding – multi-dimensionality of threats,
             plurality of actors, variety of mode of
             diffussions
            Referrent objects (territorial integrity, political
             sovereignty, and “human security”)
            Differentiated approach (national and
             cooperative at regional, global level)

                                                              3
Post Cold War Phenomena
   Globalization and         Boundary eroding
    liberalization             phenomenon
   Technological             Defending undefendable
    development and its        border, unidentified
    impact on threats          enemy, assymmteric
    diffussion                 threats
   Emerging new norms on
    security approach and       The legacy of the Cold
    the limits of national      War in some regions
    policy                      (Nort Pacific) and issues
                                (military related)
                                                        4
non-traditional and non-conventional threats
to security
 Energy, environment,          Terrorism, cyber crimes,
  financial, health, trade,      illegal migration, piracy
  maritime                       and arms robbery
 Security of resources,        Non-state actors
  state capacity to respond,    Problems of risk reduction
  consequences on                and post-conflict security
                                 management
  particular issues
                                Boundary strengthening
 Problems of escalation
  (pre-conflict management)
 Impossibility of boundary
  stregthening                      Cooperative security
                                                           5
Institutional arrangements and cooperative
security
 Bilateral, regional,
  global/international
  (arrangements)
 Technical,
  functional, political    Military (arms control)
                            and non-military focus
  (approaches)
 Inter-governmental


                                                      6
Three Continuum
 Continuum of forces
  (early warning,           Peace keeping, peace
  deterence, defence and     building, and peace
  rehabilitaion)             enforcement
 Continuum of policies
                            Humanitarian
  (public services, law
  enforcements, combat       intervention
  and MOOTW)                 (responsibility to
 Continuum of responses     protect)
  (prevention and
  rehabilitation)
                                                    7
Security cooperation and regions

         System of opposite military alliance (militry
          force, no-confidence, secrecy)
         Collective security (Universal agreement; Single
          state commitment and intervention on demand;
          instant preparation of international measures
         Security community (High level of transactions,
          confidence & integration, shared institutions)
         Regional security partnerships


                                                             8
Substantive dimensions of security
arrangements


    Security dialogue (perception of threats,
     security priorities)
    Norm setting (governance)
    Confidence Building Measures (defence
     white paper, defence budget transparency)
    Inter-agency cooperation (capacity
     building)

                                                 9
Transforming Cold War Legacy
 Arms proliferation and control (weapons of
  mass destruction, conventional weapons, small
  arms)
 Military reorganization (downsizing,
  interoperability, mission oriented posture)
 Militarization of intelligence and policing, but
  crafting new roles of the armed forces
 Dual technology, safeguard and commitment
  (for not going military)
                                                 10
            10%
      15%
                        State vs State


                        State vs Nation


25%                     Inter-Ethnic Tribal


                  50%   Gang Wars, Genocide,
                        Decolonization




                                               11
Global Threats to Local Survival

                   Complex Emergencies                                   Water Scarcity &
                   32 Countries                                          Contaminated Water**
                   Refugees/Displaced                                    Ethnic Conflict 18
                   66 Countries                                          Genocides Today**

                   Food Security                                         Resource Wars, Energy
                   33 Countries                                          Waste & Pollution**
                   Modern Plagues*                                       Corruption Common
                   59 Countries & Rising                                 80 Countries

                   Child Soldiers                                        Censorship Very High
                   41 Countries                                          62 Countries

 *State of the World Atlas (1997), ** Marq de Villier (Water), John Heidenrich and Greg Stanton (Genocide),
                                                                                                            12
 Michael Klare et al (Resources), all others from PIOOM Map 2002
13
    Ethnic Fault Lines 2000
18 Genocide Campaigns On-Going Today




                                   14
        Water & War
Hyper-Arid
                 1                     4
                                   3
 Arid

                                               5
Semi-Arid


Sub-Humid                                  6
Water           2
Pollution
  Source: The State of the World               15
  Atlas (1997), chart 54, 53
Non-proliferation regime

 Arms Control and
  disarmament (weapons        technological
  of mass destruction –        measures
  conventional, nuclear,      democratic
  biological and chemical)     measures
 Complicating factors:       More preemptive,
  terrorism, uneffective       coercive measures
  government, corrupt         Export control
  officials, new
  technology
 AR Khan Network
                                               16
Companies involved in Libya’s nuclear development




                                                    17
Strategies for Curbing WMD Proliferation
Produced by the Monterey Institute's Center for Nonproliferation
Studies


   Measures for limiting the use of WMD must address (1) existing WMD
    capabilities; (2) future increases in such capabilities; and (3) the spread
    (proliferation) of WMD to additional countries and terrorist organizations.
    The basic approaches for limiting the use of WMD are:
   adopting prohibitions on the possession and use of WMD, including
    measures to limit or eliminate existing WMD stockpiles through treaties;
   using diplomacy, sanctions, substitutes, and incentives to discourage
    countries from acquiring or using WMD;
   using export controls on transfers of WMD technology, equipment, and
    materials, to slow countries from building or acquiring WMD;
   pursuing cooperative threat reduction efforts to eliminate existing WMD and
    prevent WMD technology transfer to states of concern;
   deterring a potential adversary by demonstrating that the costs of an attack
    would be too great and would outweigh any potential gains; and
   employing military measures to address WMD threats (counterproliferation).




                                                                             18
reducing non-traditional threat to security
Type of conflict               Root causes                     Manifestation of conflict            Conflict resolution

Identity conflicts             Religious, ethnicity, and       Intra-state conflict (separatistm,   Security, development, and
                                      other primordial                  irridentism) lead to                democracy
                                      identity                          state failure               Humanitarian
Terrorism                      relative deprivation,           Terrorist attack (traditional and    Counter and combating
                                       fundamentalism                  modern)                             terrorism
                                                                                                    deradicalisation

Organized crimes               Poverty, corruption, criminal   crimes                               Law enforcement
                                      impulses, ineffective
                                      states,
Global climate changes,        Resources mismanagement         Human security, transnational        Prevention, early warning,
       environmental           Imbalance development                 conflicts                             humanitarian reliefs
       degradation                                                                                  governance

Energy security                Resources mismanagement,        Disputed area, discovery of          Emergency measures, stock,
                                      over industrialization          new resources                        grids, alternative
                                                                                                           energy
                                                                                                    Join development
Critical infrastructure, sea
        lanes of
        communication
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  Questions
or Comments?



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DOCUMENT INFO
Description: International (institutions) and global (phenomenology) Politics of security or securitization of politics International treaties, public diplomacy, politics and security; international cooperation (Kemhan, POLRI, State’s Intelligence Agency), policy support (Sekretariat Negara), defence and military attache dll