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					  Research Needs to Support
Food-based Dietary Guidance in
    an Era of Over-Nutrition

      Tetrapartite Meeting, June 2008
        Allison A. Yates, PhD, RD
      Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center
               USDA/ARS  Beltsville, MD
           Today’s Discussion

 Overview of food and nutrition research at
 Human Nutrition Action Plan 2009-2013
 Research issues on the agenda
    Human Nutrition Research -- $85 M
   Six human nutrition research centers
    — Houston   TX & Baylor University: children
    — Boston MA & Tufts University: aging
    — Little Rock AR & Arkansas Children’s Hosp.: early nutrition
    — Grand Forks ND @ Univ. No. Dakota: rural concerns
    — Davis CA @ Univ. Calif at Davis: chronic disease

    — Beltsville   MD @ BARC: adults; nutrition monitoring
   Other specific projects @ ARS locations
             ARS Human Nutrition Research
                 Program Customers
   Other governmental food and nutrition action agencies
    —   USDA’s Food and Nutrition Service (FNS)
         – Food Stamp Program; WIC Food Program; MyPyramid Food Guide
    —   USDA’s Economic Research Service (ERS)
    —   National Institutes of Health
         – Methods to estimate food intake and dietary patterns when correlating diet and
           risk of disease,
         – Nutrient Database; Dietary Supplement Database
         – Polyphenol studies related to chronic disease risk factor reduction
    —   U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): scientific basis of nutrition regulations
   Dietary Guidelines for Americans – Joint USDA/DHHS
   Commodity trade associations, food processors
   Advocacy groups improving the health of vulnerable groups
   ARS Human Nutrition Mission
To improve the nutrition and health of
the American people by enhancing the
quality of the American diet and
improving related health behaviors
through research

From the 2009-2013 Action Plan:
National Program 107 — Human Nutrition
      Human Nutrition Action Plan
          Four Components

 Nutrition Monitoring and the Food Supply
 Scientific Basis for Dietary Guidance for Health
  Promotion and Disease Prevention
 Prevention of Obesity and Related Diseases
 Life Stage Nutrition and Metabolism
       Steps to Develop Action Plan
   Led by National Program Staff
   Review of past 5 years of overall research by
    external review group
   Workshop with stakeholders (customers),
    laboratory scientists, and invited academics
   Purpose: identify needed research areas for future
   Action plan developed with overall themes
   Put out for comment prior to finalization
                  Use of Action Plan
   National program staff develop objectives for 5 years for
    scientists given their expertise and priority areas in plan
   Scientists develop outline of future research projects---
    approved by Center directors, Area directors, finally
    National Program staff
   Scientists submit full proposal for 5-year period
    addressing objectives and describing gaps to be filled,
    research plans, collaborations identified
   Plans evaluated by blinded external reviewer panels to
    determine if proposed research is sound
               Major Issues in Nutrition
   Evolution from public health directives for nutrition
    guidance to individualized personal nutrition
    — New  methods to detect specific risk factors for chronic
   Emerging role of immune response/inflammatory
    disease as intermediary in expression of chronic
    disease (CVD, diabetes, cancer, obesity)
   Investigation of the health-promoting properties of
    foods---when are other food components considered
     Dietary Guidelines Versus RDAs
REQUIRED: Knowledge of     Knowledge of Foods Consumed
          Food Composition by Representative Groups

              Observations of Food Intake
      Dietary Guidelines:
                  and Risk of Disease
      Qualitative advice to the public about diet
RESEARCH chronic disease prevention
                Biological plausibility
                Temporally correct association
NEEDS:            Strength of association
                  Dose-response relationship
        Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs):
                  Consistency of association
                  Specificity of association
          Quantitative advice to professionals about
                                        Hill, 1971

          amounts of nutrients or food components Causation
GOAL:            to be of benefit
          found Improved Dietary Guidance
             Relating Food Component to Risk
         Major Issues in Nutrition

   Obesity Causation and Prevention
    — Physiological contributors
    — Social context
    — Environmental contributors
                     Obesity Research at Beltsville Human Nutrition
                     Research Center---
Obesity Trends* in the U.S.:
                                                 Stemming the Epidemic
% of Adults with BMI  30 by State                                                      Weight maintenance = energy intake – energy expenditure, or does it?

                                                                              What causes insulin
                                                                              resistance? How
                                                                      1995    much is heredity,
                                                                              and how much is
                                                                              the environment?

                                                                      2000                                 Beltsville has the only USDA human studies facility with three live-in
                                                                                                           calorimeters to evaluate energy metabolism and the effect of various foods &
                                                                                                           exercise on body weight and energy regulation

      No Data

      < 10%
                                                                             Does dietary fiber increase
      10-14%                                                                 satiety, helping in weight
                                                                      2005   management?
      15-19%                                                                 BHNRC scientists found that
                                                                             barley fiber increased satiety in

      25-29%                                                                 Can dairy products
                             When will the U.S.                              assist in weight loss?
       30%                  turn completely red?                            BHNRC scientists find
                                                                             that whey protein
                                                                             maintains muscle mass
                                                                  2010?      and may decrease body fat
(* or about 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” person; Source, BRFSS, CDC )

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