Adolescent Development - East Noble Online Learning Center

Document Sample
Adolescent Development - East Noble Online Learning Center Powered By Docstoc
					                            01

Psychology
Developmental Psychology:
   Adolescence
 Psychology
Adolescence:
Lesson Plan Objectives:
 Identify and describe the physical and biological
     changes associated with adolescence.
 Identify and describe the changes associated
     with reasoning, moral thinking and
     development during adolescence.
 Identify and describe the changes related to
     social relationships that occur during
     adolescence.
                                       03

 Psychology
Adolescence:
Lesson Plan Objectives:
 Identify and describe the physical changes and
     the effects of psychological differences
     related to gender that occur during
     adolescence.
 Identify and recall how these changes influence
     behaviors.
               04

 Psychology
Adolescence:
 Psychology
Adolescence:
Physical and Sexual Development
Adolescence Milestones
 13 – entering the “Teens”
 16 – Increased responsibility (driving/dating)
 18 – Western date for maturity/responsibility
 21 – Date of “full” responsibility
 College – “Out of the House”
 Psychology
Adolescence:
Physical and Sexual Development
 Developmental period of high “confusion &
      stress” – Challenges:
 Physical changes (appearance)
 Relationships with others
 Emotional independence from parents
 Economic independence (job)
 Career/college decisions
 Social & cognitive skill development
 Preparations for permanent relationships
 Acquiring appropriate social values
 Psychology
Adolescence:
Physical and Sexual Development
Physical Development
 Puberty
   Girls: start between 8-10 years of age (MENARCHE)
   Boys: start between 9-16 years of age (SPERMARCE)
 Growth – spurt at age 12 for girls, age 14 for
     boys
 Asynchrony – uneven growth patterns: arms,
     legs, hands)
 Psychology
Adolescence:
Physical and Sexual Development
Peer Reactions to Adolescence Growth
 Need to be accepted by peers
 Pressure for conformity: maturity (age), dress,
     socialization
 Correlation between negative “body images” and
     depression
 Pressure to measure up to the culture’s
     standards
 Self evaluation based upon these standards
                                          11

 Psychology                               CT



Adolescence:
Physical and Sexual Development
Males who mature early tend to have greater
     social acceptance & a high occupational
     status
Females who mature early may feel embarrassed
     rather than proud of the increased height &
     “figure”.
  Begin dating older boys (maturity issues)
  Become more “authoritative than less-developed peers
  Less-developed peers tend to be socialize better
                                       12

 Psychology
Adolescence:
Physical and Sexual Development
Sexual Development
 Physical changes during adolescence trigger
     behavioral changes
 Sexual awareness in teens:
   Over 1-million teen pregnancies
   Over 3-million cases of STDs
   Abstinence vs. use of protection
               13

 Psychology
Adolescence:
                                   15

 Psychology
Adolescence:
Personal Development
During adolescence, a sense
     of identity and self-esteem
     are important and are
     heavily influenced by
     peers (friends)
                                       16

 Psychology
Adolescence:
Cognitive Development
 Beginning of Piaget’s “Formal operations stage”
 By 11-12 years of age, adolescents begin to
     develop abstract thinking
 Ability to “rationalize” potential
     actions or results
 Tendency to become more
     “idealistic” Reality v. …
 Psychology
Adolescence:
Cognitive Development
 Of the 50% who do not reach formal operation
      stage, they tend to:
   Find fault with authority figures
   Argue rather than consider an opposing view point
   Unable to make simple decisions
   Self-consciousness - mistrust of others
   Belief in invulnerability – first to experience it, rules
     don’t apply, risks/self-destructive behaviors
                                             19

 Psychology                                  CT



Adolescence:
Moral Development: Lawrence Kolberg’s Stages:
 Stage 1 – Egocentric: right v. wrong depends upon
      possibility of punishment
 Stage 2 – consideration of personal +/- consequences
 Stage 3 – consideration of social approval of behavior(s)
 Stage 4 – Actions/behaviors based upon rules
      (most adults stop at this stage)
 Stage 5 – actions/behaviors based upon fairness & justice
 Stage 6 – formulate “absolute ethical principles” as a
      basis for making decisions
                                         20

 Psychology
Adolescence:
Identity Development
Eric Erikson: “…the establishment is key to
      adolescent development” Identity Crisis:
 Awareness of what others (peers) think of them
 Awareness of “labels”, physical development,
      cognitive development.
 Concerns about the realities of the future
      (college, job, relationships)
 Internal conflict: individuality v. conformity
                                     22

 Psychology
Adolescence:
Identity Development
Psychologist Albert Bandura:
 Identity development tends to be a continuous
   process rather than
   marked by stages.
                                        23

 Psychology
Adolescence:
Social Development:
 Adjusting to new relationships with parents and
      the growing influence of peers.
 Conformity to peer pressure generally starts
      in 3rd grade, increases
      until the 11th grade, then
      starts to drop off in the
      12th grade)
                                           24

 Psychology                                CT



Adolescence:
Role of the Family
 Pre-1970s family consisted of a working father, stay-
       at-home mother (stability)
 Today: ½ of most marriages end in divorce
 Many families have two wage earners
 Concern by parents if children are ready to “leave the
       nest” v. concern when are they going to leave?
 Influence over “basic” decisions related to: marriage,
       educational plans, religion and major purchases.
                                         25

 Psychology                              CT
                                         DQ


Adolescence:
Role of Peers
 During middle/HS years, peers generally have a
     greater influence than parents.
 Groups/cliques help in developing & forming
     important social identities, assists in achieving
     self-confidence, limited independence and the
     formation of values.
 Pressure to conform to group/clique standards
     and/or norms.
                                          26

 Psychology
Adolescence:
Difficulties During Adolescence
 Adolescence is a period of transition
      (from childhood to adulthood)
 Ability to cope with physical/emotional changes
      and social pressures
 Illusion of invulnerability – “others get caught, not
      me”
 Potential for delinquent behaviors [17% violent
      crimes, 35% property crimes (1997)]
                                         27

 Psychology
Adolescence:
Difficulties During Adolescence
 Depression and suicide – increased over 300%
      during the past 50+ years
 Eating disorders
   Anorexia nervosa: refusing to eat,
     due to faulty belief of being
     overweight
   Bulimia nervosa: binge eating
     followed by purging (vomiting)
               29

 Psychology
Adolescence:
                                            30

 Psychology
Adolescence:
GENDER ROLES and DIFFERENCES: Strong
    influence on who you are, how you dress,
    how you move, play or work.
 Gender Identity – forms an individual’s physical
    & biological makeup
   Between 2-3 years of age, children begin to label
     themselves as either a boy or a girl.
   By age 5, most children have acquired the thoughts,
     behaviors and expectations of their gender.
                                           31

 Psychology                                CT
                                           DQ

Adolescence:
Gender Rolls and Differences:
Gender Roles – determined by the prevailing
     culture, (how they are supposed to behave) In
     western cultures:
   Men are dominant, competitive & emotionally reserved
   Females are submissive, cooperative and emotionally
     responsive
 Gender Stereotyping – rigid rules where
     generalizations or prejudiced opinions and
     attitudes concerning how males/females should
     act.
                                           32

 Psychology
Adolescence:
Gender Rolls and Differences:
 Androgynous Roles – gender rolls that accept a
     “flexible” combination of traditional and non-
     traditional male/female characteristics
 Gender Differences:
   Males appear to have greater confidence in areas of
     math & science (scores same for M/F)
   Aggression: males are physical, females are verbal
   Both males & females talk about the same amount,
     males tend to interrupt females more
   Non-verbal communication: males less likely to
     perceive and understand them
                                       33

 Psychology
Adolescence:
Gender Rolls and Differences:
Origins of Gender Differences
 Biological Theory – determined by anatomy,
     hormones & brain organization
 Psychoanalytical Theory – (Freud)
     identification with same-sex parent as model
     between ages 3-5 years of age
                                       34

 Psychology
Adolescence:
Gender Rolls and Differences:
Origins of Gender Differences
 Social Learning Theory – learned by observing
     and imitating parents, friends, peers,
     teachers.
 Cognitive-Development Theory – by
     interactions with the environment and the
     realization (thinking) about the “roles” they
     see.
                                        35

 Psychology                             CT



Adolescence:
Changing Gender Roles
 Modern view of gender roles v. capabilities
 Influence of laws (non-discrimination)
                                36

 Psychology
Adolescence:
Enrichment Activity:
Role of Popular Music in Adolescent Life
     Will GO OVER ON MONDAY
                             37

 Psychology
Developmental Psychology:
    Adolescence Activity
         - Kohlberg: Use pgs. 297 –
298 for a guide or research the net

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:9
posted:3/10/2012
language:English
pages:31