George Washington: America’s First President or Precedents? 1789-1796 Mount Vernon, Virginia Why George? ► Admired ► High character ► Symbol of unity and power ► Loyal to nation ► Great number of acquaintances ► Concerns Lacked governmental experience Lacked political theory knowledge Washington’s Domestic Policy of Rights ► Bill ► Government structure and precedents Cabinet Relation to Congress Terms in office ► Fiscal and monetary policy Bank of United States created ► Whiskey Rebellion Washington’s Domestic Policy Act of 1789 ► Judiciary ► Congress established: 13 districts 3 courts of appeal Supreme Court John Jay first chief justice Washington’s Cabinet ► Thomas Jefferson: Secretary of State ► Alexander Hamilton: 1789 Congress created Treasury Department a bureaucracy to handle different responsibilities ► General Henry Knox: Secretary of War ► Edmund Randolph: Attorney General President of Precedents ► Limited senate control over appointments to approval only not removal ► President set foreign affairs; Senate advise and consent ► Act as Legislative Leader by sending bills to Congress ► Don’t attend Senate meetings ► Limit self to two terms ► Created balance on Supreme Court(3N, 3S) We’ve Got A Problem ► U.S. owed $54 million to foreign countries and individual bond owners. ► How to handle? How Do We Handle It? ► James Madison suggested taxing imports ► Law required importers to pay a percentage of the value of their cargo when they landed in the United States ► Affected trade in Southern states Hamilton’s Economic Plan ► Pay off creditors. ► Pay bonds bought by citizens Funding Bill. Debate over speculators vs. original owners. ► Pay off state debts Assumption Bill. compromise ► Create National Bank Bank of the United State (BUS) ► Hamilton asked Congress to create a national bank. Argued the bank needed a way to manage its debts and interest payments. ► Madison opposed, argued against bank because Congress did not have the power specifically mentioned in the Constitution. (ENUMEATED POWERS) Compromise in Congress ► Madison saw plan as unfair to Southerners ► WASHINGTON AGREED WITH HAMILTON AND SIGNED THE BILL ► NATIONAL BANK ESTABLISHED FOR 20 YEAR PERIOD ► 1790, Hamilton's plan was accepted ► capitol of US would be moved from NY to the D.C. ► Capitol in South would cripple Northern majority Whiskey Rebellion, 1794 ► Washington sent nearly 13,000 troops to crush the Whiskey Rebellion. ► FIRST TIME THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT WAS WILLING TO USE TROOPS AGAINST ITS OWN PEOPLE. ► WORRIED MANY CITIZENS Washington’s Foreign Policy ► Avoid War French Revolution Jay’s Treaty Pinckney’s Treaty Westward expansion French Revolution ► Many sympathized with French. Citizen Genet. ► We owed them for Am. Revolution. ► Problem: we traded most with Britain ► Washington’s Policy: Neutrality. We will remain “friendly and impartial” ► Too young, couldn’t afford war. Jay’s Treaty: 1794 ► Britain seizing American vessels. ► Call for war. ► John Jay sent to resolve conflict. ► Britain given favored status and didn’t have to accept responsibility for taking ships. ► Unpopular in U.S. but we couldn’t go to war. Pinckney’s Treaty:1795 ► With Spain ► Granted the United States the right to navigate the Mississippi River the right of deposit at the port in New Orleans Border to the Mississippi and south to 31st parallel ► Support from western settlers/farmers Treaty of Greenville, 1795 ► The confederacy of Little Turtle sought to protect their land ► General Wayne defeated the confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers ► 12 Indian nations signed the treaty, gave up part of southern Ohio and Indiana for yearly payments ► Americans want to move West Rise of Political Parties ► Federalists ► Democrats-Republicans Federalists ► Led by Alexander Hamilton ► Wanted strong national government in the hands of the wealthy ► Believed trade and manufacturing as basis of wealth and power ► Urban, northern cities supported Democrat Republicans ► Led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison ► Referred to as Republicans ► Believed independent farmers as strength of United States. ► Ideas referred to as agrarianism ► Favored rights of the states ► Rural South and West supported Washington’s Farewell Address ► Avoid permanent foreign alliances ► Avoid political parties ► Neutrality ► Avoid sectionalism issues (North vs South) My Dear George Two Letters 1. Persuasive letter explaining why he should become our first President. 2. Letter to George upon his leaving office detailing whether his administration was a success or failure. Be sure to address events to support your opinion. Resume: George Washington ► Marital Status: ► Residence: ► Education: ► Occupations: (6) ► Historical Achievements: (4) ► Skills: (3) ► Hobbies: (2) ► Interesting Facts: (2) Questions to Consider ► How did the first American political parties develop? ► What were the characteristics of the Federalist Party? ► What were the characteristics of the Democratic-Republican Party? ► How was the election of 1796 the first test for American political parties?
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