Briefing to the Deputy Minister of Defence (PowerPoint)

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					  White Paper on Defence
  and Defence Review



  “Defence Update 2005”


Portfolio Committee on Defence: 17 May 2005
                                              1
Scope of Presentation to PCD
  Introduction & Overview              Mr Tsepe Motumi

  WP&DR Process                        Nick Sendall

  Changed Strategic Environment        Mr Sagaren Naidoo

  Collective Security                  Dr Phenyo Rakate

  South African Approach to National   Mr Sagaren Naidoo
  Security

  Role, Functions, Objectives &        Col(dr) Willie Wagner
  Missions

  Overview of Report 2                 Nick Sendall




                                                               2
WP & DR Macro Process




                        5
Required Results of Defence Update
2005

                    RESULT #1
                   Renewal & Modernisation

 DWP      DR         WP&DR Update

        MISMATCH     RESULT #2           RESULT #3
        (RISKS)     Alignment            Consolidated
                                        Defence Vision

         MTEF         MTEF

 1996   1998          2005       2009        2014

                                                 6
Defence Update 2005 Architecture

 Ministerial Foreword
 Introduction
 Chapter 1:      The Changed Strategic Environment
 Chapter 2:      Collective Security
 Chapter 3:      South Africa’s Approach to National Security
 Chapter 4:      Defence Role, Functions, Objectives, & Missions

 Chapter 5:    Required Defence Capabilities
 Chapter 6:    Required Defence Resources
 Chapter 7:    Defence Governance
 Conclusion


                                                                   7
Status of the WP&DR
Chapters




                      8
Status of Chapters (1)
 Chapter 1: The Changed Strategic           Completed             (CPP)
 Environment

 Chapter 2: Collective Security             Completed             (CPP)

 Chapter 3: South Africa’s Approach to      Completed             (CPP)
 National Security

 Chapter 4: Defence Role, Functions,        Completed             (CCS)
 Objectives, & Missions

 Chapter 5: Required Defence Capabilities   Partially completed   (CCS)

 Chapter 6: Required Defence Resources      Not commenced         (CFO)

 Chapter 7: Defence Governance              Completed             (CPP)




                                                                          9
Status of Chapters (2)

   Chapter 5: Required Defence Capabilities
       CCS to present the Force Design Proposal to the PDSC on 20 June 2005.
       CCS will submit Chapter 5 to the editing committee one week thereafter.


   Chapter 6: Required Defence Resources
       CFO will present the Financial Instruction for the costing of the Force Design to the
        DSC on 30 May 2005.
       CFO will present the Force Costing Proposal at the PDSC on 18 July 2005.
       Submission of Chapter 6 to the editing committee will be one week thereafter, i.e. 25
        July 2005.


   Report 2
       The Editing Committee tasked to prepare Report 2 for presentation at the PDSC of 15
        August 2005.




                                                                                        10
CHAPTER ONE




     A CHANGED STRATEGIC
            ENVIRONMENT

                           11
Introduction

  A main determinant for an update of the WP and DR
  is the changing nature of the strategic environment.

  The contemporary strategic environment depicts a
  world confronted by non-traditional security threats,
  new actors, and non-conventional methods of
  destabilisation and destruction.




                                                      12
The Global Context

                   General Trends
 Intra-state Conflict
 The Contribution of Non-State Actors to insecurity
 The Rise of International Terrorism
 Possession of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)
 The Military Capacity of States
 Unilateral Acts of Force
 Competition over Scarce and Strategic Resources
 Mercenaries and Private Military Companies
 Negative Effects of Globalisation
 North-South Disparities
 Regionalism
 Information and Communication Technology             13
The Continental Context

  A new section to previous chapter in 1996 WP.
  The establishment of the African Union is a milestone
  achievement.
  However, conflicts have continued – some longstanding others
  of a recent occurrence.

  Causes:
    Weak and non-functional states;
    Poor political and economic governance;
    The politicisation of ethnicity;
    Armed competition over scarce and strategic resources; and
    Unconstitutional changes of governments.


  Accordingly, the AU and its mechanisms for resolution of conflict
      i.e. PSC, ASF, the CEW, CADSP and the PAP; are critical for a
       peaceful and stable continent.


                                                                       14
The Regional Context
  Resolution of long standing internal conflicts and the
  institutionalisation of democratic practices. Post-war
  reconstruction poses a challenge.
  However, much of the region continues to be stricken by chronic
  underdevelopment and the attendant problems of poverty,
  illiteracy and unemployment in addition to the spread of killer
  diseases, environmental degradation, and a proliferation of
  small arms.
  Therefore, the Operationalisation of SADC security structures
  and institutions is of critical importance.
  Another development to further regional peace and security is
  the SADC Mutual Defence Pact (MDP).


                                                              15
The Domestic Context

  The domestic security environment is affected by:

     Endemic crime influenced largely by foreign and local
      criminal syndicates.
     Exacerbated by the availability of small arms.
     The spread of killer diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, and
      environmental degradation.
     Acts of Terror.


  The domestic situation remains stable.


                                                        16
Conclusion
  The inter-relatedness and transnational nature of many
  contemporary security threats dictates that solutions are beyond
  the control of any single state. A resolution to many of the
  present days security threats require collaborative action among
  states within multilateral fora and collective security
  mechanisms at the international, continental and regional levels.




                                                               17
CHAPTER TWO




     COLLECTIVE SECURITY

                           18
Introduction

  A changed strategic environment compels a collective response
  to non-traditional security threats, new actors, and non-
  conventional methods of destabilisation and destruction.

  Our security as a country is inextricably linked to the region and
  the continent.

  Therefore, there is a need to strengthen regional and
  continental structures – SADC and AU




                                                                 19
Approach to Collective Security

  The 1996 WP on Defence does not replace ‘state security’ with
  the adoption of a human security approach. The two are
  inextricably linked. This approach is supported by the UN Report
  on Human Security(2003).
  Security is no longer viewed in national terms. Most of the non-
  military threats that face South Africa have regional, continental
  and international implications.
  The DOD is but one instrument that may be employed to
  promote national, regional, continental and global security.




                                                                 20
Collective Security Developments


  Peacekeeping-The UN experience with peacekeeping in Bosnia
  and Somalia.

  Brahimi Report- to undertake a thorough review of UN
  peacekeeping.
     A purely military approach to peacekeeping which ignores human
      security aspects does not produce a lasting peace
     UN Stand-by arrangements to be linked to regional co-operation –
      Member states to make available a brigade type force.




                                                                    21
Reforming the UN SC

 UN membership has grown threefold.

 UN SC decisions to be legitimate, credible and effective.
 Report of the UN High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenge and
 Change (2004).

 Representation will provide Africa with a forum to shape and
 influence the international security agenda.




                                                           22
Continental Security Mechanisms


  The objectives of the PSC supported by concomitant structures
  (ASF, MSC, Early Warning, Panel of the Wise, Peace Fund) is to
  provide peace, security and stability in Africa.
  ASF envisages a brigade-size force per region for each of the
  five regions.
  Early Warning System is to provide political, economic, social,
  military indicators to be used to analyse developments in the
  continent.
  CADSP provides a framework for a common vision of defence
  and security on the continent and will inform future
  developments related to non-aggression and mutual defence
  pacts.


                                                               23
Regional Security Mechanisms

  Institutionalisation of the objectives of the OPDSC particularly
  the Strategic Indicative Plan of the Organ(SIPO)
  SADC Mutual Defence Pact (2003) to prevent conflict between
  and against SADC member states.
  Operationalisation of the SADCBRIG and the Early Warning
  Centre is currently underway – Modality Report.




                                                                 24
Collective Security Management

 Poverty and Underdevelopment
    Eradication of poverty is central to ensuring security of all
     people and the security of the state (Human Security
     Report).
    SIPO lists 14 security challenges and it includes the
     eradication of poverty and underdevelopment in the SADC
     region.
    South Africa remains committed to the NEPAD process and
     the UN Millennium Development Goals.




                                                                     25
Collective Security Management

 Unconstitutional Changes of Government
    AU-Algiers Decisions on Unconstitutional Changes of
     Government(1999) and the Lome Declaration (2000)
    Constitutive Act of the African Union reject unconstitutional
     changes of government.
    SADC Protocol on Principles and Guidelines Governing
     Democratic Elections (2004)




                                                               26
Collective Security Management


  Mercenarism
     Mercenary activities undermine the values of human rights
      and international law as expressed in the Constitution.
     Regulation of Foreign Military Assistance Act 15 of 1998
      prohibits South Africans from participating in national and
      international armed conflicts
     South Africa is not party to the UN & AU Convention on
      Mercenarism




                                                                27
Collective Security Management
 International Terrorism
    Although international terrorism will continue to dominate
     the global security agenda poverty and underdevelopment
     remains a challenge for developing countries (MOD
     Comments)
    South Africa has implemented UN SC resolutions on
     terrorism – IDWG on terrorism
    Protection of Constitutional Democracy against Terrorist and
     Related Activities Act 33 of 2004.




                                                              28
Collective Security Management


 Disarmament and Arms Control
    Threat of WMD between major powers continues to decline.
     However, the use of WMD cannot be discounted.
    Pelindaba Treaty – preserve Africa as Nuclear free zone.
    Non-Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction Act 87 of
     1993.
    Conventional Arms Control Act 41 of 2002 – creates the
     NCACC to regulate trade over conventional arms.




                                                              29
Collective Security Management

  Small Arms and Light Weapons
     South Africa has participated in regional, continental and
      global initiatives aimed at the eradication of illicit small arms
      and light weapons
     SADC Protocol on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition and
      Other Related Materials (2001) and the Bamako
      Declaration(2001)
     Firearms Control Act 60 of 2000




                                                                    30
Collective Security Management


  Anti-personnel Landmines
     Anti-Personnel Mines Prohibition Act 36 of 2003
     Surrender, forfeiture to the state and destruction of anti-
      personnel mines
     Co-operate with UN and other organisations to clear
      landmines in SADC




                                                                    31
Conclusion (1)
  The broadening of security to include human security
  suggests a need to forge a new approach to
  collective security
  Global threats posed poverty, mercenarism,
  terrorism, arms proliferation etc are interconnected
  and transnational in nature and cut across
  departmental responsibilities.
  These threats are addressed (inter-alia) through
  multilateral structures at regional, continental and
  global levels.



                                                    32
Conclusion (2)
  South Africa will support regional, continental and
  global security arrangements and initiatives such as
  the AU PSC and the operationlisation of its
  concomitant structures
  South Africa will support the implementation of the
  SADC SIPO, and the SADCBRIG etc




                                                     33
CHAPTER THREE




    SOUTH AFRICA’S APPROACH
       TO NATIONAL SECURITY

                              34
Introduction

 South Africa’s National Security Policy (NSP) has undergone a
 marked overhaul since the end of apartheid.
 In a democratic South Africa “national security is an all-
 encompassing condition in which all citizens live in freedom,
 peace and safety; participate fully in the process of democratic
 governance; enjoy the protection of fundamental rights; have
 access to resources and the basic necessities of life; and inhabit
 an environment which is not detrimental to their health and well-
 being.”
 Accordingly, South Africa’s national security is no longer viewed
 as a predominantly military and police problem. It has been
 broadened to incorporate political, economic, social, and
 environmental matters.


                                                                 35
INTRODUCTION (Cont..)
  The objectives of South Africa’s NSP thus entail:
    Consolidation and maintenance of democracy.

    The achievement of sustainable economic development.

    The pursuit of social justice.

    Ensuring a peaceful and safe environment by addressing the

     levels of crime, violence and political instability.
    Achieving security within the principles of collective security,

     non-aggression and peaceful settlement of disputes.




                                                                 36
Foundations of SA’s National Security
Policy

   South Africa’s NSP is based on constitutional
   principles, the country’s national interests, and
   governmental priorities as espoused through the
   Cabinet Makgotla and the Ministerial and Director
   General Cluster system of governance.




                                                 37
Constitution principles that govern
the NSP
  SA’s NSP must reflect the resolve of South African’s,
  as individuals and as a nation, to:
      live as equals, in peace and harmony and to be free from
       fear and want, to seek a better life;
      resolve to live in peace and harmony precludes any South
       African citizen from participating in armed conflict, national
       or internationally, except as provided for in-terms of the
       constitution and national legislation;
      National Security must be pursued in compliance with the
       law including international law; and
      National Security is subject to the authority of parliament
       and national executive.

                                                                   38
South Africa’s National Interests

  The security and survival of South Africa, its values
  and institutions and the safety of its people;
  Sustainable economic growth and development in
  South Africa and the region;
  A peaceful and stable international environment; and
  International engagement with and participation in the
  international community;




                                                      39
Governmental Priorities from the Cabinet
Makgotla and the Cluster System of
governance

   Transform the foreign, defence and intelligence organisations;
   Crime prevention and combating organised crime;
   Ensure South Africa’s acceptance into the community of nations
   and establish relations with other countries;
   Promote international peace, security and stability (including
   international crime prevention and management);
   Prioritise commitment to the interests and development of
   Africa;
   Promote South-South co-operation and the transformation of
   North-South relations;
   Reform and strengthen the multilateral rules-bound political,
   economic, security and environmental organisations in order to
   advance the interests of developing countries.
                                                              40
Challenges for Defence-related
Priorities
  Support the AU PSC in its efforts to contribute to conflict
  prevention, conflict resolution and peace keeping in Africa.
  Promote and strengthen multilateralism at regional, continental
  and global levels. Play and active and leading role in the
  implementation of NEPAD and the African Peer Review
  Mechanism.
  Ensure AU structures and programmes are implemented,
  operationalised and consolidated.
  Enhance the capacity of the intelligence structures, and the
  SANDF;
  Improve efficiency in both ports of entry and in respect of border
  control; and
  Improving intelligence, visible policing and social partnerships,
  particularly in dealing with priority crime.

                                                                 41
Implications for the DOD
  National security is viewed in a broader context as an all-
  encompassing condition, which includes the safeguarding of
  South Africa and its people against a wide range of threats,
  many of which are non-military in nature.
  National security policy and priorities thus imply that government
  will require the DOD/SANDF to participate in and contribute to
  the combating of a range of non-military threats to security.
  These may include crime, terrorism and the effects of natural
  disasters.
  South Africa’s national security policy and cluster priorities also
  reflect a strong commitment to regional and continental peace,
  stability and development. This manifests in government’s
  commitment to NEPAD, the AU and SADC and their structures
  and mechanisms.


                                                                 42
Implications (2)
  Government’s commitment to international peace and security
  and its manifestations at regional and continental levels
  consequently imply a long term DOD/SANDF involvement in
  collective defence and security including participation in security
  structures, peace missions, standby arrangements and other
  defence co-operation. These include the PSC, ASF, Continental
  and Regional Early Warning, and the SADC Brigade.
  South Africa’s national security policy and priorities thus have
  clear implications for the role, functions, objectives, missions
  and capabilities of the SANDF.




                                                                  43
CHAPTER FOUR




          ROLE, FUNCTIONS,
      OBJECTIVES & MISSIONS

                              44
ROLE (1)
• Role & Functions
     • “The primary object of the defence force is to defend
     and protect the Republic, its territorial integrity and its
     people…” *

     • “The primary role of the SANDF shall be to defend
     South Africa against external military aggression.” **

     • “The primary function of the SANDF is to defend
     South Africa against external military aggression.” ***
* Constitution, Ch 11, Art 200(2).
** White paper on Defence, Ch 2, par 11.9
*** White paper on Defence, Ch 5, par 2                     45
ROLE (2)
                       Engage in war


 Protect against
 Environment       …to defend and protect …    Peace Missions
 Non-state threats         implies



                      Military Diplomacy



        ROLE                               “primary object”
 …to defend and protect the Republic, its territorial
 integrity and its people…
                                                                46
FUNCTIONS (1)
                 Terrorism
                   WMD
                                               •Collective Security
                Weak States
                                                 •Bi/multi-lateral
             Non-military Threats
                                                  arrangements
                                                •Peace Missions

                  Influences
                                                                POSTURE
Collective                           Support to                      Non-
                       on
Security                             the People of             threatening
                   Defence
                                     South Africa                 Defence
                  Functions

                                                   Offensive
                                               Capabilities remain
             Right to Self-defence
               Regional security

                                                                      47
FUNCTIONS (2)
•Service in the defence of the Republic, for the protection of
its sovereignty and territorial integrity
 Primary Function**              Determines the size,
                                 design, structure and               REVIEW
                                 budget of the SANDF               Concept of
         Defence                                                  Primary and
        Functions*             Change in environment               Secondary
                               and focus                            Functions
                               “no need for a                             and
Secondary Functions            conventional capability”               Defence
•Service in compliance with international obligations of the       Objectives
Republic with regard to international bodies and states                   and
•Service in the preservation of life, health or property             Missions
•Service in the provision or maintenance of essential services
•Upholding law and order in support of SAPS
•Support to departments of state for socio-economic upliftment;
* Act 200 of 1993
                                                                         48
** White paper on Defence, Ch 5, par 3
DEFENCE OBJECTIVES
     1. To defend and protect the territorial integrity of
          the Republic and supporting its people
                                                                Military
                                                               Strategic
               2. To contribute to global security
                                                               Objectives


                                              5. To ensure
                                              continuous
3. To ensure             Defence              improvement of
        good            Objectives            defence
 governance
                                              capabilities


                                                                Missions
          4. To implement the One-Force
          Concept
                                                                            49
MISSIONS

  Functio         Functio         Functio       Functio     Functio         Functio
    n1              n2              n3            n4          n5              n6

                                            Heterogeneous

                                        Executive Level

 Mission
    1
                  Mission
                     2
                                  Mission
                                     3
                                               ……………                        Mission
                                                                               n

                                  Own Approach                        Homogeneous
                                  Own Force Design                    Collection of
                                                                      Tasks
 Tas
  k
            Tas
             k
                    Tas
                     k
                            Tas
                             k
                                      Tas
                                       k       ……………                         Tas
                                                                              k


                                                                                50
MISSION HIERARCHY
                                                      Constitution
 Defence Strategy                                     White Paper
                                                     Defence Review


                    Missions                Role



     Mil Strat                                     Functions
    Objectives

                                Defence
                               Objectives


                                                                51
DEFENCE CONCEPT
 • Shape
    •Co-operation
    •Common security regime
    •Regional defence co-operation

 • Contain
    •Mediation & Arbitration
    •Diplomacy

 •Respond
    •SANDF
    •As ordered by government, expected by the
    people
   .                                             52
CONCLUSIONS: Ch 4
•Mission-based Approach

•Conventional Capability – Constitutional imperative

•Robust suite of capabilities

•Employed within means provided – Selective
Engagement

•“Citizen in Uniform” Concept

•Defence Strategy
                                                       53
Overview of Report 2




                   54
CHAPTER FIVE




 Required Defence Capabilities



                                 55
                                Purpose

  To provide the Statement of Required
Defence Capabilities needed to execute the
      Missions in the next decade.*


*DOD Planning Instr 17/04 dd 06 Dec 04
                                          56
                PROCESS


                                 FORM
               Force Design      CJ Ops & Serv/Div

             Force Structure     Serv/Div

                                                     Serv/Div
Mission-based Option   “Design to Cost” Option       CDSP
                                                     CFO


          CHAPTER 5           CDSP
 REQUIRED DEFENCE CAPABILITIES
                                                     57
CHAPTER SIX




 Required Defence Resources


                              58
Chapter 5 & 6 – Mutual Adjustment

 Chapter 1:   Strategic Environment

 Chapter 2:   Collective Security
                                                  Expectation/
 Chapter 3:   SA National Security                    Intent

 Chapter 4:   Role, Functions, Objectives
              & Missions                            Force Design
                                                      Standard
 Chapter 5:   Defence Capabilities          Affordability / Sustainability

                                                    Resource
 Chapter 6:   Defence Resources                    Requirement

 Chapter 7:   Defence Governance


                                                                     59
Chapter 6: Structure

   -   Introduction/Scope

   -   Defence Facilities (Land and Buildings)

   -   Defence Materiel (Category 1 Equipment)

   -   Defence Materiel (Category 2 Equipment)

   -   Defence Materiel (Stores/Inventories)

   -   Defence Services (Professional/Specialist)

   -   Defence Personnel

   -   Defence Information

   -   Defence Funding

   -   Conclusion
                                                    60
CHAPTER SEVEN




 Defence Governance


                      61
             Purpose




To confirm proper civil oversight and
        control over defence




                                        62
Basis for Defence Governance and
           Accountability

         Regulatory Framework


    The Constitution and Public Administration
    Defence Governance Civil Control
    Other Legislation and Regulations




                                                  63
          National Structures and Mechanisms
                                                          Parliament
                                                      Legislative Function




     Cabinet                                             Parliamentary                         FOSAD
Executive Structure                                       Committees                         DGs Clusters


                                                 Joint Standing                 Portfolio
                                                 Committee on                 Committee on
     Cabinet                                        Defence                     Defence
    Committee

                                                                                             Social Section


        International                                                                        Justice Peace
         Relations &                                                                           & Crime
            Trade                                                                             Prevention

                                                                                             International
                                                                                              Relations &
        Social Affairs                                       Minister of Defence
                                                                                                 Trade

      Justice, Peace &                                                                         Economic
      Crime Prevention                                                                          sector
                                                                    COD

                                                                                              Governance
      Governance and
                                                                                                 And
       Administration
                                                                                             Administration

                Joint Cabinet
                 Committee


  Economic                        Investment
   affairs                      And Employment
                                                                                                              64
   The Cabinet Committee System
   Parliamentary Committees
         Joint Standing Committee on Defence (JSCD)
         Portfolio Committee on Defence (PCD)
         Joint Standing Committee on Intelligence
         Standing Committee on Public Accounts (SCOPA)
          and the Auditor General

   National Treasury
   Other External Controls
         Audit Committee


                                                          65
    Defence Command and Management
              Bodies

    Council on Defence
    Defence Staff Council
    Subordinate Command and
     Management Structures




                                 66
    DOD Processes and Controls

    Alignment and Synchronisation of
     Processes
    Strategic Business Plan
    Performance Management
    Internal Audit Management
    Reporting Requirements




                                        67

				
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