Ladders and stairs by B7M6CB

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									Ladders and
Stairs
Hazards of ladders
 Falls


 Slips


 Reaching   too far

 Weather

                       1a
Hazards of ladders
 Oil   or grease on a ladder

 Not   secure

 Contact with
 electricity

 Objects   that fall from
 ladders
                                1b
Hazards of stairs
 Clutter


 Slippery   surfaces

 Damage




                        1c
Hazards of stairs
 Poor   lighting

 Unsafework
 practices




                    1d
OSHA regulations
 Generalindustry - 29 CFR
 1910.24 through .27

 Construction   - 29 CFR 1926
 Subpart X




                                 3a
Terms used in general
industry regulations
 Ladder


 Stepladder


 Type   1 - Industrial stepladder

 Type   2 - Commercial stepladder
                                     4a
Terms used in general
industry regulations
 Type   3 - Household stepladder

 Single   ladder

 Extension   ladder

 Fixed   ladder
                                    4b
Terms used in general
industry regulations
 Individual-rung   ladder

 Rail   ladder

 Cage


 Well

                             4c
Terms used in general
industry regulations
 Ladder   safety device

 Grab    bars

 Pitch




                           4d
Terms used in
construction regulations
 Portable   ladder

 Fixed   ladder

 Individual-rung/step   ladders

 Job-made    ladder
                                   4e
Terms used in
construction regulations
 Single-cleat   ladder

 Double   cleat ladder

 Step   stool



                          4f
Portable ladder specifications
for general industry

 Materialsused in the
  construction

 Length   restrictions

 Spacing   between rungs/steps

 Width   between side rails

                                  5a
Portable ladder specifications
for general industry

 Non-skid


 Limitson overlap of sections on
  extension ladders

 Stepladder   spreaders or locking
  devices


                                  5b
Portable ladder specifications
for general industry

 Materialsused in the
  construction

 Length   restrictions

 Spacing   between rungs/steps

 Width   between side rails

                                  6a
Portable ladder specifications
for general industry

 Non-skid


 Stepladder   spreaders or locking
  devices

 Load-carrying   capacities



                                  6b
Portable ladder specifications
for general industry

 Materialsused in the
  construction

 Load   limitations

 Rungs   and cleats

 Spacing   between rungs/steps

                                  7a
Portable ladder specifications
for general industry

 Length   of rungs/steps

 Clearance   around the ladder

 Use  of cages, wells, landing
  platforms, ladder safety devices



                                  7b
Portable ladder specifications
for general industry

 Grab    bars

 Step-across    distance to the
  landing

 Pitch   or angle of the ladder



                                   7c
Fixed ladder specifications
for the construction industry

 Load   limitations

   Side rails

 Non-skid


 Clearance      around the ladder


                                     8a
Fixed ladder specifications
for the construction industry

 Use  of cages, wells, ladder
 safety devices, self-retracting
 lifelines

 Grab   bars

 Step-across   distance to the
 landing

                                   8b
Fixed ladder specifications
for the construction industry

 Pitch   or angle of the ladder




                                   8c
Safety devices for fixed
ladders in construction
 Safetydevices/support systems
 must be capable of
 withstanding a drop test
 consisting of an 18-inch drop of
 a 500-pound weight

 Safetydevice must be activated
 within 2 feet after a fall occurs

                                9a
Safety devices for fixed
ladders in construction
 Safetydevice must limit the fall
 velocity of a worker to 7
 feet/sec or less

 Connection   between the
 carrier/lifeline and the point of
 attachment to the harness must
 not exceed 9 inches

                                 9b
Safety devices for fixed
ladders in construction
 Employees   must be able to use
 the device leaving both hands
 free for climbing




                                9c
Ladder inspection
 Inspect   ladders frequently

         metal ladders must be
 Portable
 inspected immediately if it tips
 over

 Constructionladders are
 inspected by a competent
 person
                                 10a
Ladder inspection
 Followmanufacturer’s
 guidelines for inspection

        inspections in
 Include
 preventative maintenance
 schedules



                             10b
Precautions for safe
ladder use
 Inspect   the ladder for defects
 before
 using it

 Selecta ladder with adequate
 length and load limits

 Donot use metal ladders near
 electrical lines
                                     11a
Precautions for safe
ladder use
 Useladders for their intended
 purpose

 Setup the ladder on a firm,
 solid surface

 Keepladders
 secured/barricaded

                                  11b
Precautions for safe
ladder use
 Keepareas around the top and
 bottom of the ladder clear

 Open stepladders fully, and lock
 the spreaders

 Setup straight ladders using
 the 4-to-1 rule

                                 11c
Precautions for safe
ladder use
 Faceladders when
 ascending/descending

 Use both hands to grip the side
 rails whenever possible

 Only   one person on a ladder at a
 time

                                  11d
Precautions for safe
ladder use
 Don’tstand on the top 2 steps
 of a stepladder

 Don’tstand on the top 4 rungs
 of a straight ladder

 Nevermove a portable ladder
 with someone on it

                                  11e
Precautions for safe
ladder use
 Hoistmaterial up to you when
 you’ve reached the top of the
 ladder

 Work    within the side rails

 Store   ladders in designated
 areas

                                  11f
Maintenance
 Remove  ladders with structural
 defects, corrosion, or defective
 parts from service

 Tagladders
 “Do Not Use”



                                12a
Maintenance
 Repair   ladders to the original
 design

 Have qualified
 personnel make
 repairs



                                     12b
Staying safe on stairs
 Eliminate   slippery conditions
 Clean   up spills
 Keepfree of ice
 and snow
 Ensure proper
 lighting in stair
 areas
                                    13a
Staying safe on stairs
 Use   handrails

 Always  walk up
 and down stairs
 - don’t run




                         13b
Staying safe on stairs
 Make sure you can see over
 materials you are
 carrying on a
 stairway

 Reportunsafe
 conditions

                               13c

								
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