Docstoc

Birmingham's Festival Strategy 2008-2012

Document Sample
Birmingham's Festival Strategy 2008-2012 Powered By Docstoc
					    TEMPORARY STRUCTURES
FOR OUTDOOR CULTURAL EVENTS


    A MARKET OPPORTUNITY?




A report by Jon Linstrum, Nick Dodds and Nigel Hinds
                     May 2009
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


Contents                                                       Page Number

1. Executive Summary                                               3

2. Introduction                                                    5
2.1   Definitions and Parameters
2.2   Methodology

3. Strategic Framework                                             7

4. The Economic Impact of Outdoor Cultural Events                  8
4.1  Measuring the impact of innovative temporary structures

5. Innovative Temporary Structures – The Opportunity               10

6. Demand and Feasibility                                          14
9.1  Assessment of demand from key coastal towns
9.2  Assessment of demand in other areas of the South East
9.3  Agency views
9.4  Potential business models

7. Conclusions and Recommendations                                 19

Appendices

8.    Market Overview and Literature review                        21
8.1   Market Overview
8.2   Literature Review

9. Best Practice Examples                                          23
9.1  Corporate high-end structures
9.2  Conventional large frame clearspan marquees
9.3  Big Tops and related pole tents
9.4  Saddlespan structures
9.5  Dome tents
9.6  Specially commissioned, purpose built structures
9.7  Specialist structures, generally available
9.8  Small frame and pole marquees

10. Options Appraisal                                              47
10.1 Common factors for consideration
10.2 Typical standard costs
10.3 Option One: Large Frame Marquee
10.4 Option Two: The Lift
10.5 Option Three: Spiegeltent

11    Outdoor temporary stages                                     61
12    Consultations                                                70
13    About the authors                                            71

                                                                             2
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


1.     Executive Summary

SEEDA, the Regional Development Agency for the South East of England, has Culture
and the Creative Industries as a cross cutting theme in the Regional Economic Strategy.
Cultural festivals and events, many of them delivered outdoors, provide a significant
contribution to the creative and visitor economy in the South East.

Temporary structures are a vital part of the outdoor event infrastructure and this report
explores how a more innovative approach could improve the cultural and visitor offer
and considers if there is a business case for investment.

The specific questions considered by the research were:

     What evidence exists to assess the impact of outdoor cultural events in general and
     how could the impact of innovative temporary structures best be considered?
     What examples of best practice exist for innovative temporary structures and how
     are they resourced?
     What options for innovative temporary structures are available and is there a
     demand from promoters of outdoor cultural events to use them?
     Is there a market opportunity and business case for investment in innovative
     temporary structures for outdoor cultural events?

After research and consultation with festival and event promoters and a review of the
strategic aims of the agencies with an interest in this area, the report goes on to
consider the impacts of cultural festivals in the South East. With the exception of the
Brighton Festival 2004 study, there is not a lot of evidence, compared with other regions
in the UK, of the substantial economic benefits, particularly from audiences, of Festivals
in the South East. It concludes that it would not be appropriate to estimate the
economic impact of the audiences for outdoor cultural events or the potential increase in
economic impact from the increased use of innovative temporary structures without
substantial further research.

The report outlines the great opportunity that the use of innovative temporary structures
offers to outdoor cultural events to improve the South East‟s cultural offer and visitor
economy. The report considers the various aspects of temporary structures and
concludes that the focus should be on temporary venues for outdoor cultural events and
aspires to be a useful handbook for promoters.

A market overview in the Appendix identifies eight categories of temporary venues from
large to small and identifies a number of suppliers, giving contact details for further
information. A literature review confirms that there has been very little published
research in this area.

Using the eight categories identified, the report considers examples of best practice in
innovative temporary structures that are excellent festival venues and provide a good
environment for a range of different types of events. These examples describe, in the
Appendix, the structures and where appropriate consider issues of capacity,
construction time and cost.


                                                                                            3
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
An options appraisal in the Appendix examines and contrasts three temporary venue
structures and considers common factors and standard costs which amount to £26,000
for a typical week irrespective of the temporary structure to be used. The three options
range from a baseline large frame marquee with a capital cost of £65,000 or weekly hire
of £18,000, up to the architect designed, specially commissioned structure with a capital
cost of £650,000 or a weekly cost of £75,000.

An assessment of demand from key coastal towns and a range of promoters across the
South East examines a number of specific uses and individual needs for temporary
structures. The views of other public sector agencies are also considered.

The requirements of most of the events consulted were different enough to conclude
that there was unlikely to be a „one size fits all‟ solution to temporary venues. The
report did not find an overwhelming belief amongst cultural event producers that a
centrally procured temporary structures resource would provide a practical solution.

Overall it was clear that there is great interest and demand for temporary structures as
temporary venues for cultural events in the South East and many promoters would like
to use more innovative structures than they do currently. The problem for most is one
of cost. Innovative structures cost more than standard ones and promoters have not
generally been able to make a commercial business case for presenting their events in
more interesting venues.

Most promoters consulted would welcome a subsidised intervention from public funds
that saved cost and enabled a better customer experience to be delivered. However
not surprisingly there are a wide range of requirements amongst promoters for the type
of temporary venues that they wish to use based on the event and its location.

Two potential business models were considered, the Kent Tent involving the Higher
Education sector and the Broadstairs Big Top, both requiring public sector funding.

Many innovative structures exist in the UK and overseas and are operated in both the
commercial and subsidised sectors. A broad commercial hire market exists for these
structures with many companies providing services.

The report concludes that, in general terms, there is not a market opportunity
unrecognised by the commercial hire companies and that demand can be met well
within the existing market. However individual projects can and do make a good case
for investment of public funds in temporary structures that make them more attractive to
audiences and to this extent there is an opportunity that could be developed.

Putting on outdoor cultural events in temporary venues is an expensive business and
one that often has considerable economic benefits to the region that do not accrue to
the promoter of the event. The report recommends that if public Agencies wish to
develop these activities and their associated economic impacts that they directly
support certain key events which meet their criteria.

The report recommends that SEEDA join with others to commission region-wide
research into the economic, cultural and social impact of cultural festivals and events,
focussing particularly on audiences and spending, to provide an evidence base for its
future investment decisions.
                                                                                           4
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?

2.      Introduction

SEEDA is the Regional Development Agency for the South East of England responsible
for economic growth, prosperity and improving the quality of life in rural and urban
communities. Its Regional Economic Strategy seeks to promote culture as an economic
catalyst in developing underperforming areas and growth poles in the Coastal Towns
and Diamonds for Investment.

Culture and the Creative Industries is a cross cutting theme in the Regional Economic
Strategy forming an integral part of the key themes of enterprise, innovation and
creativity, skills, transport and physical development, employment and sustainable
prosperity.

Festivals and Events, many of them delivered outdoors, provide a significant
contribution to the creative and visitor economy in the South East. They can provide an
excellent return to local economies for modest investment and in the current economic
circumstances it is vital to ensure the success of these outdoor cultural events and
position them to achieve the greatest impact from the build up to London 2012.

This report considers whether a more innovative approach to outdoor temporary
structures for use at these events could improve the combined cultural and visitor offer
in the South East, and whether temporary structures could act as visitor attractions in
their own right. It analyses the business case for investment in outdoor temporary
structures for use within the South East. Whilst the project focuses on Margate,
Folkestone and Brighton as examples it draws conclusions for the whole of the South
East. The specific questions considered by the research were:

      What evidence exists to assess the impact of outdoor cultural events in general and
      how could the impact of innovative temporary structures best be considered?
      What examples of best practice exist for innovative temporary structures and how
      are they resourced?
      What options for innovative temporary structures are available and is there a
      demand from promoters of outdoor cultural events to use them?
      Is there a market opportunity and business case for investment in innovative
      temporary structures for outdoor cultural events?


2.1     Definitions and Parameters

In conducting the research there has been considerable discussion about what
constitutes a temporary structure and what can be considered cultural event. It is
therefore necessary to define the parameters of these within the context of this report.

It is important to make clear that this report takes a broad view of what constitutes a
cultural event. These can range from weekend camping pop festivals such as the
Reading Festival to street arts celebrations like the Winchester Hat Fair and could
include events as diverse as Food Festivals and Contemporary Art Exhibitions. The
terms Festivals and Events are also interchangeable in this report. The temporary
structures discussed could just as easily be used for a sporting event as a prom
concert. The defining factor is that they take place outdoors. Similarly the word

                                                                                           5
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
Promoter is used to cover all types of people and orgnanisations that put on these
events.

Although this report does not focus on arts events to any great extent it is worth
considering the Arts Council England definition of outdoor arts activity as follows:
“Street arts, tented circus, carnival, celebratory and participatory arts, spectacle,
community arts and art in the public realm. The work is often free to the public and can
be presented as part of a programme, festival or as a standalone event e.g. Carnival”

In researching this report consideration has also been given to architectural structures
for semi-permanent buildings like the pavilions that are constructed every year at the
Serpentine Gallery in London and the upcoming Expo in Shanghai in 2010 with its
country pavilions. A particular South East example is the proposed Milton Keynes
Pavilion to provide additional exhibition and education space with a five year lifespan.
However these, along with freestanding installations whose purpose is mostly aesthetic
rather than practical, like Tonkin Liu‟s „Fresh Flower‟ mobile discussion and debate
venue for London Festival of Architecture 2008, have been excluded from the report.

This report therefore focuses on temporary venue structures for outdoor cultural events
and it is hoped that it will be a useful handbook for promoters. To this end, and
although slightly outside the scope of this report, a short overview on temporary stages
is included in the Appendix.


2.2      Methodology

FEI used the following methodology to undertake this project:

      A review of the strategic framework and existing impact assessments for outdoor
      cultural events in the UK

      A market overview and literature review of research into temporary outdoor
      structures used in cultural events

      Research into examples of best practice in the innovative use of temporary
      structures for outdoor cultural events, including international examples, and an
      analysis of the balance of innovation, feasibility, financial viability and
      success in these examples.

      Interviews with festival practitioners in the three main centres, their stakeholders
      and other regional festival personnel to establish interest in and demand for the
      concept of shared facilities and to examine the potential for replicability

      An Options Appraisal of three potential temporary structures considered

      A Feasibility Study and business case analysis for investment in an outdoor
      temporary structure/s for use within the South East.




                                                                                             6
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


3.     Strategic Framework

In undertaking this research it has been important to consider the strategic context in
which this activity takes place.

SEEDA/SECC Economic Impact of Culture in the South East: David Powell 2002
The South East Cultural Consortium‟s report estimated that creative and cultural
industries (including Arts, Design and Tourism amongst many others) provide jobs for
560,000 people and contribute an annual turnover of £46.5 billion. The sector has
grown more than any other region, including London, with employment increasing by
28.4% in the South East in 1995-2000, almost double the average for England as a
whole.

The report goes on to suggest that the Arts and Design sectoral grouping employs
c125,000 people in the South East. Employment in this sector accounts for almost 23%
of the region‟s Creative and Cultural Industries employment. Based on the limited data
provided, IDBR provides evidence for 6,600 VAT registered Arts and Design businesses
and organisations in the region generating a total turnover of about £1.4bn.

As for the Tourism sector, 23.5m UK residents and 4.05m overseas residents visited the
region in 2000. The total combined spend of Tourists and Day Trippers in the South
East in 2000 was £9.4bn and 263,300 people were employed in the sector.

SEEDA Regional Economic Strategy 2006-2016
Running through the Regional Economic Strategy (RES) are a number of crosscutting
themes which are relevant to actions across its full breadth and Culture, Sport and
Creative Industries is one such theme. A number of actions in the RES are relevant to
this work on Temporary Structures.

Art Council England New Landscapes: Outdoor arts development plan 2008-2011
ACE plans to prioritise investment in high quality cross-art form and inter-disciplinary
practice as well as a sustainable infrastructure of national hubs that comprises a range
of existing artists, agencies, producers, festivals, buildings and related networks to
develop, produce and present high quality outdoor arts work across a range of scales.

London 2012 Cultural Olympiad
The London 2012 Cultural Olympiad is a four year celebration designed to encourage
the widest range of people across the whole of the UK to get involved in the London
2012 Games. The South East region is focusing its Cultural Olympiad effort in two
areas, disability and deaf cultural activity and outdoor performance. The objectives are:

     To help people in this sector to develop their work and profile. Go some way to
     ensuring that the London 2012 Ceremonies are created in the South East and are
     peopled by South East artists and young people

     To be the lead region in the UK for outdoor arts.
It is within this strategic context of economic and social priority for outdoor cultural
events that this work on Temporary Structures for Outdoor Cultural Events sits.


                                                                                           7
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


4.    The Economic Impact of Outdoor Cultural Events

Until now there has been very little published data on the impacts of cultural festivals in
the South East in general and virtually nothing specifically on outdoor events in the
region. The impacts of cultural events can be social, cultural and economic but nearly
all extant studies focus primarily on the economic benefits of the events. The following
impact studies have been identified for cultural events in the South East:

Brighton Festival Everybody Benefits: 2004
Although now five years out of date this study of the economic, social and cultural
benefits of the three week Brighton Festival is still widely quoted across the cultural
festivals and events sector. It covers the 1,200 outdoor and inside performances and
events both within both the programmed festival and the open access fringe.

The report describes how Brighton Festival with nearly 500,000 attendances has
become the leading mixed arts festival in England with a broad range of impacts
including a £20m boost to the City‟s economy every May. Although no separate data is
published for the outdoor events a significant proportion of this economic impact is
generated by these activities. Average spending at free outdoor events, established by
face to face interviews, was between £39.15 per person for local residents and £208.83
for overseas visitors to the festival.

Winchester Hat Fair 2008: Economic Impact Study
Hat Fair is Britain‟s longest running celebration of street arts and community. Since its
inception as a buskers‟ festival in 1974, Hat Fair has built a renowned programme
including national and international street artists. Hat Fair attracts more than 30,000
attendees a year to its events over a four day weekend in July.

Although the study focused substantially on marketing information it was established
that 77% of the attendance is from visitors coming to Winchester specifically for the Hat
Fair and that together all attenders spent around £1m in the Winchester economy.

Canterbury Festival Audience Survey: 2002
Canterbury Festival has an outdoor element to its programme and conducted audience
research in 2002. However this produced marketing data and no economic impact
research was undertaken.

Folkestone Triennial 2008: Evaluation
Richard Ings is currently completing an evaluation of the Folkestone contemporary art
festival that took place in 2008, some of which was outdoors. However it is not yet
published

The South East England Festival Cluster Research 2009, undertaken by sam in
partnership with Groundwork & CommunitySense, provides a useful addition to the
evidence base of the modeled direct spend of some 300 cultural festivals in the South
East. The report concludes that the festivals directly contribute in the order of £39.7m
GVA to the economy of the South East. However, given the lack of available data, the
report makes no attempt to estimate the primary or secondary spend of audiences
visiting these festivals and it is here that their substantive economic impact lies.

                                                                                              8
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
Given the lack of good data in this area it is recommended that SEEDA join with ACE
and others to commission region-wide research into the economic, cultural and social
impact of cultural festivals and events, focussing particularly on audiences and
spending, to provide an evidence base for its future investment decisions.

Outside the South East there has been other impact research into cultural events:

Glastonbury Festival 2007
Glastonbury Festival is a world renowned outdoor pop music festival and the largest
pop music festival to be held in the UK. The economic impact report into the 2007
festival concluded that the 177,500 ticket buyers spent an average of £293.24 per
person on their visit to the event, making a total spend of £52,049,930.

Edinburgh’s Hogmanay 2004
Edinburgh‟s Hogmanay is a winter festival celebrating the New Year over four days,
mostly outdoors. The Economic Impact Study of all the Edinburgh Festivals
undertaken in 2004/5 estimated that Hogmanay contributed £24.4m of economic output
to the Edinburgh economy.

Notting Hill Carnival: Strategic Review 2002
Notting Hill Carnival is the world‟s second biggest carnival of Caribbean culture and
celebration, attracting up to 1.2m people to West London over the August Bank Holiday
weekend. The wide ranging Strategic Review of 2002 estimated its economic impact to
be £93m.

V Festival Cheltenham: The Value of V 2006
This report commissioned by Chelmsford Borough Council looked at the economic
impact of the V festival on the eastern region. 2006 was the event‟s eleventh year with
80,000 people attending the two day outdoor pop music festival. The combined net
additional expenditure generated by the event was £8.2m.


4.1   Measuring the impact of innovative temporary structures

The use of innovative temporary structures is likely to increase the cost to promoters of
presenting outdoor cultural events and as a result the GVA as described in the South
East England Festival Cluster Research 2009 will also increase. However not all of
the expenditure is likely to stay within the region as the suppliers of such structures are
spread across the UK and abroad.

However the real impact of promoters investing in these structures will be seen in the
retention of and/or increase in audiences for these events. The South East England
Festival Cluster Research 2009 does not estimate existing audience numbers at these
events and audiences spending profiles only exist for a very small number of events
across the region. It would therefore not be appropriate to estimate the economic
impact of the audiences for outdoor cultural events or the potential increase in economic
impact from the increased use of innovative temporary structures without further
substantial research.




                                                                                              9
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


5.     Innovative Temporary Structures – The Opportunity
Outdoor cultural events play an important part in the South East‟s cultural offer and
visitor economy. From Reading‟s rock and pop Festival to Winchester‟s street arts Hat
Fair, they attract hundreds of thousands of visitors from within and without the region.

The South East England Festival Cluster Research 2009, undertaken by sam in
partnership with Groundwork & CommunitySense, identifies in excess of 300 cultural
events in the region of which roughly a quarter are free outdoor events.

Festivals are becoming an increasingly popular format in which to present cultural
activity. They can exploit a time limited period to convey the intensity and excitement
that regular seasons often lack. They are frequently presented in unusual locations and
show off an area at its best, creating a sense of place attractive to locals and visitors
alike. Outdoor festivals often appeal to a younger audience than is normally attracted
to cultural activity and can also be a good „gateway‟ for people unfamiliar with
attendance at arts events, offering easily accessible cultural experiences.

Promoters have been staging outdoor events for many years. Some of them celebrate
activities that are hundreds of years old, like the Faversham Hop Festival, some of them
are at the cutting edge of the contemporary arts like the new Folkestone Triennial. The
region hosts some of the country‟s most important cultural celebrations, like the
Brighton Festival now in its 43rd year and arguably England‟s largest multi-arts festival,
second only in the UK to Edinburgh Festival, the world‟s leading cultural event.

Whilst many cultural events are staged exclusively outdoors, some multi-arts festivals
include outdoor events, often free of charge, as elements of a wider ticketed
programme. Increasingly cultural festivals are using temporary structures to create
temporary venues in locations where permanent venues either do not exist or are
unsuitable for one or both of the following reasons:

     They powerfully convey the notion of festival: something that is exciting and time-
     limited, bringing the special to the everyday. The archetype is the circus big top in
     the local park

     They allow promoters to present performances, events or exhibitions they otherwise
     could not, or present them to a better standard than they would otherwise be able
     to. Some festivals have no infrastructure without the construction of temporary
     structures – Glastonbury being the archetype, whilst others enhance their existing
     offer with additional structures – Edinburgh Fringe being one of the largest
     examples.




                                                                                         10
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


Brighton Festival‟s growing use of innovative temporary structures to attract visitors in
an increasing competitive market is evident in 2009




        Chinese State Circus, Preston Park              Ladyboys of Bangkok, Old Stein




          No Fit State, Hove Lawns                  Parlure Spiegeltent, Jubilee Gardens


In 2004 Brighton Festival commissioned sam to undertake an economic and cultural
impact study that looked at the benefits of the festival for the City. This covered all the
events in the Festival and Fringe and identified that of the total 430,000 attendance that
year, 190,000 were attendances at free outdoor events. The headline figure for
secondary spending on food, transport, accommodation, shopping and other by these
audiences for the outdoor cultural events was £17.44m.

Whilst it is not possible to directly quantify how the innovative use of temporary
structures like the ones shown above add to the economic impact of outdoor cultural
events, it is clear that they do help to attract the increasingly large attendances that
Brighton has seen in recent years. Brighton Festival‟s strength in outdoor events puts it
ahead of all its UK rivals in this area and the innovative use of temporary structures is
an important part of that success.




                                                                                            11
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
Although consumers of outdoor cultural festivals are primarily interested in the content
of the events they have come to see, rather than the venue, there is a group of festival
goers requiring an increasingly sophisticated experience. It is here that innovative
temporary structures have a role to play in improving the offer and making the event
more interesting.

Whilst the twentysomethings in the following picture of an event at the Sonar Festival in
Barcelona may be happy to see their favorite DJ in the rather clinical surroundings of a
„white shed‟ large-frame marquee, the upside down inflatable purple cow shown below
at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe is likely to be an added attraction for seeing your
favourite comedian!




                        Bass Clef at the Sonar Festival Barcelona 2007




              The Udderbelly in Edinburgh for the 2007 Edinburgh Festival Fringe


                                                                                       12
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


Some cultural festivals have gone a stage further and are creating whole outside
temporary areas which are an attraction in their own right. The 2009 Norfolk and
Norwich Festival for example has created The Festival Gardens, transforming Norwich‟s
Chappelfield Gardens into a very special festival venue for two weeks. Based around
two iconic temporary structures, The Spiegeltent and Levity III by Architects of Air, the
Festival Gardens comprises a festival club, cabaret saloon, children‟s inflatable
adventure playground and a two day Garden Party Extravaganza.




     Salon-Perdu Spiegeltent entrance               Spiegeltent in Chappelfield Gardens




      Levity III by Architects of Air                 Levity III by Architects of Air


However these innovations are expensive to support and the Festival Gardens required
a higher subsidy than a standard temporary venue and the Levity III would not have
been able to cover its cost through admission charge alone.




                                                                                          13
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?

6.    Demand and Feasibility

6.1    Assessment of demand from key coastal towns

Personnel in three main coastal towns and cities were consulted for their views on the
likely requirement and demand for temporary structures for outdoor cultural events.

Brighton
With a population of 250,000, England‟s largest multi-arts festival and a strong year–
round creative economy, the city of Brighton and Hove is the South East‟s cultural
powerhouse. Brighton stages hundreds of outdoor cultural events ranging from the
Beachdown Festival through the Classic Car Rally to Burning the Clocks, winter solstice
parade: www.brighton-hove.gov.uk/index.cfm?request=b781. These are a mixture of
commercial and subsidised events, some run by the local authority directly, some by
non-profit organisations and some by private companies.

Generally there was interest in the idea of improving the quality of the temporary
structures used by outdoor events although it should be noted that in May 2009 there
were already two Spiegeltents and three special circus tents taking part in the Brighton
Festival Fringe so standards are already high. Two issues came out strongly from the
consultation.

Firstly there was a feeling that temporary structures and temporary venues, whilst often
important in creating the right atmosphere for an event, were less important than the
programme of events they might house and that many outdoor events were intended to
be either site-specific or perambulatory and neither a venue nor covering of any kind
was appropriate. In addition it was felt that any more interesting venues had to be
economically viable as promoters were likely to spend their limited budgets on the
content of their events rather than the venue although there were of course exceptions
like the Spiegeltent where the venue almost was the event.

Secondly there was interest in the notion of improving the infrastructure of the sites
regularly used to locate these temporary venues. Brighton and Hove City Council have
commissioned production manager Nick Love to audit six key spaces in the city that
were used for temporary outdoor activity. This will produce proposals for how to
improve use of the sites and how to make best to use the spaces. It is to cover
infrastructure like power and drainage and how to improve the aesthetics of the spaces
and installations that use them e.g. by providing artists designed covers for the Heras
fencing extensively used by the sector. It will include things like recommendations for
planting schedules to be followed by the parks department to take account of the event
and it is hoped will result in improved contractual arrangements between the council
and operators.

Folkestone
A town of 50,000 people and once a prosperous and fashionable seaside resort,
Folkestone has suffered a slow decline during the second half of the 20th century
leaving it with some serious economic and social problems. To help combat these a
new charity, the Creative Foundation, under the Chairmanship of Roger De Haan, is
working with partners to spearhead an ambitious project through which the cultural,
economic and educational landscape of the town is being transformed.

                                                                                       14
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


A new music venue, the Quarterhouse has just opened and a year round programme of
festivals is being rolled out. At its core is a major new 3 month summer exhibition of
commissioned art for the public realm, the Folkestone Triennial, planned as a major
visitor attraction initially for 2008, 2011and 2014. An evaluation of the first event is
being undertaken by Richard Ings and is to be published shortly.

There was interest in the idea of temporary structures but focused mainly on the notion
of temporary facilities like a visitor centre or social space for the Triennial. The creative
foundation have a brief out for an architectural competition to design a visitor centre for
the Triennial in the High Street but this is likely to be a permanent structure. There is
interest in mobile cafe/bar structures based on the Alpine Umbrella bar concept and a
UK supplier has been identified for this.

The Triennial itself consists of a series of pieces spread around the town, some indoors
some outside and there was no particular practical interest in providing temporary
venues or coverings for them as they are site specific in many cases.

Margate
With a population of 57,000, Margate, like Folkestone sees culture as a key tool in its
regeneration plans. The new Turner Contemporary is at the forefront of ambitious plans
to revitalise one of the country's oldest seaside resorts. The prospect of a major new
gallery is already attracting new investments, businesses and residents to the area.
After many twists and turns a new non-profit organisation is due to be created in 2010,
construction work has started and the new gallery is expected to open in 2011.

There is general interest in the idea of developing outdoor cultural events in Margate
and the possible role that high quality temporary structures could play in these.
However at the moment the focus appears to be on getting the new gallery open as
soon as possible although there is potential for an outdoor festival to be created around
the opening weekend.

One particular project that is of interest is the creation of temporary pavilions or
structures along the seafront reflecting the past history of the area. The ambition is for
artists to design and create these structures potentially for use by other artist to create
work. A three year project is envisaged from 2011 to 2013 and Turner Contemporary
is working with Le Frac in Dunkirk as a partner to realise this ambition. However the
project requires funding and an Interreg bid has been made.


6.2    Assessment of demand in other areas of the South East

Promoters’ Views
It is widely recognised that the South East is a region of festivals – with the South East
England Festival Cluster Research 2009 identifying over 300 events taking place
annually. As part of this research and in addition to the events in Brighton, Margate and
Folkestone a diverse selection of the largest were contacted to gauge interest and
demand for a centrally provided resource.

Henley Festival is a major five day arts festival taking place exclusively outdoors on the
banks of the River Thames in July each year, covering classical music to visual arts. It
                                                                                          15
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
uses a number of temporary structures including a covered floating stage. However
nearly all of the structures are provided by the Henley Regatta which takes place in the
preceding weeks. They felt that Festivals usually have very specific requirements so
couldn‟t immediately see how a „one-size fits all‟ approach could work although
something affordable and useful for the programme might be interesting.

Broadstairs Folk Week in August started in 1965 and has built to one of the country‟s
best loved celebrations of all kinds of traditional music and dance. Taking over the
seaside town for a week at the beginning of August its main venue is a traditional
Marquee pitched in Pierremont Park. The Festival would like to purchase its own
temporary structure and this proposal is considered in the next section.

Hat Fair in Winchester is a four day street art and community event in July each year
which has built a considerable reputation over 35 years. The majority of their work is
either site specific or perambulatory and they do not see a possibility of using temporary
structures within the budget resources they have available.

Medway Council organise and support five substantial festivals and events in their
area, including the two week Medway Fuse and traditional Proms concerts, presenting
in all 18 days of free outdoor festival activity. They hire a large number of marquees
and stages over the year and are interested in improving the quality of the production
and would be interested in any centrally provided resource if it helped to keep their
costs down. However their main interest is improving the quality of the content of the
performances and they believe this is where investment is urgently needed. They are
hoping to realise the first UK Creation Centre for outdoor arts, a long held ambition of
the sector.

Canterbury Festival is an international arts festival presenting theatre, dance and
music. It is facing the loss of the Marlow Theatre which has closed for refurbishment
until 2011. This could result in three festival seasons being without their main festival
venue. If they don‟t find a temporary replacement this will lose them profile, audiences,
sponsorship and long term support, although in the short term, because the programme
at the Marlow is subsidised, it may not have an immediate financial impact. They are
considering an alternative but this will cost more to bring up to usable standard.

Whilst Canterbury Festival believes that a „one size fits all‟ solution for a temporary
venue is unlikely to work they are interested in some sort of „Kent Tent‟ proposal and
this is considered in the next section.

Other events
A number of other outdoor event producers were contacted and the concept of upping
production values and sharing resources was broadly welcomed. A smallish
Saddlespan structure would be eye-catching and could have the degree of flexibility
which would be needed to be useful across a number of events. But in the end it
depends what is going inside as a space is only any use if there is quality and suitable
content to go in it.




                                                                                          16
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
6.1       Agency Views

As well as the festivals and events promoters and SEEDA there are a number of public
agencies who have an interest in temporary structures for outdoor cultural events.

London 2012, the organisation responsible for the Cultural Olympiad, are clearly
interested in developing outdoor cultural events in the run-up to the Olympics and have
ambitions to make the South East the lead region for outdoor arts events. However
they have no money to invest so it‟s unclear how their ambition to build capacity and
improve infrastructure will be achieved.

CABE, the government's advisor on architecture, urban design and public space, have
a specialist unit called CABE Space that aims to bring excellence to the design and
management of parks and public space in our towns and cities. Their main interest is to
ensure that practical design features are built into any new outdoor performance spaces
and particularly that consideration is given to temporary cover from inclement weather,
both wet and sunny, possibly using tensile structures. They would be interested to
support the notion of temporary travelling pavilions or venues and were aware of a Sea
Change Project that considered this but had not in the end come forward.

Arts Council England, South East plans to prioritise investment in high quality cross-
art out-door work and is naturally interested in this concept. However it is mostly
interested in supporting the work or activity taking place rather than the structures.
ACE London was however one of the funders of the Lift, one of the options appraised in
this report.


6.4       Potential business models

Putting on cultural events is an expensive business. Across the broad definition used
in this report a range of different business models are used to deliver festivals and
events. At one end are the purely commercial events like the 80,000 capacity Reading
Festival operated by the Festival Republic group that exist almost exclusively on ticket
revenue with tickets often costing hundreds of pounds. At the other end Local
Authorities such as Medway Council directly operate free festivals like Fuse Medway,
attracting 5,000 people, with budgets entirely paid from public funds. In the middle are
not for profit companies like the one that runs Brighton Festival that operate on a
mixture of commercial revenue and public subsidy.

In considering this report it has not been found that there is an overwhelming belief
amongst cultural event producers that a centrally procured temporary structures
resource would provide a practical solution to their needs.

However two ideas have come forward from promoters surveyed that are worth further
consideration.

The Kent Tent
The first idea has been put forward by Canterbury Festival. It involves the Higher
Education sector and sees the structure being used both as an educational resource as
well as a cultural one. This is a fledgling idea that would see the three Universities in
the region combine forces to deliver a mobile structure available to Kent festivals and
                                                                                        17
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
events, staffed by a core team of graduates and supervised by professional staff. This
would act as a one year graduate training programme for the numerous arts courses
across the county and provide an un-programmed but technically ready venue to
festival producers on a bookable basis over the year. It would need considerable
capital and project management investment from a range of partners but the Higher
Education sector involvement may make it worth considering.

This has merit in terms of building a partnership for both the capital funding and
operational cost, although it would also require very careful negotiation of the partners‟
aims and objectives if conflicts were to be avoided. However it has potential logistical
problems if a suitably experienced operator is not involved and it is hard to see how this
would be of interest to a hire company.

Broadstairs Big Top
Broadstairs Folk Week has recently considered an option to enable it to replace their
annually hired marquee with a more innovative temporary structure. This has a 500 flat
floor seating capacity and they have rented it for the last 6 years from Dover Marquees
for around £4,000 per week including transport and labour for putting it up and down..

They have an ambition to purchase a new structure for their own festival and then rent it
out to other festivals and events when not in use. Their business model relied on an
application for funding from the Foundation for Sports and the Arts which unfortunately
has just been turned down. They are unsurprisingly keen to find another public sector
supporter although the model could, in theory, work without public investment.

Broadstairs have approached Roustabout Ltd to purchase a Big Top structure suitable
for their site in Pierremont Park which they would install for them each year.
Broadstairs recognise that they don‟t have the skills or experience to operate the
structure and have asked Roustabout to consider storing, maintaining, hiring and
installing it on behalf of Folk Week for other events at a hire charge.

The cost of the structure would be £43,500 and Roustabout estimate that it could be
rented out for £2,000 for a typical 7-10 day period, giving a payback on the capital cost
of 22 weeks. They further estimate that there might be a market for 4/5 weeks hire a
year in addition the Folk Weeks, resulting in a 5/6 year payback period. In addition
installation costs a further £2,000, depending on location, which is born by the hirer.
However Roustabout would be required to store and maintain the structure and make a
profit for operating it. This might leave Broadstairs £1,000 profit per hire.

The problem with this approach is that the Broadstairs site is unusual and the structure
they want will need to be purpose built and although it can be used for other hirers it
might limit its potential to achieve 22 weeks over its lifetime. Broadstairs are not able
or willing to raise the investment commercially and providing public funds would save
them £2000 a year and potentially give them a further income stream of £4/5,000 a year
if project achieved its targets.

The risk:return ratio for this type of project is not sufficient for it to be of interest outside
a publicly funded model.




                                                                                                18
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


7      Conclusions and Recommendations

During this research it has become clear that there are different opinions about what
constitutes a temporary structure in the context of an outdoor cultural event and this
report and its appendix has tried to address a broad range.

Many outdoor events will often be staged in a particular site-specific context like
Medway Fuse Festival or be perambulatory like the Brighton Festival‟s Children‟s
Parade. In these cases a temporary structure or venue would not be appropriate or of
interest to the promoter.

It is also clear from the research and consultation that there is little interest in temporary
structures as weather protection for outdoor events. Promoters of outdoor concerts such
as open air Proms or commercial pop concerts do not believe it would be possible to
maintain the essential experience of attending the event i.e. being outdoors, with a
temporary cover. Nor do they foresee the increased likelihood of damp summers in the
South East as a result of climate change being a serious commercial risk; indeed many
promoters are reporting continued strong ticket sales for this season‟s events despite
two consecutive wet summers and a severe economic crisis.

With these caveats there is great interest and some demand for temporary structures as
temporary venues for cultural events in the South East and many promoters would like
to use more innovative structures than they do currently.

The problem for most is one of cost. Innovative structures cost more than standard
ones and promoters have not generally been able to make a commercial business case
for presenting their events in more interesting venues. The exceptions are at one end,
in the exclusively corporate market where different budgets apply and at the other, in
the subsidised sector where sometimes other objectives can justify non-commercial
considerations like the Norfolk Norwich Festival example cited earlier.

Most promoters consulted would welcome a subsidised intervention from public funds
that saved cost and enabled a better customer experience to be delivered. However
not surprisingly there are a wide range of requirements amongst promoters for the type
of temporary venues that they wish to use based on the event and its location. There is
a shared feeling amongst those consulted that a „one size fits all‟ solution is unlikely.

Many innovative structures exist in the UK and overseas and are operated in both the
commercial and subsidised sectors. A broad commercial hire market exists for these
structures with many companies providing services from the simple marquee to the
innovative, architect designed and specially commissioned structure. The festivals and
event sector does not have the knowledge and experience to compete with these
specialist companies.

The report concludes that, in general terms, there is not a market opportunity
unrecognised by the commercial hire companies and that demand can be met well
within the existing market. However individual projects can and do make a good case
for investment of public funds in temporary structures that make them more attractive to
audiences and to this extent there is an opportunity that could be developed.

                                                                                           19
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


Putting on outdoor cultural events is an expensive business and one that often has
considerable economic benefits to the region that do not accrue to the promoter of the
event. If public Agencies wish to develop these activities and their associated
economic impacts it is recommended that they directly support certain events which
meet their criteria. This could include a stipulation that supported events used more
innovative outdoor temporary structures than are available in the hire market.

The lack of good data and evidence for the economic impact of Festival and Event
audiences in general and for outdoor cultural events in particular makes public
investment decisions difficult. It is recommended that SEEDA join with ACE and others
to commission region-wide research into the economic, cultural and social impact of
cultural festivals and events, focussing particularly on audiences and spending, to
provide an evidence base for its future investment decisions.

Jon Linstrum
Nick Dodds
Nigel Hinds

May 2009




                                                                                     20
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
Appendix

8       Market Overview and Literature Review

8.1     Market Overview

A large range of temporary structures are already available within an extensive industry
which can be categorised into eight distinct groups, as follows:

      Category One
      Commercial high end structures, used at expos and sporting events:
      De Boer              www.deboer.com
      Losberger            www.losberger.co.uk

      Category Two
      Conventional large frame Clearspan marquees:
      Mar-Key Group          www.mar-key.com
      Northern Marquees      www.northernmarquees.co.uk

      Category Three
      Big Tops and related pole tents:
      Roustabout            www.roustabout.ltd.uk
      Big Top Mania         www.bigtopmania.co.uk
      Kayam Tents           www.kayam.co.uk

      Category Four
      Saddlespan tents:
      Silver Stage          www.silver-stage.com
      Little Planets        www.saddlespan.co.uk
      Amazing Tents         www.amazingtent.co.uk

      Category Five
      Dome tents:
      Dome Company          www.thedomecompany.co.uk
      GaiaNova              www.gaianova.co.uk
      GeoDome Hire          www.geodomehire.co.uk

      Category Six
      One–off, specially commissioned, purpose built structures:
      The Lift               www.liftfestival.com/the-lift.aspx
      The Pleinmuseum        www.pleinmuseum.nl/epm.html
      International Festival www.international-festival.org
      IOU Theatre dome       www.ioutheatre.org
      Tonneau Manège         www.salamtoto.com/salam-toto-cirque-equestre-le-tonneau-
                             manege-_6_0_0

      Category Seven
      Specialist structures, generally available:
      Het Spiegelpaleis       www.spiegeltent.co.uk
      Yurtopia                www.yurtopia.co.uk
      Stunning Tents          www.stunningtents.co.uk
                                                                                      21
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


      Category Eight
      Conventional small frame and pole marquees used extensively within the wedding
      and party industry, numerous suppliers throughout the country:
      Marquees Direct        www.MarqueesDirect.co.uk
      Crest Marquees         www.crestmarquees.co.uk
      Elegant Marquees       www.elegantmarquees.co.uk

It should be noted that the companies listed here are examples only and may not
necessarily be the market leaders.


8.2     Literature Review

As far as FEI has been able to establish, the provision and use of temporary structures
specifically for festivals and outdoor events has not been the subject of a published
review or report. These structures are a sub-sector of a wider sector that has been
covered in a small range of publications aimed at designers and contractors including:

      Handbook of Temporary Structures in Construction: Engineering Standards,
      Designs, Practices, and Procedures by Robert Ratay (2nd edition) 1996

      The one and only handbook of its kind, this edition of this definitive reference
      provides civil and structural engineers, architects, and contractors with all the
      technical and business information required to successfully design and construct
      temporary support structures. The Handbook incorporates the latest construction
      materials and methods, industry codes and standards, business practices, legal
      concerns, and costs associated with building and maintaining temporary systems.
      Readers will find detailed guidelines for the safe, cost-efficient design and
      construction of 17 different temporary structure systems, as well as the use of
      temporary structure systems, as well as all-new chapters on such timely topics as
      the use of temporary structures in repair and rehabilitation work and OSHA's
      influence on construction site safety.

      Mobile and Rapidly Assembled Structures III - Advances in Architecture Vol. 11
      by C.A. Brebbia and F. Escrig 2000

      Structures which move in the course of normal use, or which have to be assembled
      at high speed on a relatively unprepared site, offer a particular challenge to the
      designer. Featuring the proceedings of the Third International Conference on Mobile
      and Rapidly Assembled Structures, this text brings together contributions by
      engineers, architects and researchers concerned with the design, analysis,
      manufacture and erection of such structures.

      Temporary Buildings: The Trade Fair Stand as a Conceptual Challenge by Karin
      Schulte, 2000
      Temporary Demountable Structures by Institution of Structural Engineers (2003)
      Designing Galleries: The Complete Guide to Developing and Designing Spaces and
      Services for Temporary Exhibitions by Mike Sixsmith
      Wind Loads on Temporary Stage Decks (Pamphlet) by Paul Blackmore and P.
      Freathy, 2004.
                                                                                     22
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
Appendix

9     Best Practice Examples

Using the eight categories identified, examples of best practice can be looked at in more
detail. Best practice here is taken to mean temporary structures that are excellent
festival venues and provide a good environment for a range of different types of
performances, exhibitions or events. These examples describe the structures and
where appropriate consider issues of capacity, construction time and cost.

This section is followed by an Options Appraisal in Section 8, considering three specific
examples in more detail.

9.1    Category One: corporate high-end structures




                                De Boer‟s Millennium Structure

De Boer has the world‟s largest rental stock of freespan “super structures” and are one
of the leading suppliers of temporary facilities for exhibition, trade show, conference and
sporting venues. The company offers modular temporary structures and semi-
permanent accommodation. From tents and marquees to robust longer-term modular
units the company provides temporary accommodation for major sporting events
including hospitality accommodation, semi-permanent venues, media facilities and VIP
lounges. In addition they provide structures for corporate entertainment, trade fairs,
expos and large conferences.

No further examination of this category is included as its products are generally beyond
the financial reach of UK cultural events.


                                                                                        23
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


9.2   Category Two: conventional large frame clearspan marquees




                  De Boer‟s Alu Hall with window panels and additional foyer tents




      Mar-Key Structures‟ hospitality area at Royal Ascot with 4m-high walls no covering

                                                                                           24
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




            Mar Key Structures‟ seated performance venue with draped black-out lining




             Northern Marquees. 75m long x 25m wide with 4m eaves and 8m apex

Large frame marquees are a ubiquitous sight across a wide range of events. They are
a modular design which ensures almost any footprint can be created within the limited
parameters of the design. The length of the structure is made up of 5m wide bays
whilst the gable ends come in a smaller range – normally 15m, 20m, 25m and 30m
although other sizes can be created at a price. One could for example create a 100m x
100m covered space using Clearspan marquees by putting together 4 x 25m wide
sections and leaving out the internal walls.

                                                                                        25
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


The Northern Marquees photo above shows one such module with wall linings removed
on the left hand side of the picture. This also illustrates the very basic module with no
accoutrements. Additional costs would be incurred by also hiring:

   Cassette flooring specified to 10 KN2M
   Carpets
   Full or partial Blackout linings
   Push bar exit doors
   Maintained exit lights
   Fluorescent work lights
   Ramping for wheelchairs
   ABS “Hard Wall” for greater sound and heating insulation
   Branded roof, or gable end panels

Typically, these types of structure are designed to a standard recognisable template
and cannot be considered innovative. They are however practical, widely used and are
often the cheapest way to create an empty venue which can then be turned into a
performance space, a party venue or an exhibition space etc.

Based on a 35m long x 20m wide structure with 4m eave height and 8m roof apex, fully
floored a large frame marquee would have the following attributes:

Build time:         2 day minimum

Break down:         2 day

Capacity:           1,000 standing, 600 seated dependent on stage infrastructure

Costs:              £10,000 for a week, £12,000+ across two weekends




                                                                                       26
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
9.3    Category Three: Big Tops and related pole tents




             Roustabout‟s Big Top: 60‟ x 120‟ Three king-poles with 10‟ high side walls



Big Tops are always colourful and although some years ago they were often associated
with a rough and ready approach they are now frequently seen at up market corporate
events as well as the more usual music festival and circus events.

Big Tops are now always supplied with wind loading test certificates, materials fire test
certificates and winch test certificates.

Like Category Two marquees, big tops cannot be considered innovative but are equally
practical and widely used. They are sometimes used with the walls removed or partially
removed to create a more open yet covered space in which there is free movement in
and out. A free music stage for example could be programmed under a Big Top roof at
an otherwise „open air‟ event although the increasing use of Saddlespan structures
(Category Four) has somewhat superseded this practice.




                                                                                          27
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




                         Roustabout‟s Big Top with side walls removed



Kayam Tents are a related form of Big Top using the same system of large king poles
and relatively low walls. Like Big Tops they have deep stakes to stabilise the king poles
and a large number of smaller stakes supporting the sidewalls.




                                        Kayam 2 Pole
                                                                                       28
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


“The Kayam was designed as a mobile theatre venue which could accommodate all the
requirements of modern stage performance while retaining the versatility of a circus big-
top. We wanted a blackout structure so that stage lighting would still be available in
daylight, we wanted to rig unimpeded 6m and higher over the stage, we wanted to be
able to drive lorries into the tent to unload and we didn't want auditorium and backstage
areas restricted by tent poles. The Kayam has lived up to all these requirements and
more - more because its high profile 3D symmetry makes it a more eye-catching and
exciting structure than any big-top.”




                                          Kayam 6 pole




                   Kayam 6 pole interior with blackout lining and concert stage

                                                                                       29
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?



Both the Big Tops and Kayam structures are relatively straightforward and cannot be
considered innovative. They are however more interesting than the large frame
marquee and if used in the right setting can be striking.

Based on a 60‟ x 120‟ structure a Big Top would have the following attributes:

Build time:         up to 2 days

Break down:         1 day

Capacity:           1200 standing, 500 seated

Costs:              £4,500 for a week, £6,750 across two weekends


Based on a 2–pole structure a Kayam would have the following attributes:

Build time:         up to 3 days

Break down:         1 - 2 days

Capacity:           1,400 standing, 1,200 seated

Costs:              £10,500 for a week, £13,750 across two weekends




                                                                                      30
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


9.4    Category Four: Saddlespan structures

Appearing at major festivals around the world, SaddleSpan™ concert tents, event tents
and stage covers offer great acoustics, excellent sight-lines and an unforgettable profile.

SaddleSpan™ stage covers are designed and engineered for modular use and can be
easily rearranged, replaced, combined, or interchanged to provide cover and band
shells for events large and small.

“Tentnology's SaddleSpan™ stage covers, concert and event tents are tensile
membrane structures, offering the look and distinction of architecturally designed space
with the performance, flexibility and affordability of a portable tent”.


Tentnology's SaddleSpan™ design is available to hire in numerous configurations from
a large range of UK suppliers. They are distinctive both as tents and as stage covers
where the natural curve of the roofline affords excellent rain protection for performers
whilst also maintaining good sight lines for a large audience.




                    Silver Stage's Saddlespan stage cover: fashion show, Leeds




                                                                                        31
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




                              Tentnology‟s Saddlespan tent




                  Silver Stage‟s Saddlespan tent: TNT conference, Turkey


                                                                           32
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




Saddlespan‟s are also available as DuoSpan and Trispan options creating large
inter-linked areas




                     Amazing Tents‟ Saddlespan & DuoSpan side by side




                                   Silver Stage‟s Trispan


                                                                                33
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




                               Silver Stage‟s Trispan interior

Saddlespans, in their various configurations, are an innovative design with many uses
as stage coverings and complete enclosures. They can provide a striking temporary
venue.

Based on an 18m wide x 25m long, 7.3m high Saddlespan would have the following
attributes:


Build time:         2 days

Break down:         1 day

Capacity:           800 standing, 500 seated

Costs:              £4,500 for a week, £7,000 across two weekends




                                                                                        34
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?



9.5   Category Five: Dome tents




                              The Dome Company‟s 17m dome




                   The Dome Company‟s 17m dome in use by Arcola Theatre

The Dome Company is one of a small number of companies that design and hire more
original structures than those in Categories 1, 2 and 3. The design principles are often
borrowed from natural forms like geodesic domes and benders.

“Our geodesic domes for hire are perfect structures for entertainment venues, corporate
presentations and private parties. Our geodesic domes for hire are perfect structures
for entertainment venues, corporate presentations and private parties. They are
designed with the philosophy that the quality of a venue is an important part of the event
contained within it. The domes can be erected on any reasonably flat surface “
                                                                                       35
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




                  The Dome Company 17.5m interior in use by Arcola Theatre



GaiaDome3 series are made from aluminium and are available in a number of sizes,
ranging from 10 metres to 25 metres in diameter. They provide flexible spaces with
removable panels or see through panels and plenty of internal height (up to 10m).
They are freestanding and require no staking, the frame is constructed from standard
gauge alloy scaffolding thereby providing rigging positions throughout the space.




                                        GaiaDome3




                                                                                       36
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




                                   GaiaDome3 inside



Dome tent structures provide a more individual and innovative solution than Categories
2 and 3, while maintaining the principles of practicability and ease of use. It may be
worth noting that Kneehigh Theatre will have its new temporary structure designed and
built by the Dome Company.

Based on either a 17.5m or 20m dome, a structure from The Dome Company would
have the following attributes:


Build time:         half a day

Break down:         half a day

Capacity:           between 200 and 400

Costs:              £3,500 for 1 week, £6,000 across 2 weekends

Based on either a 20m dome, a Gaia Dome structure would have the following
attributes:

Build time:         2 days
Break down:         1 day

Capacity:           800 standing, 400 seated,

Costs:              approx £12,000 for 1 week, £18,000 across 2 weekends




                                                                                    37
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
9.6      Category Six: One–off, specially commissioned, purpose built structures

This category may be considered the luxury end of the market. Each of its structures is
likely to have been developed out of a particular artistic vision, with less consideration
being given to its potential use by other users than with any of the other categories.

They are therefore likely to score most highly on innovation, and maybe less well on
viability and ease of use, than structures in the other categories.

A good example is the Pleinmuseum, a mobile exhibition pavilion which forms a closed
white cube in the daytime and at sunset folds out into the exhibition space below. It
has been used:
    In Oct 2007 at the Place de la Bastille in Paris for la Nuit Blanche.

      In June 2007 for the 52nd Venice Biennale as part of the collateral programme Pan
      European Encounters, 'Curatorial Awareness in times of globalisation' Pleinmuseum
      was presented as 'The Migrating Museum'.

      In April 2008 for the Milan Design Week




Build time:          3 days

Break down:          Minimum 1 day

Capacity:            50+ dependent on nature of exhibition,

Costs:               Not known but likely to be high-end


                                                                                        38
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


Another example is International Festival‟s The Theatre, an arts-led temporary structure
that is conceived as art, social intervention and building.




It is a free standing building structure without foundation.

Total structure: 26 m x 17.20 m x 6.80 m

Stage: 12 x 12 m + wings (with fixed grid).

Foyer for 150 persons

Equipped with (optional): bar, kitchen, toilets, technical storage, office-spaces

Possibilities for rehearsal space, lecture space depending on requirements


Build time:          5 days

Break down:          3 days

Capacity:            150

Cost:                Not known but likely to be high end



                                                                                      39
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


9.7     Category Seven: Specialist structures, generally available

Two main types of structure are included here, each of which comes from a particular
cultural tradition and has been used within varied arts festival contexts.

The first is the glamorous Spiegeltent, veritable halls of mirrors that are now very well
established on the UK cultural festival circuit. There are at least four competing
suppliers working in the UK at the moment.

Spiegeltents provide a glamorous space well suited to cabaret and small music events.
The venue is central to the look of the performances and rarely works well conventional
theatre. In the daytime, unlike many tents, the venue is bright and airy due to the large
number of windows and they often operate is café/bars on Festival sites.




                              Het Spiegelpaleis: Victoria entrance

Spiegeltents are considered in detail in the Options Appraisal in section six of this report
however based on an 18m diameter, a Spiegeltent would have the following attributes:

Build time:          2 days

Break down:          1 - 2 days

Capacity:            up to 350 seated and up to 450 standing

Cost:                £10,000 for 1 week, £15,000 across 2 weekends




                                                                                            40
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




                                 Stunning Tents‟ single yurt



The Yurt is the most widely known of a number of traditional tented structures most of
which originate amongst nomadic peoples in Asia and the Americas. They are smaller
scale structures, though a large yurt can still hold up to 130 people standing. The basic
design of the yurt has changed little over hundreds if not thousands of years; they are
handsome, sturdy and practical and create a truly uplifting space. In hot weather, the
canvas sides can be dropped to allow the breeze to drift through the beautiful ash
latticework structure of the walls. Yurts come in various diameters although the 30‟
detailed below is amongst the largest size that is widely available. They can be linked
together to create a series of rooms but this does not create one large space because
of the domed design and narrow doorways.

Based on a 30‟ diameter, a fully furnished Yurt would have the following attributes:

Build time:         less than 1 day

Break down:         less than 1 day

Capacity:           approx 40 in a single 30’ diameter

Cost:               £1,200+ across 1 weekend, £2,000+ across 2 weekends




                                                                                       41
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


Other traditional tented structures:




                              La Belle Maison Indian Mughal tent




                                   Stunning Tents‟ Giant Hat




                                                                   42
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
9.8   Category 8: Small frame and pole marquees

The most widely seen type of temporary structure in the country; very conventional,
whether in basic form or with accoutrements which can make them more distinctive and
add an element of luxury.

These structures are in high demand over the summer months for parties and weddings
and consequently can be quite expensive and even difficult to get hold of. Extended
hires during the summer months have limited discount attached due to this high
demand




                            Conventional 20‟ x 20‟ frame marquee




                       Sussex Marquees conventional pole marquee

                                                                                  43
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




                Charlesworth Marquees‟ carpeted floor and gathered roof lining




                    Mar-Key Structures pointed roof and clear window wall




                                                                                 44
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




                            Complete Events clear wall and roof panels

The range of sizes and options is extensive. The costing below is based on a basic
frame marquee 6m x 18m frame marquee with wooden floor but no other additions.
Further costs will be incurred by adding:

    Solid doors
    Carpet
    Roof lining
    Wall lining
    Entrance tunnels
    Pointed roof
    Window walls
    Internal lighting

Based on 6m x 16m structure a frame marquee would have the following attributes:

Build time:   up to 1 day

Break down: up to 1 day

Capacity:     approx 200

Costs:        approx £1,500 across one weekend; £3,000 across two weekends




                                                                                     45
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?



By way of a summary to the different categories and as a guide only, a comparison
table is shown below. Please note that many factors affect quoted prices and that on-
costs can also vary widely.




Type           Seated     Standing Days to       Days to    Cost 1     Cost across 2
               capacity   capacity build         remove     week       weekends

Large          600        1000        < 2 days   2 days     £10,000    £12,000+
Frame
Marquee

Big Top        500        1200        2 days     1 day      £4,500     £6,750

Kayam          1200       1400        < 2 days   2 days     £10,500    £13,750

Saddlespan     500        800         2 days     1 day      £4,500     £7,000

Dome           200        350         > 1 day    > 1 day    £3,500+    £6,000

Spiegeltent    350        450         2 days     1–2        £10,000    £15,000
                                                 days

Yurt           30         40          > 1 day    > 1 day    £1,200+    £2,000+

Small frame    80 – 100   200         > 1 day    > 1 day    £1,500+    £3,000
marquee




                                                                                    46
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


Appendix

10     Options Appraisal

This Appraisal considers three temporary venue structures in more detail:

     A Category Three standard large frame marquee, for the purposes of this study as
     supplied by Mar-Key Structures
     A Category Six specially commissioned structure, The Lift, launched in 2008 by the
     London International Festival of Theatre as its new main festival venue
     A Category Seven specialised structure, the Salon Revue Spiegeltent as supplied
     by Klessens and Sons of Belgium.

It also considers the common and variable factors and standard running costs of
temporary venues in general. Once these factors have been taken into account,
individual festival and event producers can then introduce programming or content costs
and begin to balance the capacity and potential ticket and other revenue against the
costs of events suitable for the particular venue.

Common factors for consideration

All temporary venues have a number of common factors. Some of these are one-off
fixed costs, and some are incurred daily or weekly depending on the period the venue is
in use. Some are standard (st) for every venue and some are variable (v) or specific to
the requirements of each.

                                  Item              One-off   Period
                 Site hire                                      St
                 Site restitution after use           st
                 Licensing                            st
                 Health & Safety documentation        st
                 Delivery, erection, dismantling,      v
                 removal
                 Security                                       St
                 Fencing                               v
                 Generator hire and fuel                        St
                 Site lighting                                  St
                 Seating                                         V
                 Furniture hire                                 St
                 Backstage/FOH marquees                         St
                 Lighting, sound and AV equipment               St
                 hire
                 Communications equipment hire                  St
                 Staffing: venue management                     St
                 Staffing: technical                            St
                                                                                    47
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


Typical standard costs
The budget categories below are standard costs but are clearly only indicative. In this
case they refer to a 500 seat venue on site for a week but every venue and site will
have considerable variations depending on the type of event.

                                 Item                     One-off £    Weekly £
            Site hire                                                        250
            Site restitution after use (a)                     2,000
            Licensing (b)                                      1,500
            Health & Safety documentation                        250
            Security                                                       4,000
            Generator hire and fuel                                        3,000
            Site lighting                                                    500
            First Aid & Fire fighting equipment                              450
            Furniture/seating hire (c)                                       500
            Backstage/FOH marquees                                           600
            Lighting, sound, AV & staging hire                             6,000
            Fit-up and get-out: casual staffing                1,800
            Communications equipment hire                                    300
            Staffing: venue management (d)                                 2,500
            Staffing: technical (e)                                        1,800
            Cleaning and waste removal                                       750
                                                  Total       £5,550    £20,650



a)    Site restitution is an allowance for potential damage. In practice it is likely either
      to be less than this (minimal damage) or more (up to say £4,000) to cover
      damage to park gates, paths, grass and/or tree roots
b)    Licensing is usually required unless an existing Premises License can be used
      (normally a Local Authority license)
c)    The figure here will increase dramatically if raked seating is introduced
d)    Venue management staffing assumes 1 venue manager, 1 duty manager and 4
      ushers for 8 shows a week
e)    Technical staffing assumes 1 technical manager and 2 technicians.

The table shows clearly that the bulk of the costs are incurred providing power and
security for the TV, and then on staffing and equipping it. Substantial savings can be
made if the TV is used on a site that is already secure or semi-secure, with access to
three-phase mains power. Some TV hire companies provide internal set-ups
(staging/lighting etc) at an extra but usually competitive cost. In these cases the
suitability of the proposed provision would be paramount.


                                                                                           48
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
Unsurprisingly, running venues, whether permanent or temporary, is an expensive
business.

10.1   Option One: Large Frame Marquee




                           Ross on Wye International Festival 2003



Introduction

The marquee is the most everyday of the three options, widely available in a huge
range of sizes. It is included here to provide a benchmark against which the other two
options can be measured. The example presented here is from the Ross on Wye
International Festival featuring a large performance marquee to the left of the picture,
and lower height catering and bar marquees to the right. The multi-coloured structure
on the extreme right is a Luminarium exhibition structure supplied and operated by
Architects of Air www.architects-of-air.com.

The marquees were supplied by Mar-Key Structures www.markey-structures.co.uk and
comprised a 30m x 45m Clearspan marquee with 4m eaves, fully floored for use as a
performance venue, and 2 x 18m x 24m Clearspan marquees with 2.4m eaves, fully
floored for use as bar and catering venues.




                                                                                       49
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




                          Catering/bar venue converted to cabaret set-up

Key statistics
  Dimensions                 30m (w) x 45m (d) (h)
  Capacity standing          1,220 (raked unit 720 seats; open floor 500)
  Capacity seated            1,014 (raked unit 720; flat floor 294)
  Weight                     Not an issue
  Staked into earth          yes

Special facilities
   Carpeted wood floor
   12 sets of push-bar exit doors
   Blackout lining around stage area
   Flat floor seating removed for standing events

Delivery, erection, dismantling and removal
    Arrival on site to handover to client (for equipment rigging)          4 days
    Handover from client to site clear                                     2 days

Hire Cost
Tent Hire including delivery, single erection/dismantling                  £18,000

Seating hire costs                                                         £ 6,750
Staging, sound, lighting                                                   £20,000
Backstage facilities inc toilets                                           £ 5,600
FOH facilities inc toilets & box office                                    £ 7,500
Power                                                                      £ 6,500

No allowance is made for costs to install any bar or catering facilities required.
                                                                                     50
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?



Capital Cost
The exact cost of the set up used for the Ross on Wye example is not available.
However indicative costs are:

A 30m x 45m clear span is approx                                      £65 –70,000
A full wooden floor on steel sub frame is an additional               £33,000
Additional costs would include:
    Push bar exit doors
    Black out lining
    Branding
    Storage, maintenance, transport, erection, dismantling costs

For both the hire and capital cost the typical standard costs outlined in section 6.2
above will apply.

Appraisal

General        Clearspan marquees are a common sight. Internally they can be
               transformed by any number of bespoke fittings in addition to the
               basic options offered by hire companies. Externally they can
               easily be branded – being a blank white canvas – however the
               overall shape and impact on site will not alter greatly.
Performers     A Clearspan marquee is a neutral environment, unless a large
               amount of additional money is spent they are effectively exhibition
               halls and have that feel to them. For music events, particularly
               rock and dance music they serve a function, providing a covered
               space in which to install staging, lighting and sound systems. For
               classical music and spoken word performance the acoustics tend
               not to be high quality, especially in the larger venues such as the
               one illustrated here, and the performer experience suffers
               accordingly.

               When performance takes place in an interesting temporary
               venue, the lack of facilities or space to erect substantial settings
               can be offset by the aesthetics of the venue. In a Clearspan
               marquee this is not the case and unless a lot of additional money
               is spent, theatre in particular can suffer.

               Clearspan marquees have limited load-bearing capabilities within
               themselves but present a clear space in which to erect large
               installations of self-supporting staging and rigging.

               The backstage experience is the same as other TVs and
               dependent on the other facilities specified by the promoter.




                                                                                        51
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?

Audiences     See comments above regarding the nature of the venue.

              The main issue audiences have is sight lines caused by a relative
              lack of height in which to install raked seating. Maximizing
              audience numbers involves shallow raked seating and as much
              seating on the floor as possible. The seating on the floor is liable
              to suffer from poor sight lines.

              A raised stage would always be required for audience sizes such
              as the example here.

              The venue normally has canvas (PVC) walls which provide little
              insulation both in terms of acoustics and temperature. Like any
              canvas or PVC structure it can be difficult to heat and difficult to
              keep cool. The August Ross on Wye Festival venue suffered
              from intense heat on evenings when the weather had been hot,
              and conversely felt very chilly on a grey or wet August day.

              However, for the majority of people attending, the venue provided
              the town with a 1000-seat venue for two weeks which meant a
              range of performance was available to them which would
              otherwise only be found a considerable distance away.
Infrastructure The general infrastructure of Clearspan marquees is of a high
               standard, giving good access and a safe environment. They can
               be linked easily to standard other marquees to create completely
               self-sufficient site infrastructure.
Acoustics     Acoustics within Clear Span marquees are similar to any venue
              with PVC walls. Problems to be overcome include:
                  External noise can be intrusive e.g. traffic
                  External noise from members of the public can also be
                  intrusive. A bar facility close to the venue will probably be
                  heard by some if not all of the audience unless the
                  performance is very loud.
                  Acoustics for spoken word and classical music are
                  problematic unless well amplified
                  Gusts of wind cause the PVC to flap slightly against the steel
                  structure, and there can be a rattling and creaking sound from
                  the movement of the venue in the wind, meaning that higher
                  levels of sound projection are required.
Cost          Costs become more economic the longer the hire period. As with
              all temporary venues the on-costs are significant and in the case
              of a Clearspan marquee these costs can make the difference
              between a successful audience experience or not.




                                                                                     52
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
10.2   Option Two: The Lift




Introduction

The Lift is a highly flexible venue able to be used as a theatre, a concert hall, an open-
air stage, an interactive billboard, a cinema, a venue for exhibitions and a public
meeting space. It was commissioned by the London International Festival of Theatre in
2008 and is used for festivals and cultural events mainly in London and is pictured
above outside the Southbank Centre.

It excites attention through its height and its unusual and beautiful design, attracting
people to explore its interior and the activities it hosts.

Inside soft fabrics and ceiling elements help provide good acoustics and a variable
ambiance. It has been used particularly successfully for stand-up comedy, bands,
structured discussions, film-screenings, receptions and silent disco.

Key statistics
   Dimensions               18m (w) 15m (d) 12m (h)
   Capacity standing        300
   Capacity seated          160
   Weight                   45 tons
   Staked into Earth        No, freestanding



                                                                                           53
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
Special facilities
   Built-in wooden flooring
   Flown ceiling elements
   Travels with own free-standing auditorium seating and two backstage 20' shipping
   containers
   Interior can be sub-divided into various sized circular spaces for break-out
   discussions
   Large front window opens (as shown in image above)
   Can be used as music stage with the front removed, also for external film
   screenings
   Site fencing required to be provided by contractor

Delivery, erection, dismantling and removal
    Arrival on site to handover to client (for equipment rigging)       6 days
    Handover from client to site clear                                  6 days
    Heavy plant used in erection and dismantling

Hire cost
    Basic Hire per week                                                 £10,000
    Delivery, erection, dismantling, removal                            £65,000

Capital Cost
The Lift was a specially commissioned project which cost:               £650,000




                                Internal of The Lift for workshop




                                                                                   54
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




                                 Internal of The Lift for cinema

Appraisal

General      The Lift is a one-off, the most distinctive and innovative of the options
             under appraisal. It is attractive and flexible once it has been erected,
             and travels with a number of items such as seating that are additional
             costs with the other two options.
Performers   The Lift is a solid, secure and safe environment, with a robust wooden
             floor supported on highly specified steel substructure. Access from the
             backstage area is via 4 steps and a short gangway to doors set in the
             rear wooden wall.

             The Lift can take a substantial lighting, sound and AV rig, giving the
             possibility of presenting small-scale performances to a high technical
             standard.

             The backstage experience is the same as other TVs and dependent on
             the other facilities specified by the promoter.
Audiences    Approaching The Lift is an attractive experience, given the scale and the
             quality of the design of the venue. Access is via 5 steps or a ramp with
             handrails. A set of 6 matching wooden doors open to give access to the
             attractive interior.

             The interior can vary depending on the requirement of the event. For
             small bands or stand-up comedy rostra can be installed for the staging,
             and the audience can be standing and/or seated in theatre or cabaret
             style. The Lift travels with c170 seats of complementary design but
             different heights to allow better sightlines for those at the rear of the
             auditorium.

             The Lift is least successful for performances requiring much work on the
             floor (i.e. some dance and circus), as despite the variations in the seat
             heights, those in the back of the audience can see little.

             The interior height of The Lift is visible, but any daunting nature is offset
                                                                                             55
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?

               by three suspended ceiling pieces. These can be set at a range of
               heights, have curtains suspended from them to create small break-out
               rooms, and can also be lit from inside in a wide range of different
               colours. It is an excellent space for structured discussions.

               For intimate performances, most of the inner space can be surrounded
               by black tabs covered if desired with gold gauze. This improves both the
               performer/audience relationship and the acoustic 'seal' of the space to
               block out extraneous sounds from outside.

               A small bar or cafe can be operated from within the space.

Infrastructure The general infrastructure of The Lift is of a high standard, giving good
               access and a safe environment. It can be linked easily to standard site
               infrastructure such as box office, bar tent, etc.
Acoustics      Acoustics within The Lift are as good as can be expected from any
               venue with PVC walls. The flown ceiling pieces work well to keep event-
               generated sound within the space and when in use the black tabs
               provide a marked reduction in extraneous sound. A simple PA set at low
               levels is enough to overcome any problems with sound leak from
               outside.

               Gusts of wind cause the PVC to flap slightly against the steel structure,
               meaning that higher levels of sound projection are required.
Cost           The quality of The Lift and the experience it offers is offset by the
               particularly high cost of its set-up, which derives from the amount of
               plant and numbers of crew necessary to put it up and take it down, and
               the length of time they need to do so.




                               Internal of The Lift as a social space

                                                                                           56
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
10.3   Option Three: Spiegeltent




                               Interior of Salon Perdu Spiegeltent

Introduction

The example studied here is the Salon Perdu provided by Van Rosamalen of the
Netherlands. www.vanrosmalen.com. It is typical of these glamorous 1920s temporary
dance halls which have made dramatic inroads into the international cultural festival
circuit since the 1980s. In the UK they regularly visit Brighton and Edinburgh Festivals.
They are solid, special, feel good and celebratory.

Key statistics
  Dimensions                25mx 20m (diameter) x 5.4m (h)
  Capacity standing         Up to 500
  Capacity seated           200 - 350
  Weight                    Not known
  Staked to the ground      No, freestanding

Special facilities
   Built-in wooden flooring, tables and seated booths

Delivery, erection, dismantling and removal
    Arrival on site to handover to client (for equipment rigging)          2 days
    Handover from client to site clear                                     1 days



                                                                                      57
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
Hire Cost
Structure including single erection and dismantling                             £16,000

Seating hire costs                                                              £    350
Staging, sound, lighting                                                        £   3,500
Backstage facilities inc toilets                                                £   1,500
FOH facilities inc toilets & box office                                         £   1,500
Power                                                                           £   3,000

No allowance is made for costs to install any bar or catering facilities required.

Capital Cost
An 18m diameter Spiegeltent cost approximately                                  £270,000

Although they are generally available they are made to order only. Storage,
maintenance, transport, erection, dismantling costs would also need to be factored in
along with a full structural survey and other safety documentation

For both the hire and capital cost the typical standard costs outlined in section 6.2
above will apply.




                       Interior of the Famous Spiegeltent at Edinburgh Fringe




                                                                                            58
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


Appraisal

General      The Spiegeltent has become a familiar sight at cultural Festivals
             throughout the world, most particularly in the UK and Australia. It‟s a
             much loved venue though its novelty value is now well worn and may be
             in danger of being superseded by other probably more flexible options.
             However it has a solidity and style which is difficult to match and is very
             well suited for cabaret and music presentations and unlike most tented
             venues it has a very good daytime atmosphere due to its panoramic
             high-level windows.
Performers   Spiegeltents are solid, and relatively secure environments, with a robust
             wooden floor supported on a steel substructure. Access from the
             backstage area is via steps or ramp to doors set in the rear wooden wall.
             The Spiegeltent is usually supplied with a tiny stage set into one of the
             booths which for most entertainment purposes needs replacing either
             with a bespoke extension or a more centrally placed hired in stage.
             Performing on the existing wooden floor is also possible but sight-lines
             are poor for the majority of audience who would be seated at the same
             level.

             Lighting, sound and AV rigging is very restricted and most performances
             have to be designed to fit. There is extremely limited overhead rigging
             although many small-scale circuses have used the venue using a single
             rope or trapeze hanging point.

             The backstage experience is the same as other TVs and dependent on
             the other facilities specified by the promoter.
Audiences    Approaching a Spiegeltent can be an attractive experience, if the
             entrance area and exterior facade is sympathetically lit. However in
             general the exterior belies the opulence of the interior.

             Seating in booths with integral tables around the perimeter is
             comfortable but for some of the audience a crick in the neck can result
             from permanently turning to face the performance area! Seating on the
             main floor is provided by the promoter and may be rows of chairs, or a
             more convivial table and chairs café-style arrangement although this
             reduces capacity considerably. In either scenario it is necessary for the
             performance to be on raised staging.

             There is a bar area close to the entrance which is invariably used as
             such by promoters, despite the cost of installing the bar infrastructure.
             This forms a relatively unusual element for a performance venue but
             needs careful managing to prevent interference with performances

             The venue lends itself well to receptions, whether daytime or evening
             and for many years was used by during Edinburgh Book Festival. The
             amount of daylight which comes in and reflects off the glass and wood
             surfaces can create a particularly beautiful atmosphere for daytime
             events.

             Many cultural festivals use Spiegeltents as a Festival club, generally
             after ticketed evening performances.


                                                                                           59
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?

Infrastructure The general infrastructure of Spiegeltents can vary a little, although most
               are maintained to a high standard they are old structures which have
               been renewed in most cases incrementally over the years.
               It has also been a chastening experience for some promoters to realise
               that they have not hired a venue but rather a beautiful shell in which to
               create a venue.
Acoustics      Acoustics within Spiegeltents are generally good due to the draped
               fabric ceiling and wooden surfaces. However most performances will
               utilise a PA system and the shape of the venue means the system needs
               to reach a 270 degree arc around the stage. A high quality sound for
               music events can be, as always, expensive.

               Gusts of wind can cause some rattling but the wooden structure
               withstands wind disturbance much better than most comparable
               temporary venues.
Cost           The quality of Spiegeltent interior and its atmosphere are a great
               attraction to audiences and promoters. However the hire costs, the
               installation of infrastructure and the running costs mean that it is a
               difficult commercial proposition.




                                 Exterior of La Gaiety Spiegeltent




                                                                                             60
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


Appendix

11    Outdoor Temporary Stages

Market Overview

Temporary stages are a big part of the UK event industry, seen by millions on TV at
large outdoor festivals such as Glastonbury, Proms in the Park and Live8.

The majority of temporary covered stages are of course smaller than these headline
events although most reputable suppliers can provide structures at a wide range of
budget levels. The following is a very brief overview of the range of stages and stage
covers available starting at the largest and going to the smallest.


1.    Commercial high end, bespoke major stadium tour stages




                            Stufish design for Robbie Williams „Escapology‟




                                                                                         61
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


2.    Commercial high end, standard stage systems




                                ESS - Elton John in Stuttgart




                             Star Events VerTech stage for REM




                                                                 62
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?


3.    Large scale roofed stages used at major Festivals;




                     Serious Stages 25m Space Roof at Glastonbury




                       Serious Stages 22m SuperNova at Latitude




                                                                    63
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




                   Star Events 30m Orbit stage ‘BBC Proms, Glasgow’



4.    Saddlespan and other coverings




              SilverStage Saddlespan stage cover – Escape Festival Swansea




                                                                             64
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




                       Silverstage Saddlespan roof at Big Chill




                       Kayam stage cover at Rock in Rio, Lisbon

                                                                  65
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




                       SoundStageOne inflated dome stage roof




                            AliStage Alidome stagecover system




                                                                 66
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




5.    Mobile stages




                      Star Events 10m x 8m mobile stage Glasgow




                        Daytona Stages 10m x 6m mobile stage

                                                                  67
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?




                   Cheltenham Stage Services 10m x 6m mobile stage




6.    Community stages




                                  UK Stage Hire stage 1




                                                                     68
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?



   List of Stage Suppliers:

   Stufish                     http://www.stufish.com/

   ESS                         http://www.ess-uk.com/

   Star Events                 http://www.stareventsgroup.com/

   Serious Stages              http://www.stages.co.uk/

   Silver Stage                http://www.silver-stage.com/

   Kayam                       http://www.kayam.co.uk/

   Sound Stage One             http://www.soundstageone.co.uk/

   AliStage                    http://www.alistage.co.uk/

   Daytona Stages              http://daytonastagehire.com/

   Cheltenham Stage Services   http://www.cheltenhamstageservices.com/

   H2 Production Services      http://www.h2organisation.co.uk/

   UK Stage Hire               http://www.ukstagehire.com/




                                                                         69
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
Appendix

12     Consultation

Interviews were conducted with and feedback taken from the following people:
:
Andrew Comben                Chief Executive      Brighton Dome and Festival

Victoria Pomery              Director             Turner Contemporary, Margate

Nick Ewbank                  Chief Executive      Creative Foundation, Folkestone

Donna Close                  Arts Development     Brighton and Hove City Council
                             Manager
Ian Taylor                   Outdoor Events       Brighton and Hove City Council
                             Officer
Michael Sanchez              Festival and         Kent County Council
                             Combined Arts
                             Officer
Stella Bellem                Head of Cultural     South East of England Regional
                             Policy               Development Agency (SEEDA)
Emma Slawinski               Policy Manager,      South East of England Regional
                             Culture and Coast    Development Agency (SEEDA)
Clive Lyttle                 Head of Combined     Arts Council England, South East
                             Arts
Caterina Loriggio            Creative             London 2012, South East
                             Programmer

Mandy Thwaites               Head of Festivals,   Medway Council
                             Arts and Theatres

Jo Tufts                     Festival Organiser   Broadstairs Folk Week

Rosie Turner                 Festival Director    Canterbury Festival

Brigitte Orasinski           Artistic Director    Strange Cargo

Stewart Collins              Festival Director    Henley Festival

Sarah Gaventa                Director             CABE space

Simon Chatterton             Freelance            Production Manager




                                                                                     70
Temporary Structures for
Outdoor Cultural Events -
A Market Opportunity?
Appendix

13    About the Authors

Festivals and Events International was created in 2007 by senior executives from the
Edinburgh and Brighton Festivals, and involving a number of Associates with many
years experience. It is currently working on festival projects in London, Birmingham,
Newcastle and Reykjavik. Further information can be found on www.feiuk.com .

Jon Linstrum is one of the UK‟s most experienced Production Managers. He has over
15 years experience in outdoor arts events, and is currently Head of Production for
Winchester Hat Fair (the UK‟s longest running street theatre festival) Production
Consultant and Safety Advisor for Norfolk & Norwich Festival and Contemporary Art
Norwich, Production Consultant for Derby Festé, a new outdoor cultural flagship event
for Derby, Production Consultant for Wildworks internationally acclaimed producers of
unique landscape theatre, and Head of Production for Inside Out Festival, a festival of
site-sensitive outdoor performance throughout Dorset.

Jon has a long association with Stockton Riverside International Festival and was also
Production Manager for „STICKY‟, Improbable Theatre‟s large scale outdoor show
which toured throughout the world. He has also managed outdoor, site-specific and
temporary venue based events for Henley Festival; UZ Events; Islington International
Festival; Ross-on-Wye International Festival; Oxford Millennium; British Council; Zap
Productions; Brighton & Hove City Council; London Borough of Lewisham; Hampshire
County Council; amongst many others.

Nick Dodds was Chief Executive of Brighton Dome and Brighton Festival from 2000 to
2008 where he was responsible for the artistic and commercial operation of the annual
Festival and the year round venues.

Nick oversaw the re-launch, in 2002, of Brighton Festival and Brighton Festival Fringe
as England‟s largest arts festival and its development into a major national event. Nick
was a member of the Brighton and Hove Arts Commission, and led the Outdoor Events
group. Prior to this he was Administrative Director off Edinburgh International Festival
for 10 years. His started his career running an equipment hire company for the festivals
and events sector. Until 2008 he was Chairman of the British Arts Festivals Association.

As a consultant Nick has written festivals and events strategies for Derby and
Birmingham, undertaken feasibility studies and business plans for London Festival of
the Horse, Winchester Hat Fair and a new children‟s festival in Iceland.

Nigel Hinds is currently Interim Executive Director of the London International Festival
of Theatre where he has overseen the commissioning, construction and operation of
The Lift, an innovative, architect designed temporary structure for outdoor cultural
events. Nigel has over 20 years experience as a senior executive for major arts
organisations and festivals. He was Executive Director of The Place, London from
2004 to 2007 and was Arts Programming Director of Sadler‟s Wells, London from 1993
to 2000. Nigel was Director of Phoenix Arts Centre, Leicester between 1988 and 1993
where he was responsible for the artistic, administrative and financial success of the
organisation. He led the Leicester International Dance Festival 1991 and 1993 editions.
He was Associate Artistic Director of Brighton Festival in 2002 and 2003.
                                                                                       71

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:10
posted:3/10/2012
language:
pages:71