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Puritans (PowerPoint download)

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					Home: Massachusetts
Time Period: 1600s


PURITANS
RELIGION IN 1600S

   Believed good and evil      Believed God was
    spirits around at all        sovereign over Satan.
    times.                      There was an over
   Martin Luther:               emphasis on the
    “Pestilence, fever and       supernatural because
    other severe diseases        religion had been
    are naught else than         becoming too rational.
    the Devil’s work.”
EUROPEAN WITCH TRIALS

   Witches had been            In England witches were
    executed in Europe for       hanged as they were in
    over 300 years.              Salem
   Torture was used to         Bible:
    gain confessions                Christ cast out demons
   Thousands were                  Exodus “Do not allow a
    executed                         witch to live.”

   Most burned at the
    stake.
What do you know about the Puritans based on this picture?
What do you know about Puritans based on this picture?
What do you know about Puritans based on this picture?
How would you
describe their
clothes?
What do you notice about Puritans in this picture?
What can you infer about the Puritans from this picture?
This is a picture of Salem Village around 1692.
What conclusions can you draw based on what
             you see in this picture?
PURITAN VIEW OF GOD AND THE BIBLE
   Mysterious              Book of Law
   Distant                 Infallible
   Not understandable
FIVE BASIC BELIEFS

   Man is sinful
   Man can’t save himself
   God chooses people to
    be saved
   God’s grace saves – not
    their actions
   Once saved – always
    saved
STRICT MORAL CODE
   Sabbath (Sunday):
       A day of prayer & worship – no work
   Levity – no laughing, silliness, life is serious
   Gambling – forbidden, dishonest; a waste of time
    Drinking: no drunkenness
   Idleness: Doing nothing was against the law
   Death Penalty: adultery, murder, rebellion, witchcraft
   Dancing not allowed
       a waste of time - evil
CLOTHING

   Long sleeves
   Long skirts
   No jewelry
   No lace
   No ribbon
   No fur hats
   Women are considered
    “of the devil” or the
    “devil’s tool”
WORSHIP SERVICE AND BUILDING

                      Barren
                      Well lit
                      No musical instruments
                      Separate seating of
                       sexes
                      1-3 hour service
                      How does this fit with
                       the ideas of
                       Puritanism?
CHURCH GOVERNMENT

 Only property owners could be a church member
 Women couldn’t vote

 Theocracy (church & state are one)

 Pastor was the head of the community

 Male head of house was part of the general court.

 They made laws about the moral issues and
  collected taxes.
ATTITUDES TOWARD OTHERS

 Very Intolerant
 “The Puritan community thought that heretics
  should have only the liberty to leave.”
    HAVE WE LEARNED FROM THE PURITANS?

 Plain living (basics)
 High thinking

 Work ethic

 Morality

 Democracy (Roger Williams)
 Definition of a witch:

A person possessed and
controlled by the Devil
 or one of his demons.
FACTS OF THE SALEM TRIALS
SALEM, MASSACHUSETTS
   Lasted from May to Sept.          If a witch confessed to being
    1692 (less than 6 mos.)            a witch, he (she) would NOT
                                       die.
   There had been three
    separate instances before         Salem pastor was
    this in other communities in       Rev. Samuel Parris
    New England where witches
    were hanged.
                                      He had a daughter (age 9)
                                       Betty (Elizabeth)
                                      And a niece (age 11) Abigail
                                          She is 17 in the play
MORE FACTS
•   Abigail Williams led the girls   •   The girls blamed the slave to
•   The girls listened to                escape punishment.
    stories of witchcraft and        •   No one was free from
    magic told by a West                 accusation.
    Indian slave named
    Tituba.                          •   Even the wife of the governor
•    They were found                     of Massachusetts was
    dancing in the woods at              accused.
    a séance.
                                     •   Signs of the girls’ fits:
                                         Couldn’t talk; choking; acted
                                         like animals – barking; being
                                         pinched; falling into fits.
 Physicians
  could find
nothing wrong
with the girls.
EFFECTS OF WITCH TRIALS
   About 200 were                  Other accused witches died in prison:
                                     Sarah Osborn
    imprisoned on suspicion          Roger Toothaker
    of witchcraft                    Lyndia Dustin
   19 were hanged                   Ann Foster
                                     (As many as thirteen**
   1 was pressed to death           others may have died in
       Giles Corey - 82 years       prison.)
        old                          **sources conflict as to the
   55 confessed to being            exact number of prison
    witches and avoided              deaths
    death.
Bridget Bishop
Martha Carrier
Martha Corey
Mary Easty
Sarah Good
Elizabeth Howe
George Jacobs, Sr.
Susannah Martin
Rebecca Nurse
Alice Parker
Mary Parker
John Proctor
Ann Pudeator
Wilmott Redd
Margaret Scott
Samuel Wardwell
Sara Wildes
John Willard
George Burroughs
                MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY

   John Winthrop
     Concerned  about persecution & depression
     Charter from King Charles to establish a colony
      in New England
     Created a refuge for Puritans in America

     163011 ships with 900 settlers

     “We shall be like a City upon a Hill; the eyes of all
      people are upon us.”
     By 1643 20,000 settlers
COLONIAL GOVERNMENT
 People owning
  company
  stock=“freemen” &
  male heads of
  households
 All
  freemen=General
  Court
     Made  laws
     Elected the governor

   John Winthrop 1st
    governor
SOCIETY
   Subsistence farming
       Wheat
       Grains, vegetables, apple
        orchards, dairy cattle, sheep,
        and pigs
   Fishing and whaling=most
    important industries
   Harbors
   Lumber
   Shipbuilding
   Social Life is centered
    around the towns
EDUCATION

 In 1642 law was
  passed requiring
  pastors and parents
  to teach children to
  read.
 1647 Law
       50 families=
        elementary
       100
        families=secondary
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN HISTORY AND IN
THE PLAY
 Abigail Williams
 John Proctor
 Elizabeth Proctor
 Marry Warren
 Betty Parris
 Rev. Parris
 Judge Danforth
 Rev. Hale
HIS LIFE
   Born – N.Y. City – wealthy      Began to write in college
    family                              All My Sons – 1947
                                        Death of a Salesman – 1949
   Father suffered heavy                    Won the Pulitzer Prize
    losses during stock market          The Crucible – 1953
    crash of 1929
   High School dropout
   Worked as a shipping clerk
   1934 – U. of Michigan
    accepted him
   Married Marilyn Monroe
    (divorced)
THEMES IN THE PLAY

 Greed
 Betrayal

 Individual’s responsibility

  to himself/herself and to
  society
MCCARTHYISM
MCCARTHY HEARINGS
   The McCarthy Hearings             Miller was not a Communist
    were being condemned by            party member but advocated
    Miller as a witch hunt like        equality of classes.
    that in Salem.                    He was disillusioned by
   Many were accused of               Communism in the Soviet
    association with                   Union.
    Communists in McCarthy            Arthur Miller himself was
    Hearings.                          called before the U.S. Senate
   People were found guilty           House Committee on Un-
    with little or no evidence –       American Activities because
    guilt by association               of this play.
   Many lives and reputations
    were ruined by the
    Hearings.

				
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posted:3/10/2012
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