Evolution Chapter Outlines (Ch. 22-26) CHAPTER 22: DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION 1. Identify the three significant historical themes (Aristotle, Linnaeus, Cuvier, Hutton, and Lamarck’s ideas) that set the stage for Darwinian evolutionary theory. 2. What was the contribution of Carolus Linnaeus to the evolutionary theories? 3. Identify the two principles of Lamarck’s theory of evolution. 4. What were the two major points made in The Origin of Species? 5. What were the conventional paradigms in the 1800’s when Darwin developed his theories? 6. Define descent with modification. 7. Summarize the observations and inferences recognized as the backbone of evolution by natural selection. Observations: a. ______________________________________________________________________ b. ______________________________________________________________________ c. ______________________________________________________________________ Inferences: a. ______________________________________________________________________ b. ______________________________________________________________________ c. ______________________________________________________________________ 8. How do artificial selection and natural selection relate to one another and Darwin’s observations? 9. How do the examples of the color pattern in guppies and drug resistance demonstrate evolutionary change? 1 10. For each of the following, indicate how it is used as evidence of evolution. a. Fossil record / paleontology b. Homologous structures c. Vestigial structures d. Biogeography e. Biochemical / molecular level 11. How does “tree thinking” represent the evolutionary relationships of creatures? CHAPTER 23: THE EVOLUTION OF POPULATIONS 1. What is the smallest group of organisms that can evolve? 2. What is average heterozygosity within the population? 3. Explain geographic variation. 4. What is a mutation? What impact can they have on populations? 5. What is the impact of sexual reproduction on variation? 2 23.2 Hardy-Weinberg 6. Population genetics puts a mathematical approach to the study of microevolution. Define each of the terms commonly used in population genetics. a. population: _____________________________________________________________ b. gene pool: ______________________________________________________________ c. gene frequency: _________________________________________________________ 7. List the five conditions that must be met by a populations to insure stability (no evolution). a. ______________________________________________________________________ b. ______________________________________________________________________ c. ______________________________________________________________________ d. ______________________________________________________________________ e. ______________________________________________________________________ 8. Write the Hardy-Weinberg equation that describes genotype frequencies for distribution of genes in a population. 9. Define the following: a. p2 = ___________________________________________________________________ b. 2pq = __________________________________________________________________ c. q2 = ___________________________________________________________________ 10. Work out these practice problems. Find both the gene and genotype frequencies: a. In Drosophilia, the allele for normal length wings is dominant over the allele for vestigial wings. In a population of 1,000 individuals, 160 show the recessive phenotype. b. The allele for the hair pattern called "widow's peak" is dominant over the allele for no "widow's peak." In a population of 1,000 individuals, 360 show the dominant phenotype. 11. What is the H-W assumption that is broken when genetic drift occurs? Explain 3 12. How does genetic drift apply to each of the following? Give an example of each. a. Founder effect: b. Bottleneck effect: 13. How do each of the following break H-W assumptions? a. natural selection: b. gene flow: c. mutation: d. selective mating: 14. In a biological sense, what is fitness (relative fitness)? 15. Sketch the graphs for the three types of natural selection and summarize each / use an example to explain what happens in the population. a. Directional b. Disruptive c. Stabilizing 16. What factors of sexual reproduction lead to variations within a population? 17. How does diploidy preserve variation? 18. What is balancing selection or “balanced polymorphism?” 4 19. What is heterozygous advantage and how can parasites contribute to balanced polymorphism? 20. What is meant by neutral variation? 21. For each of the following, give an example or describe what is meant by the statement. a. Natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms: b. Evolution is limited by historical constraints: c. Adaptations are often compromises: d. Not all evolution is adaptive: e. Selection can only edit existing variations: CHAPTER 24: THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES 1.Define the term speciation. 2.How do microevolution and macroevolution differ? 3. What is a biological species? 5 4. Define and give an example for each of the following barriers that cause isolation. a. prezygotic barriers_______________________________________________________ 1. habitat isolation_________________________________________________ 2. temporal isolation _______________________________________________ 3. temporal Isolation _______________________________________________ 4. mechanical isolation ______________________________________________ 5. gamete isolation _________________________________________________ b. postzygotic barriers______________________________________________________ 1. reduced hybrid viability ____________________________________________ 2. reduced hybrid fertility ____________________________________________ 3. hybrid breakdown________________________________________________ 5. Other than the traditional biological species concept, how else can species be defined and what may be the benefit? 6. Define the Modes of Speciation a. allopatric speciation ______________________________________________________ b. sympatric speciation ______________________________________________________ 7. How does the antelope squirrel demonstrate allopatric speciation? 8. How can polyploidy lead to speciation? 11. Why are allopolyploid hybrids are usually sterile? 6 12. What did Hugo de Vries discover in the evening primrose? 13. What is thought to be the two factors demonstrating sympatric speciation in the cichlids of Lake Victoria, in East Africa? 14. Compare gradualism and punctuated equilibrium. 15. How does microevolution differ from macroevolution? 16. Identify a couple of factors that could lead to the pattern of evolution we see as divergence? 17. What does the Mollusk eye demonstrate? 18. What does the evolution of the horse demonstrate? 19. Define each of the following evolutionary trends: a. convergent evolution _____________________________________________________ b. analogous traits _________________________________________________________ c. parallel evolution ________________________________________________________ d. co-evolution _____________________________________________________________ AP: CHAPTER 26: ORIGIN OF LIFE 1. Start with the origin of the earth and identify the time frame, conditions, and evidence for each of the following steps leading to current life forms on earth. a. Origin of the earth ________________________________________________________ b. Prokaryotes _____________________________________________________________ c. Oxidizing atmosphere _____________________________________________________ d. Eukaryotic cells __________________________________________________________ e. Multicellular life __________________________________________________________ 2. What was significant about the discovery of the iron oxide bands in the sedimentary layers. 3. Describe the theory of endosymbiosis. 4. Why did evolution seem to slow 750 to 570 million years ago? 5. What was special about the Cambrium Explosion? 6. Describe a few adaptations essential for the invasion of plants onto land. 7. Scientific Hypothesis for the origin of life a. The first cells may have originated by chemical evolution on a young Earth b. Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers is a testable hypothesis c. Laboratory simulations of early-Earth conditions have produced organic polymers d. RNA may have been the first genetic material e. Protobionts can form by self-assembly f. Natural selection could refine protobionts containing hereditary information g. Debate about the origin of life abounds 8. Describe the hypothesized conditions on earth when life arose. 9. What did Louis Pasteur demonstrate with his experiment? 10. List the four stages for the formation of life. a. _______________________________________________________________________ b. _______________________________________________________________________ c. _______________________________________________________________________ d. _______________________________________________________________________ 11. What metabolic processes would you expect to see in protobionts? 12. Why is RNA now thought to be the first genetic code? 13. What did Oparin, Haldane, Miller and Urey accomplish? 14. What are some of the possible locations for the first life forms? 15. What is the basis of the classification system developed by Linneaus? 16. Why is taxonomy considered a work in progress? 17. What are two problems with the five kingdom system of classification? a. ________________________________________________________________________ b. ________________________________________________________________________ 18. How has the Domain System altered our view of taxonomy? 19. Which prokaryote is closer to the eukaryotes? List several reasons for your answer. 20. Place the following metabolic processes in an order that fits this hypothesis for the origin of life: Photosynthesis, Aerobic Respiration, Fermentation, Nucleic Acid replication (RNA or DNA), Membrane transport.
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