Colonial by linxiaoqin


- 1607
- 1st Permanent English settlement was Jamestown in the Virginia colony by the Va.
* 1st African-1619
* 1st legislative assembly: House of Burgesses-1619 (Today it is called the GENERAL
- The FRENCH had settled and explored Canada/Great Lakes/Mississippi River.
* They made money with the FUR trade and treated the Indians pretty well.
- The SPANISH had settled South America/Middle America/Florida(Caribbean)
* They enslaved the Indians- (married some)- used them for labor in gold/silver mines.
- The BRITISH settled the East Coast- set up 13 colonies (New England/Middle/South)
- The British got into fights with the Indians very soon-they wanted the land and resources
the Indians had.

New England Colonies (MA/RI/NH/CT)
- Pilgrims (separatists) came over on the MAYFLOWER in 1620. They wrote an agreement
for self-government called the MAYFLOWER COMPACT.
- Pilgrims and Puritans agreed to live in a COVENANT COMMUNITY by God’s laws.
* 1st Thanksgiving
- Pilgrims/Puritans came to the New World for Religious Freedom and economic opportunity.
- Economy: shipbuilding/fishing/very small farms (bad weather, rocky soil)
- Religion: Congregational. They were NOT tolerant of other religions.
- Roger Williams-was a DISSENTER who did not agree with the church rulers- he ran away
and started the colony of Rhode Island
- The most powerful people in New England were the leaders of the church.
- Government: Town meetings

Middle Colonies (NY/NJ/PA/DE) - You can Memorize as Newport News Police Department
(N-New York & New Jersey, P- PA, D- Delaware)
- William Penn started Pennsylvania as a HAVEN for QUAKERS
- Middle region of colonies had the most DIVERSITY. Many different religions-people from
many different countries settled there. (English/Dutch/German)
- Big towns- NYC/Philadelphia
- Economy: larger farms/some ship building/trade
- Religion: The Middle Region had the most religious toleration- accepted people with
different religions
- People came to Middle Colonies for economic opportunity- and some (like Quakers) for
religious freedom.
- The people with the most power were property owners-people who owned land or

Southern Colonies (VA/NC/SC/MD/GA)
- large plantations
- grew cash crops (tobacco/rice/indigo)
- Needed labor to work on the plantations- at first most labor was Indentured Servants-but
later the South used mostly slave labor.
- Religion: Mostly Anglican
- Government: legislative assemblies (like House of Burgesses)
- James Oglethrope: started Georgia as a haven for debtors- and as a buffer against the
Spanish in Florida who would attack the British colonies.
- Lord Baltimore- started Maryland as a haven for Catholics
- The people in the South who had the most power were the large LANDOWNERS who
owned the big plantations.
- In the West-in the foothills of the mountains-were small farms-few slaves (poor people-just
trying to survive!)
- Cavaliers-received land grants from king

- The South was dependent on slave labor for their plantations
- Millions of Africans were brought to the New World (Caribbean/S. Am/N. Am) against their
- The MIDDLE PASSAGE was 1 leg or the TRIANGLE TRADE that took people out of Africa-
for sale in New World. (and the picture of the triangle has N. Am to Africa is rum, Africa to S.
Am is slaves, S. Am to N. Am passing Caribbean is sugar)
- Propriety Colonies- the King gave land as a gift to his supporters (example-Virginia
- THE GREAT AWAKENING was a religious revival movement in the colonies.
- It was the first social movement to affect all of the colonies. People started NEW churches
(Baptist) and questioned the authority of the “old” church

French and Indian War (a.k.a. 7 years War)
- The French and their friends, the Indians, fight the British and the British colonists.
- Why? They fight over the land and resources in the Ohio Valley.
- The FRENCH lose-and must leave North America. The BRITISH get all of their land in
- Join or Die! Cartoon of a snake by Ben Franklin-urging the colonists to join the fight and
defend themselves against the French. Albany Congress
- The War cost the King a lot of money-he doesn’t want to spend any more money to defend
the colonists.
- In the Proclamation Act of 1763 the King forbids the colonists to go across the Appalachian
Mountains (why-there are a bunch of angry Indians over there-they will attack-King will have
to send troops)

-King and Parliament think the colonies should help pay back the cost of French and Indian
-King tries to tax goods imported into colonies (IMPORT DUTY)
-The colonists say “No way”-It is not the idea of paying taxes that upsets the colonists-They
just don’t want to pay taxes that they have no say in deciding. Colonies did NOT have any
representatives in Parliament.
-People like PATRICK HENRY said “No taxation without Representation!” He also said “Give
me liberty or give me Death!”
-The STAMP TAX-was the first direct tax-colonists were angry!
*Sons of liberty
*Stamp Act Congress-a meeting to decide how to protest the tax
*Boycott-Non-importation. Colonists wouldn’t buy British goods.

1st Continental Congress
-All colonies except Georgia sent representatives-FIRST TIME all colonies worked together!
-Boston Massacre-British troops fire on colonists-used as propaganda against kind. Crispus
-Boston Tea Party-Sons of liberty dressed up like Indians-destroyed British Tea-(British East
India Co.) Made the king VERY MAD! He cracked down on Boston.
-Intolerable Acts were passed by Parliament.
-Lexington and Concord-British tried to capture the colonists’ guns at Concord, MA.
-Minute Men-tried to hold the British off-they got into a fight at Lexington-British were later
attacked and had to run for their lives-back to Boston!
-Thomas Jefferson of Virginia wrote the Declaration of Independence.
-But he got his ideas from: 1. Thomas Paine-who wrote Common Sense-saying that America
should be independent. 2. John Locke-English philosopher (Enlightenment) who said “ALL
MEN are born with natural rights.” Governments are created by people-for people-If the
government does not protect people’s rights-then the people (Americans) have the right to
overthrow the government (king)
-The Declaration in an explanation to the rest of the world of why Americans were in revolt
against the king. American Revolution
-3 groups: Loyalists-did NOT want to leave the king.....Patriots-wanted independence from
Britain.....Neutrals-didn’t care
-George Washington-head of the Continental Army-colonists
*didn’t have enough troops/money/supplies/NAVY
*but Americans did have a cause to fight for!
1.Lexington and Concord
2.SARATOGA-U.S. wins-French decide to help the U.S. with troops and supplies 3.War
ends when British General Cornwallis surrenders to G. Washington at Yorktown. The reason
the U.S. troops won the battle was because the French helped with troops and French navy
showed up and blocked the Chesapeake Bay- so British ships could not get in.

Articles of Confederation (1st form of government after Revolutionary War)
-Congress has limited power .No president (didn’t want 1 guy with too much power)
-Can’t collect taxes .can’t regulate trade/currency
-unanimous vote needed to change (impossible)
-all states-only 1 vote (big states and little states all only have 1 vote)
-WEAK central government (people were afraid of too powerful of a central government)
-don’t want another king!

Constitutional Convention
-Washington-president of convention
-James Madison-“Father of the Constitution”
-Compromises: how the problems were decided in the Constitution
-Great Compromise: 2 house/bicameral-House of Representatives by population and
Senate-2 per state
-3/5 Compromise: Each slave would count 3/5 but slaves could not vote
-Branches of government (checks and balances): Executive-president, Legislative-make
laws, Judicial-judge laws
-Anti-federalists wouldn’t accept the Constitution without a BILL OF RIGHTS-Madison added
for anti-federalists (protect individual rights)

-FEDERALISTS-wanted STRONG federal government
-ANTI-FEDERALISTS-weak fed. government. STRONG state government
-Jefferson-Anti-federalists which become Democratic Republicans
-Adams-federalists .Election of 1800-Peaceful transfer of power. When Jefferson became
president there were no riots or fights.

-1st president-George Washington: strong government-established precedents-how things
would be done.
-War between France and England. Washington issues the NEUTRALITY
PROCLAMATION-set 2 term precedent (for being president)

-2nd president-John Adams: federalist
-3rd president-Thomas Jefferson 1800: peaceful transfer of power from federalist to
democratic republican. Bought the Louisiana Purchase from Napoleon (France). Doubled the
size of the U.S. Sent Lewis and Clark to explore. Gave us claims to land all the way to the

-4th president-James Madison: War of 1812 with Britain. Caused by British impressments
(taking our sailors)

-5th president-James Monroe: Missouri Compromise. Monroe Doctrine-“stay out of our
hemisphere”-warning Europe-“no new colonies.” Florida Purchase-we buy Florida from the

-Virginia Declaration of Rights-George Mason (James Madison uses these ideas for Bill of
-Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom-Thomas Jefferson. “separation of church and state”
No taxes could go to churches. Freedom to go to any church you want to.

Two important court cases: Chief Justice John Marshall was a strong Federalist-he wanted
the central government to be stronger than the state governments. He helped pass 2
important cases that gave power to the central government.
-Marbury v. Madison-Supreme Court has power of Judicial Review-to review cases decided
in state courts
-McCullough v. Maryland-a state can not tax anything owned by the federal government (like
a bank) .Both cases gave more power to federal government.

Andrew Jackson
-elected in 1828
-Rise of the “common man”
-more people could vote during Jackson’s time than every before. Why? You didn’t have to
have property or be a land owner to vote-any white male over 21 could vote
-Jackson hated the Bank of the U.S.-he thought it was a tool of the rich-so he “killed” the
bank and took all the money out-and put it in to small “pet” banks.
-This was harmful to the economy and cause the PANIC of 1837 (depression)
-Jackson also signed the Indian Removal Act-which kicked all Indians off their land-and
forced them to move West-This led to the TRAIL OF TEARS with the Cherokee Indians.

People in the North who were against slavery were called ABOLISTIONISTS (wanted to
abolish slavery)
-William Lloyd Garrison-published THE LIBERATOR-wanted immediate end to slavery
-Fredrick Douglas-published THE NORTH STAR. Escaped slave-became leading black
-Sojourner Truth-black woman-spoke against slavery and for women’s rights
-Harriet Tubman-leader of “underground railroad”
-Harriet Beecher Stowe-wrote UNCLE TOM’S CABIN-sad book that made many people in
the North hate slavery

The North tried to LIMIT the spread of slavery:
*Missouri Compromise-1820 No slaves above the 36 30 line except for Missouri-could enter
as a slave state while Maine entered as a free state.
*Compromise of 1850-After the war with Mexico the U.S. had to decide if the New land
should be slave or free. California became free state and New Mexico /Utah would decide be
POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY (voter choose). Fugitive slave law-North must return all escaped
slaves-makes North ANGRY!
*Kansas-Nebraska Act-New area would decide by popular sovereignty-makes people fight-
"Bleeding Kansas."
*A new party is formed to fight the spread of slavery-REPUBLICAN PARTY

*The Dred Scott Decision by Supreme Court said Congress can NOT try to limit slavery-at
all! EVER! This angered the North.
*The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 caused Southern states (7) to secede. They were
afraid Lincoln would try to end slavery. ("A house divided can not stand")

*1st battle-Fort Sumter
*Antietam-1st Union victory-Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation-frees only slaves in
Confederate territory
*Gettysburg-turning point of war-Lincoln gives Gettysburg Address-says war will bring "New
Freedom"-for everyone.
*Appomattox-Lee(South) surrenders to Grant(North) and urges rest of Southern soldiers to
surrender and have peaceful end to war.
*Fredrick Douglass had urged Lincoln to let African Americans fight for the North.

At end of Civil War:
-South was devastated-no money-cities burned-homes destroyed
-North was much stronger

-Lincoln wanted the Southern states to rejoin Union-quick and easy "with malice toward none
and charity for all"-Lincoln
-Radical Republicans wanted to punish the South and protect the rights of African Americans
-Military commanders made Southerners give the African Americans their rights:
*13th Amendment-ended slavery
*14th Amendment-civil rights for African Americans
*15th Amendment-right to vote
Reconstruction ended with the Compromise of 1877-Hayes was elected in return for an end
to Reconstruction- result: Jim Crow in South

*Industrial Revolution-after Civil War
*Why? Resources/labor-workers/$/Government kept their hands off-laissez faire
-Andrew Carnegie-Steel
*John D. Rockefeller-Oil
*J.P. Morgan-Banks
*Cornelius Vanderbilt-Railroads
Big Business=>no competition=>TRUSTS-Monopolies
*Interstate Commerce Act-aimed at R.R.s
*Sherman Anti-Trust Act

*Eli Whitney-Cotton Gin
*Cyrus McCormick-Mechanical Reaper
*Alexander G. Bell-Telephone
*Thomas Edison-electric light
*Wright Brothers-airplace
*Henry Ford-Car Model T.
*Jonas Salk-vaccine for polio
*Henry Bessemer-Bessemer process for steel

*Before Civil War: Immigrants came from WESTERN EUROPE
*After Civil War: Immigrants came from EASTERN EUROPE (Poland/Italy/Greece/Russia)
*Immigrants entered U.S. through Ellis Island
*Immigrants settled in cities like Baltimore/New York/Boston
*They lived in Ethnic Neighborhoods-Little Italy/Chinatown
*Quota Act 1921(?)-limit immigration

*After the Civil War: More people moved west
*Cowboys-long cattle drives to get herds to market
*Homestead Act-gave away 160 acres of land for free-if you live on it for 5 years
*How did people travel west? RAILROADS (new technology)
*More land is farmed because of mechanical reaper

*We fight a war with Spain-to help Cuba gain its independence from Spain
*In the Teller Amendment-we tell the world that we will not keep Cuba after the war.
*U.S. defeats Spain-future president Teddy Roosevelt becomes famous for the Battle of San
Juan Hill-with the Rought Riders
*The president during the war was William McKinley
*We went to war because of 1) yellow journalism (the press) and 2) sinking of Maine
*After the war: U.S. kept Guam/PuertoRico/Philippines
*We also annexed (took over) Hawaii-from Queen Lil

Teddy Roosevelt-when he became president he:
1. started a revolt in Panama to build a Panama Canal-to help our military and trade
(defense and shipping)
2. T.R. belived in "speak softly and carry a big stick"-meaning-don't be a bully-but use a
strong navy/army to protect yourself
*The next president-William Howard Taft-told American businesses to invest in other nations-
*The biggest country in the world was China. Many countries wanted to control the trade with
China (to make money)
*The U.S. said all countries should have equal trade rights with China-OPEN DOOR NOTE-
keep the door open for all

-3 progressive presidents: Teddy Roosevelt-square deal, William H. Taft-Trust Busting,
Woodrow Wilson
-Progressives wanted to change the problems with society: poverty/corruption in govt./big
-Muckrakers-journalists who wrote to expose the problems in society
*Ida B. Wells-Anti-lynching crusade
*Ida Tarbell-Standard Oil-monopoly
*Upton Sinclair-The Jungle-Meat packing industry filth
*Jane Addams-Hull House. Settlement houses to help immigrants
*Thomas Nast-political cartoons about "Boss Tweed"-crooked politician
*Frances Williard-WCTU-Women's Christian Temperance Union-against alcohol
*Susan B. Anthony/Carrie Chapman Catt-Women's Suffrage-the right to vote

Make government more efficient-and get rid of corruption:
*City managers/commissioners
*initiative-voters could suggest a law
*referendum-voters could accept or reject a law
*recall-voters call for a new election to replace a crummy governor or senator
-17th Amendment-direct election of senators-who will do what the people want
-Secret ballot
AFRICAN AMERICANS who wanted to change things:
-Booker T. Washington-blacks should get a job-find economic security before they worry
about social equality
-W.E.B. DuBois-founder of NAACP wanted social equality-political equality NOW, not later
Jim Crow Era in South
-segregation is legal
-why? Plessy v. Ferguson said separate but equal is ok (1896) Progressives don't change

Economic Reform
*Interstate Commerce Act-ICC-first attempt by govt. to control big business-aimed at
RAILROAD companies
*Pendleton Act-tried to get rid of spoils system. ALL federal employees must take a test
before they could get a job with the government
*Labor Unions form to get help for workers
-Knights of Labor-skilled and unskilled
-A.F.L. American Federation of Labor-ONLY skilled workers-Samuel Gompers- try to get
better pay-shorter hours-better working conditions

WORLD WAR I 1914-1918
Allies-Gr. Britain, France, (later U.S.)
Central Powers-Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire
*Causes-Nationalism, Imperialism, Secret Alliances, Militarism, Assassination of Archduke
-U.S. President-Woodrow Wilson. U.S. was NEUTRAL at start of war
-Lusitania-128 Americans killed Zimmerman Telegram-to Mexico. Unlimited U-Boat Warfare.
U.S. enters war in 1917

U.S. "dough boys" go to fight in Europe
-Trench Warfare
-Rationing/victory gardens
-U.S. General-Gen. Pershing
-Woodrow Wilson-wants peace
-14 points-including a League of Nations
-Nov. 11, 1918 11th hour/11th day/11th month/1918
*Germany signs armistice
*Treaty of Versailles-NEVER ratified by U.S. Senate
*Why? Senate does not want to give up power of declaring war to the league of nations
*Germany punished (reparations)

*Why? overspeculation/unstable banking/people buying on credit/high tariff
*October 29, 1929-Stock Market Crash: too many people try to sell
*President: Herbert Hoover
*Result: unemployment/poverty/homelessness
*Effected ALL levels of society
*Hawley-Smoot Tariff-shut down internation trade-made things worse
*Election of 1933-Franklin D. Roosevelt "We have nothing to fear but fear itself"-his
inauguration speech

*3r's Relief/Recovery/Reform
-Relief-Works Progress Administration WPA-gave jobs
-Recovery-AAA-Agricultural Adjustment Act paid farmers NOT to grow crops
-Reform-FDIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation-government would insure people's
bank deposits up to $5,000.00-people would have faith in banks again
-Dust Bowl-Farmers in Mid-West leave the farms-go to California
-The Great Depression comes to an end when WWII starts-companies start to make stuff for
the war-prosperity returns

WORLD WAR II 1939-1945
-WWII started when Germany invaded Poland in 1939.
ALLIES-Great Britain/France/(later-U.S./USSR)
AXIS POWERS-Germany/Italy/Japan
*Germany (Hitler) took over most of Europe by 1940-including France
*For the first 2 years of the war the U.S. has a policy of neutrality
*Britain is bombed in the Battle of Britain for 6 months
*The U.S. tries to help Britain with the LEND-LEASE ACT-giving them war supplies as a loan.
It was like "lending your neighbor a garden hose when their house is on fire!"
*Germany attacks and invades their former friend the USSR (Russia)-why? to get oil and
*The Germans are stopped at STALINGRAD
*Germany tries to get control of the oil fields in the Middle East (and the Suez Canal). Their
attack is stopped at the battle of EL ALAMEIN in North Africa.

Why does the U.S. enter the war?
-December 7, 1941-Japan launches a surprise attack on our navy at Pearl Harbor.
-Their goal was the disable our ships-FDR called it "a day that will live in infamy"
-Americans wanted revenge-but the best strategy would be to "defeat Hitler first!"
*U.S. needed troops-we started a draft
*U.S. needed food for troops-rationing of food/gas/tire/rubber
*U.S. needed money-government sold war bonds-raised taxes
*U.S. needed supplies-factories made war material-tanks/ships/guns/bullets-NOT regular
*U.S. needed patriotism-Hollywood made propaganda movies

The Allies launched a major invasion on June 6, 1944-at Normandy Beach in France.
The leader of the invasion forces was Dwight D. Eisenhower
This invasion is called D-Day
Allied forces pushed German forces in retreat-until Hitler commits suicide
Germany surrenders-Allied forces divide up Germany into East Germany/West Germany

To defeat Japan the U.S. needed to be able to bomb supply bases on Japan. They had to
get close enough-to do that they used a strategy of ISLAND HOPPING
*The U.S. didn't win many battles until the turning point-the battle of Midway-Then they
started winning
*After the battles of Guadalcanal and Iwo Jima-the U.S. realizes that Japan will never
*To end the war quickly-and to save lives-President Truman dropped Atomic Bombs on
Japan. Many people were killed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
*Japan surrendered -and WWII ended.

1) Hitler killed millions of Jewish people-it was part of his FINAL SOLUTION. more than 6
million people died-the Holocaust was a form of genocide.
2) The U.S. imprisoned thousands of Japanese-Americans in detention camps. We were
afraid they might spy for Japan
3) Navajo Indians served as code-talkers-on the battlefield-because German and Japanese
could not understand their speech
4) Women worked in factories-they did the jobs to help the war-Rosie the Riveter-was their
5) African-Americans served in segregated units in war. They won many medals. African-
Americans wanted 2 things: victory in war/end of discrimination at home. This was DOUBLE
V-for victory
-Germany was divided between USSR and Allies (cause problems later)
-Nuremberg Trials-Germans put on trial for bad things during the war-many executed "you
have to be responsible for you own actions"
-Geneva Convention-rules for treating prisoners of war-Germany treated their POWs better
than Japan.
-U.S. occupied Japan-after the war-we helped them rebuild. they become our ally. We are
friends now.

*This is not really a "fighting" war- it was a competition between the U.S. and the Societ
*When? From the end of WWII-1945---->til 1989-1992
*Why? The U.S. did NOT want communism to spread
*The Cold War lasted More than 40 years
-Truman Doctrine-containment of communism-stop the spread
-Marshall Plan-give aid to countries in Europe so the people would resist (say no) to
-NATO-North Atlantic Treaty Organization-a military alliance of countries against communism
(U.S./Great Britain/France/Canada...)
-Korea-1st real fighting in Cold War
*Why-Communist North Korea tried to take over South Korea
*Result-War ends in a stalemate-BUT communism was contained
-Eisenhower's policy was to scare the Russians with a threat of MASSIVE RETALIATION-if
the Soviets (USSR) bomb us-we will bomb them back twice as bad
-Bay of Pigs-attempt to attack Cuba and remove Fidel Castro (Communist dictator) from
power-it was a failure!
-Cuban Missile Crisis-Russians put nuclear missiles on Cuba-aimed at U.S. JFK puts a
Blockade or Quarantine around Cuba-USSR finally removes the missiles
4) Lyndon Johnson (LBJ)
-He escalates the war in Vietnam by sending more and more troops
-Why? Communist North Vietname tries to take over South Vietnam (just like Korea)
-When? 1965-1973
*1st Livingroom War-News reports showed the truth about the war-deaths-injury-American
people begin to hate the war
*Massive protests-college students hate the war and protest the draft
*voting age lowered to 18 years old
5) Richard Nixon
-He wants to get U.S. out of the war
-Vietnamization is his place to make tthe South Vietnamese fight the war by themselves
-He begins to withdraw American troops
-Nixon brings a thaw (less tension) to the Cold War when he visits Communist CHINA and
MOSCOW. (Detente)
-Nixon is forced to leave office because of the WATERGATE SCANDAL (he lied)
-South Vietnam falls to communism in 1975-so the war failed
6) Ronal Reagan
-Reagan spends a lot of money on the military
-He puts pressure on the leader of the USSR Mikail Gorbachev to end Cold War
-U.S. outspends the USSR-(they can't keep up with us)
-Gorbachev starts some changes in the USSR-Glasnost-"new openness"-gives Russians
some freedom of speech---Perestroika-economic restructuring-change from communism to
free enterprise (own your own businesses)
-Berlin Wall-torn down in 1989-Societ Union is dissolved in 1992.

People in the North who were against slavery were called ABOLISTIONISTS (wanted to
abolish slavery)
- William Lloyd Garrison-published THE LIBERATOR-wanted immediate end to slavery
- Fredrick Douglas-published THE NORTH STAR. Escaped slave-became leading black
- Sojourner Truth-black woman-spoke against slavery and for women’s rights
- Harriet Tubman-leader of “underground railroad” - Harriet Beecher Stowe-wrote UNCLE
TOM’S CABIN-sad book that made many people in the North hate slavery

Discrimination and segregation against African Americans
- Laws passed by whites in South to enforce segregation: Jim Crow
- Ida B. Wells: Anti-lynching crusade
- Booker T. Washington: vocational education/ get a job/ buy a house/ gradual equality
- WEB DuBois: immediate equality/ founder of NAACP. Talented 10% (tenth) Civil Rights
- Plessy v. Ferguson- Supreme Court Case in 1896 made segregation legal- o.k. in the south
- What followed was Jim Crow Era- segregation/discrimination in South- separate water
fountains- African Americans not allowed in white restaurants- etc. AND separate schools for
whites and African Americans.
- The NAACP decided to fight this discrimination. They hired a team of lawyers led by
Thurgood Marshall (and helped by Oliver Hill of Virginia)
- They tried a case before the Supreme Court Brown v. Board of Education in 1954- and won.
The court said separate but equal is NOT legal.
- Brown v. Board of Education said all schools must INTEGRATE as soon as possible.
- The reaction of white people in the south was MASSIVE RESISTANCE- They wanted to
fight desegregation by closing schools- or- moving to all white suburbs (white fight)
- In Little Rock, Arkansas- the president, Eisenhower, had to send in Federal troops to
integrate CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL. Little Rock 9 - It was a question of who was more
powerful- the federal government or the state government.

- Lyndon Johnson- as president did a lot to help African Americans in the 1960s.
- He pushed Congress to pass 2 major Civil Rights Laws- that protected African American
- The Civil Rights Act of 1964 said there could be no more segregation in the South- It
protected African American rights
- The Voting Rights Act of 1965 said that African Americans must be allowed to vote- No
more literacy tests or any other unfair ways of denying the African Americans the right to
- Martin Luther King Jr. became a leader for African Americans.
- He led a MARCH ON WASHINGTON- where he made the famous “I have a dream speech”

Women’s Movement
- Women entered the work force in greater numbers after WWII
- For a long time- women could only do minor jobs- with no power. Men kept them in PINK
COLLAR jobs with low pay.
- Women had to break through the GLASS CEILING- the barriers put in place to keep them
in low paying jobs.
- Some women were powerful role models to others:
SANDRA DAY O’CONNOR- Supreme Court Justice. First Woman
SALLY RIDE- First woman astronaut
- Today, women can be very powerful –

In the last 25 years-many things changed:
1. More immigrants came to America from ASIA/LATIN AMERICA
2. New Technology (computers/Internet/cell phones, etc.) made communication with the rest
of the world much easier
- We now live in a global community- where all nations communicate – buy and sell things-
much more than any other time in history.
Space Race - Part of the Cold War – revolved around who would be the first to go into outer
- October 1957- The Soviet Union launched SPUTNIK – 1st satellite in space.
- This scared the Americans- could USSR drop bombs from space? U.S.A tries to catch up-
and reach space too.
- NASA started in 1958
- May 1961- Alan Shepard- 1st American in space
- Feb. 1962- John Glenn orbits the globe.
- JF Kennedy- challenges the U.S. to be the FIRST ON THE MOON!
- July 20, 1969- Neil Armstrong First human to walk on the Moon! “One small step for man-
one giant leap for mankind”

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