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					                      BioFuel
As the world searches for alternative sources of energy so as to
ween ourselves off the dependancy on petroleum that pollutes our
environment and puts our economy in a stranglehold, biofuel has
become a very possible replacement. It has been a succes story in
Brazil where ethanol is made from sugar cane. In the United States
we produce nearly as much 8100 million liters compared to 11200
million liters in Brazil. A lot of that could be used in a mixture with
diesel fuel to create less potent emissions.
              Renewable Resource
   Biofuel is a renewable resource it is
    produced from the fermentation of
    all the saccharine products of plant
    biomass to produce ethanol.
   Ethanol can also be produced from
    the waste products of the
    agriculture and forestry industries
   Cellulosic ethanol technology can be
    a low cost producer of ethanol
    however it has not been proven
    commercially and those first of a
    kind facilites would have a high
    capital risk
                    Biofuel Crops
   Sugar Cane
   Switchgrass
   Poplar
   Sweet Sorghum
   Maize

      Biofuel crops are chosen
      for high cellulose content,
      Ease of growth, and
      resiliency
                                Processing




   Cellulosic ethanol technology has 4 steps: pretreatment, processing, fermentation,
    distillation
   Its actually a lot more complicated than that and depending on what kind of crop you are
    using the process is somewhat different.
   In the case of sweet sorghum it is separated out into its different biological parts. The juice
    is separated from the solid residuals (lignin and bargasse) the bargasse is the component
    that contains the cellulose and hemicellulose
   Afterwards each of these distinct parts are either used directly in fermentation or treated
    (enzyme or acid hydrolisis) to create monosaccharides and then fermented to create
    ethanol
   Finally all of the ethanol produced is distilled to produce the final product
                        Sweet Sorghum
   Sweet sorghum is a plant that comes
    from Africa and is related to sugar cane.
    They both produce sugar products.
    Sweet sorghum has been cultivated
    around the world in many different
    countries on different continents
   Sweet sorghum is characterized by wide
    adaptability, drought tolerence,
    waterlogging tolerance, saline-alkali
    tolerance, rapid growth, and high
    biomass.
   The stalk is processed to produce syrup,
    molasses, sugar, hay for feeding animals,
    and also biofuel
   Biofuel is such a high capital venture.
    Sweet sorghum has been hypothesized to
    reduce the economic trade offs by
    burning the lignin for heat and electricity,
    possibly extracting the juice, and selling
    it as high quality sugar syrup.
Identification of QTL for Sugar-Related Traits in a Sweet
     x Grain Sorghum (Sorgum Bicolor L. Moench)
             Recombinant Inbred Population


 QTL for stem sugar related and other traits were identified in a
  sweet x grain sorghum population.
 QTL analyses were done using phenotypic data for 11 different
  traits measured in two field tests and a genetic map comprising
  228 SSR and AFLP markers grouped into 16 linkage groups, of
  which 11 could be assigned to the 10 sorghum chromosomes.
 QTL for all sites were generally co-located to 5 locations: SBI-
  01, SBI-03, SBI-05, SBI-06, SBI-10
 Increase in stem sugars and dry matter yield are important to
  sweet sorghum breeding
                        Methods
 The sorghum inbred lines R1988 andR9403463-2-1 were
  crossed to create a recombinant inbred line
 The progeny of this line and the parent lines were all cultivated
  until flowering and then the stem height and flowering time
  were measured
 6 weeks after antithesis a good sample of the crop was
  harvested a fresh weight was recorded. The leaves, stems, and
  panicles were partitioned and the weight of each was also
  recorded
 A subsample of stems was milled and the percentage of soluble
  solids (Brix) was measured using a refractometer.
 A second subsample of the juice was analysed for fructose,
  sucrose, glucose content using high performance liquid
  chromatography.
            Genetic Mapping
 DNA was isolated from 4-week old plants that were
  snap frozen and then extracted using the CTAB
  method
 AFLP and SSR markers were identified and classified
  as having come from one parent, the other, or both
 Linkage analysis was done using MultiPoint software
  and marker order was compared to previously
  published maps
 QTL analysis was done for both field tests to search
  for sugar-related and agronomic traits
                         Results
 All sugar-related traits were highly correlated with each other
 Plant height was positively correlated with sugar-related traits
 Grain yield was negatively correlated with sugar-related traits
 Flowering time and dry matter were significantly correlated with
  sugar-related traits
 Total dry matter was also highly correlated with grain yield
 Using MultiPoint 247 polymorophic bands produced by 28 AFLP
  primer pairs, 42 Xtsp microsatellite, and 10 sugarcane
  microsatellite markers created the map above
 The MultiPoint map was used to identify sugar-related and other
  agronomic traits
Sugar-related and Agronomic
            Traits
  Higher glucose content was associated with SBI-07 alleles from R9403943-
   2-1
  Higher fructose content was associated with alleles SBI-06 alleles from
   R9188 and SBI-07 alleles from R9403943-2-1 that colocated with those
   controlling glucose content
  Higher sucrose yield was associated with 3 genomic regions: SBI-05, SBI-
   06, SBI-10 with two from R9188 (SBI-05, SBI-06) and the other from
   R9403943-2-1
  High Brix content was associated with SBI-05 and SBI-06 and all alleles
   came from R9188
  Height was associated with 3 genomic regions 2 (SBI-05, SBI-06) from
   R9188 and 1 (SBI-10) from R9403943-2-1
  For flowering time 4 genomic regions were identified 2 (SBI-01, SBI-10)
   from R9188 and 2 (SBI-04, SBI-06) from R9403943-2-1
  3 genomic regions are associated with total dry matter(SBI-01, SBI-06,SBI-
   10) SBI-06 contains regions from both parents and the other to are from
   R9403943-2-1
  The final trait measured was grain yield which was associated with 3
   genomic regions (SBI-2, SBI-03, SBI-10) SBI-02 was from R9188, SBI-10
   was from R9403943-2-1, while SBI-03 shared markers from both parents
                References
 Dauriat, A., & Wyman, C. (2005). Refining sweet sorghum to
  ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China.
  BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, 96(9), 985-1002.

 Seth C. Murray, William L. Rooney, Martha T. Hamblin, Sharon E.
  Mitchell, and              Stephen Kresovich (2009). Sweet Sorghum
  Genetic Diversity and Association Mapping for Brix and HeightPlant
  Gen. March 2009 2:48-62; doi:10.3835/plantgenome2008.10.0011
 Jordan, D., Chapman, S., Godwin, I., Mace, E., & McIntyre, C.
  (2008). Identification of QTL for sugar-related traits in a sweet x
  grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) recombinant inbred
  population. MOLECULAR BREEDING, 22(3), 367-384.

 Dolat, A., Steinberger, Y., Wang, X., Osman, A., & Xie, G. (2009).
  Biomass yield and changes in chemical composition of sweet
  sorghum cultivars grown for biofuel. Field Crops Research, 111(1-2),
  55-64.

				
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posted:3/9/2012
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