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					                              Security Visualization

Jay Zeng                                       Abstract
University of Washington
Mary Gates Hall, Ste 370                       Information security is vital to the success of every
Seattle, WA 98195                              organization. The explosive growth of the Internet has
jayzeng@jay-zeng.com
                                               driven the increasing growth for network size and
                                               complexity, building a secured computing infrastructure
                                               is an escalating challenge. Organizations are making
                                               efforts to build trustworthy systems. The main strategy
                                               is to actively monitor network activities to identify
                                               successful and unsuccessful attacks or abuses. This
                                               typically involves a wide variety of security solutions
                                               and security appliance devices including firewall, anti-
                                               virus, VPN, and intrusion detection system. While all
                                               these devices have different functions and mechanisms,
                                               they have one important thing in common: they
                                               produce large and highly-detailed security data. The
                                               number of these devices grows as the organization
                                               infrastructure grows. A large organization network
                                               infrastructure could contain huge number of these
                                               devices in the network, the size of security data to be
                                               analyzed quickly become overwhelming. Security
                                               visualization is one of the effective ways to comprehend
                                               large amounts of data. The challenge is to develop
                                               visual representations and a user interface that both
                                               attain and preserve a high-level contextual awareness
                                               while investigating an event’s low-level details.


                                               Keywords
Copyright is held by the author/owner(s).      Security visualization, information security, user-
CHI 2009, April 4 – 9, 2009, Boston, MA, USA   centered design
ACM 978-1-60558-246-7/09/04.
ACM Classification Keywords                                 what they’re looking for in the data. However, the tools
H4.m. Information Systems Applications:                     become slow and cumbersome for analysts to explore
Miscellaneous.                                              less structured data to discover patterns and anomalies
                                                            [Ref.4].
Introduction
Although security data contain some pertinent               In order to overcome these limitations, I designed a
information, security analysts usually have difficulties    web application that can give analysts an overview of
on determining the alert’s severity and accuracy by         both the comprehensive view and individual log details.
looking at the alert itself, because information comes      By integrating all views into a single user interface and
from myriad sources includes network devices,               utilizing a number of web services to automate some of
applications, and other components. Relevant                the common tasks to build up contextual information,
contextual information within the network needs to be       this tool automates the processes of discovering,
collected for constructing relevant contextual              analyzing, and visualizing anomalous and potential
understandings. Whether an analysis is data rich (with      attacks.
sufficient security data) or data poor (with minimal or
no security data), analyzing network security events is     Approach
a complex and time consuming task [Ref.1]. Contextual       I began my work by surveying security analysts to
data generally comes from network packets. My survey        determine how security analysts build up contextual
and research shows most analysts most often use             information. The survey was conducted online,
textual and tabular tools such as WireShark                 distributed to two security mailing lists and was live for
(http://www.wireshark.org/) or Tcpdump                      one week. The survey consists of about 20 questions
(http://www.tcpdump.org/), these tools focus on             that ask participants to provide their backgrounds, tool
obtaining detailed information from network packets.        choices, and ways to retrieving detailed information
However, such tools lack a mechanism for providing a        and what particular information they pay attention to
comprehensive visual view of the data. To effectively       base upon contexts. Due some survey questions ask for
build up the contextual information, security analysts      information that could be important or sensitive to their
have to use multiple consoles – one window to look at       organizations, the survey offers participants anonymity.
the network packets, another for server logs and still      It is virtually impossible to guarantee that participants
another for security alerts. When security analysts try     are answering questions truthfully. Thus, this survey
to understand the details of these packets within the       produces data that needs to be taken with a certain
larger context of surrounding network activities,           grain of salt. There are however a number of principles
overwhelming amount of information from different           that I used to apply to increase the general quality of
security devices reduce analysts’ productivity and          the data and to increase readers confidence in the
increase their already considerable cognitive load          results.
[Ref.2]. Additionally, these tools excel at filtering and
searching for details – but only if analysts know exactly
        Open availability of survey results. Raw survey               Methodology:
        result is open to the community, allowing any
        one to draw their own conclusions or take issue                The goal of the survey was to measure as
        with the findings.                                    accurately as possible how analysts build up contextual
                                                              information on network. While I recognize the inherent
        Transparency of process. The status of the
                                                              limitations on Web-based surveys, the goal of the
        project and related reports, tools are always
                                                              survey was to collect data that can be used to identify
        publicly available on the project website.
                                                              limitations of popular tools. The survey was created
                                                              with the principles that:
        Open participation and independence.
        Organizations that demonstrate a willingness
                                                                          The process should be transparent for all
        and ability to volunteer their time are welcome
                                                                          participants and the community at large.
        to participate. The project is purely voluntary
        and is entirely used for educational purposes.                    The questions should be formulated
                                                                          neutrally so as not to affect results
A total of valid 38 participants completed the survey
questionnaire. The participants have different roles                      All responses should be anonymous.
within their organizations, with a good representative
split between security vendors (47%), enterprise                          All raw survey results should be made
professionals (34%) and independent researcher                            available to the community.
(19%). The breakdown by size is as follows:
                                                              To allow respondents to candidly describe their
Figure 1: Number of Employees                                 organizations, no identifiable information was collected,
                                                              including organization names, URL and IP address.



                                                  Over 1000
                                                  500-1000
                                                  100-500
                                                  10-100
                                                  0-10


  0            20           40            60
       Results:                                                     log, firewall log, which varies with the
                                                                    organization computing infrastructure.

                                                            •       Collect relevant network packets that
                                                                    provide detailed information about
                                                                    user activities, including source IP
                                             Microsoft              address, destination IP address, and
       33%
                                             Technologies           protocol.
                                             Open source
                                                            •       Vulnerabilities that are used against
                                52%                                 the network.
                                             Both
                                                            •       Malicious activities’ geographical
           15%                                                      locations, this is particularly important
                                                                    to analysts when the system is being
                                                                    or has been comprised.




Figure 2: Technology Platforms                              Potential Causes for Inaccurate Results:

       Over half of the organizations facilitate with           The survey respondents are mostly from
       Microsoft technologies and about 30% deploys             security research and consultancy
       Open source technologies, the rest utilizes both         organizations. As a result, the surveyed
       platforms. Interestingly, over 90% security              organizations and individuals do not form a
       analysts use textual and tabular tools Tcpdump           complete random group.
       and Wireshark regardless what technology they
       facilitate. Some other notable tools are Angus,          The relatively small number of valid
       Microsoft network monitor, and commercial                response (38) makes statistical modeling
       applications [Ref.3].                                    and correlations difficult.

       When ask about what contextual information               Different understanding of what consider
       are necessary, participants mark the following           as “contextual information” could also
       areas as the starting point:                             influence the final result.

       •         Log files from deployed services such
                 as Web server, operating system event
Outcome                                                     This application provides both high level overview and
Base upon the survey results, a web application is          detail view within the same user interface by
developed to over the identified problems. It is chosen     categorizing them into different tabs.
because of the following reasons:
                                                            When presenting detail information, in order to reduce
        •        Most organizations have a website          analyst’s cognitive load, this application inherits the
                 which requires firewall or other           view from textual and tabular applications. It displays
                 security systems to grant access to the    all fine-grained log entries in a table with enhanced
                 HTTP protocol. Deploying a web             ability, they include:
                 application does not violate firewall
                 rules and organization policies.                   •       Highlight the selected row: analysts
                                                                            often lose attentions on what entries
        •        A web browser is shipped to most                           they spot on. Highlighting the row
                 modern operating system and most                           helps them remain focused.
                 users have experience with web
                 browser. Users will have a relatively              •       Improved searching and filtering: each
                 lower learning curve of using a web                        field can be searched and/or sorted, it
                 application than command line tools.                       allows analysts to filter irrelevant data
                                                                            and sort them in the way they desire.
        •        A web application provides a                               This is particularly useful when
                 standardized access to all the users,                      analysts know exactly what they are
                 this eases the process of transmitting                     looking for.
                 information such as network packets,
                 log file or report across different                •       Quick statistics: Next right to the
                 departments within the organizations.                      table, a list of (top 10) most daily
                                                                            visited IP address and a pie chart with
Due to limited time and technical constraint, current                       IP distribution are provided. Analysts
implementation of the application takes a scaled-down                       often want to know how many IP
approach by focusing on a web server log. The                               addresses have accessed their
underlying design principles and work flows are also                        networks periodically, showing it next
effective to other types of information such as system                      to the log entry table save analysts’
log, network packets.                                                       time on running commands or queries
                                                                            to calculate this statistics.
On one hand, security analysts desire very detailed,
technical information with capability to extract specific   Besides having access to the detailed information, the
information. On the other hand, they want a                 other view provides visualizations from the tabular data
comprehensive overview of this amount of information.       and some automated tasks. This view contains a
number of components that I will be introducing,                              Currently, the application
screen-shots for these components are in the coming                           automatically calculates hourly unique
section for you to reference.                                                 IP visits from the tabular data and
                                                                              populates these numbers to the form.
Visual builder, implements Google Chart API [Ref.5], is                       As analysts will want to automate
an improved version of traditional form based                                 different tasks base upon the contexts,
visualization generator. It offers users with high                            this simply serve as an example so
degrees of customizations to produce desirable                                analysts can extent and customize it in
visualizations. Currently, it supports various types of                       the way they want.
charts such as Line chart, Sparkline, Radar chart, 2D
Pie chart. Visual builder has the following advantages:      As discovered in the survey result, analysts also pay
                                                             particular attention to attacker’s geographical location.
        •       Highly customizable: analysts have           Therefore, this view integrates Google map and
                almost complete control of the chart to      populate all attackers’ IP addresses from the log file.
                be generated, they can select                This involves three technical questions:
                appropriate chart type and even be
                able to specify meta-properties like             1.   How to identify an attacker’s IP address? What
                title text, title color, background color,            are the criteria of marking an IP address as
                width, height and labels to be                        malicious?
                displayed on the chart.
                                                                      I wrote an RSS feed parser that parses through
        •       Easy to save and transmit generated                   the vulnerability feeds from the National
                visualization: because of the nature of               Vulnerability Database and stores into a local
                Google Chart API, all generated image                 database. Meanwhile, this application uses a
                are simply URLs that can be accessed                  signature file from Snort (an intrusion
                by whom know the URL. This becomes                    detection system) as the basis with slight
                useful when analysts want to share                    modifications to transform the signatures into
                current network status as they no                     the application. The application maintains
                longer need to manually generate the                  associations between signatures and
                image with their favorite tools and                   vulnerabilities. It starts with scanning the log
                send to other analysts.                               entries to detect whether each entry contains
                                                                      string in the signature, the IP address is
        •       Automatically translate the “quick                    considered as malicious when its associated log
                statistics” to the form: While the                    entry contains strings in the signature.
                builder is designed to be as flexible as
                possible, it will be convenient to               2.   How to effectively translate IP address into the
                automate some of the common tasks.                    geographical representations?
         The challenge is that Google map requires            whether the attacker come from a specific area or
         longitude and latitude to display a point on its     evenly distributed over the world.
         map, Google map however does not provide
         any native method on translating IP address          What vulnerabilities have been used against the
         into geographical location and there is very few     network? Are these attacks successful? Analysts
         free databases dedicated for IP to geographical      indicate their strong interest and importance of
         locations (longitude and latitude). This leads to    knowing this information during the survey. Knowing
         the initial implementation to be unreliable and      these help analysts understand the security, health of
         inaccurate due to the small size of IP database.     their network, and gather relevant information to
         With later implementation on a 3rd party web         compile status report. As mentioned previously, the
         service that actively collects IP address with       application maintains a mapping between the signature
         associated geographical location, it significantly   file and vulnerability to determine whether the activity
         improves the accuracy of retrieving IPs’             is malicious, the application displays the list of used
         geographical locations.                              vulnerabilities that are used against the network. This
                                                              list contains CVE (common vulnerabilities and
    3.   What is the appropriate number of points to          Exposures) number defined by the National Institute of
         display on the map?                                  Standards and Technology and technical details about
                                                              the vulnerability. Since other components such as
         Showing too many points on the map makes             visual builder, Google map for attacker IP are also
         the map unusable and everyone has his own            presented in this view, it is important to minimize the
         preference. For the time being, it only shows        amount of the information being showed in this view.
         the top 5 IP addresses that attack the network       Therefore, a user interface pattern called Accordion is
         most and automatically adjusts the zoom level        used. Essentially, it shows only the selected entry and
         according to the IP distributions. In the future,    collapse the rest of the entries in the list, which reduces
         I would love to allow users to enter their           the cognitive load of the analysts.
         desired number of points to be displayed over
         the map.                                             Future Work
                                                              Unfortunately, due to my scope, taking into account
Showing attacker’s geographical location provides a           time and technical limitations, there are many things
quick view of perceiving where the attackers physically       which can still be improved. I had planned to integrate
locate and get a sense of attacker location distribution,     real-world systems like Firewall, Intrusion Detection
analysts benefit from this information to quickly tell        System.
Figure 3: All log entries are presented in a tabular format, with enchanced
functions like searching, filtering and highlighting. Figures on the left shows quick
statistics like visited IP address and its distribution.
                                                                                      9




Figure 4: visual builder and mapping service to display IP’s geographical location,
visual builder allows analysts to produce very customizable visualizations by
automatically populating data from the source.
                                                                                    10




Figure 5: This is a generated visualization that shows the number of attacks over
time.
                                                                                     11




Figure 6: The accordiion view to show deteced vulnerabilities with CVE (Common
Vulnerabilities and Exposures) number, this view shows selected vulnerability with
its details per time, aims to reduce amount of the information presented to the
user.
                                                                                                           12




Acknowledgements                                       [2] Greg Conti, Security Data Visualization: Graphical
I would like to thank our Capstone advisors, Dave      Techniques for Network Analysis. Oct 2007, No Starch
Hendry, Batya Friedman and Barbara Endicott            Press.
Popovsky. Thank you to Jeremiah Grossman for           [3] Whitehat security, Website Security Statistics
providing useful statistical information.              Report, 7th edition.
                                                       <http://www.whitehatsec.com/home/resource/stats.ht
                                                       ml>
Citations
[1] Verizon Business RISK Team. The 2009 Data          [4] Raffael Marty. Applied Security Visualization, Aug
Breach Investigations Report. 15 Apr. 2009             2008, Addision Wesley.
<http://www.verizonbusiness.com/resources/security/r   [5] Google Chart API.
eports/2009_databreach_rp.pdf>.                        <http://code.google.com/apis/chart/>.
                                                       [6] National Vulnerability Database.
                                                       <http://nvd.nist.gov>.

				
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