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					Who will be the Winner of the Battle
between PDP, LCD and Projection?


      by Prof. Dr. Ir. Harm Tolner
      E-mail: h.tolner1@chello.nl
FPD Technology Overview
    by Harm Tolner
          Which Display Will Win?
                                             Bruce Berkhoff (LPL)
                                             • …We will swamp the PDPs ….
                                             • ….. 30-40 TFT’s will displace plasmas …
                                             • …. (plasmas) don’t have the brightness,
                                                they have burn in problems ……

                                             Kazuya Yamamoto, an analyst with UFJ
                                                Tsubasa Securities Co:
                                             • ….In the U.S. demand for plasma displays
                                                televisions is exceeding liquid crystal
                                                displays ….
Source: Drawing by Bonnie from “The Clock”   •   ….Fujitsu Hitachi had no choice but to
                                                build a new PDP plant, with rival
                                                companies accelerating production
                                     Set prices CES 2004


                   35000



                   30000



Set price in USD   25000                                    PDP




                   20000
                                         Design
                                         PDP

                   15000


                                            LCD
                   10000                                     DLP-LCoS-LCD
                                                             Projection


                    5000

                                                                  CRT Proj
                       0                     CPT

                           10   20     30         40   50   60       70      80
                                     Set 'Visible' Diagonal size
  PROJECTION – THE NEW WAVE ?
• Rear projection becomes new TV battleground,
  according to iSuppli……

• Major Taiwan Flat Panel Manufacturers focusing on
  LCOS TV Technology…….

• Lower-Priced Projection TV Outshines Plasma Hype…

• Thomson RCA/InFocus - 61-inch RPTV that is only 6.85
  inches deep

• TV makers such as Philips Electronics and Sony Corp.
  (SNE) have dabbled in LCoS chips for their own TVs……

• Intel - Unveiled its LCOS technology for RPTVs….and
  left….
      Samsung developed high-definition PDP televisions of 80-inch and 102-inch diagonal size
Resolution of 1,920×1,080 pixels, a brightness of 1,000-candela-per-square-meter and a contrast ratio of > 2,000:1
         Luminance lifetime of PDP




•   60,000 hours in video mode


•   Guaranteed by 3 companies
                                                    Luminance Degradation with Life


                       450
                                                                         PDP
                                                                         3rd Generation
                       400
Luminance ( cd/m^2 )




                       350
                                                                   PDP
                                                                   2nd Generation

                       300

                                 LCD
                                 37 inch Diagonal
                       250




                       200
                             0      5,000     10,000     15,000      20,000       25,000   30,000   35,000   40,000
                                                             Operation Time ( Hours )


Luminance maintenance of 50-inch PDP (Pioneer, SID04),compared with a 37-inch
LCD (Sharp)
          Burn-in images on a 37-LCD-TV
   displaying
                  0H     2000H 5000H                             7000H (Mura)
   image
                                               Dark gray




                                                 Darker screen
                                                                   Much darker areas near
                                                                   four corners
                                                                   seven dark lines(14-15
                                               Full white          CCFL lamps)


Conditions:
• peak luminance 400 cd/m2, 140 W, 23C
• no power saving, 24 hours, 7 days per week
• switched 168 times every week
                    Power Consumption
LCD makers compare LCD and PDP by the value of
maximum power consumption.
Maximum power consumption is a measure for power-line safety (line
capability /safety breaker), but it is not a measure of actual (effective) power
consumption.
The actual power consumption however is determined by the “annual power
consumption” ,as defined in Japan.
This measure should be applied to compare the power consumption of displays.
Annual power consumption =
  ((Operating power) - (Save power by power saving mode) x 1/4) x 1642.5
+ (Stand-by power) x 7117.5
   The average power consumption for TV use is calculated as follows;
    Operating power = (White display power + Black display power) x 1/2
    Stand-by power = (Power at main switch off + Power at remote switch off) x 1/2
    Save power by power saving mode = Operating power - Power at saving mode)
Relation between screen area and power consumption
                           600
Annual power consumption


                           550
                           500
                           450
     (kW・hour/year)




                           400
                           350                                        3 Gen Pioneer
                           300                                        4 Gen Pioneer
                                                  Lower than LCD-TV
                           250
                           200
                                                                      LCD
                           150
                                            Same screen size
                           100
                            50
                             0
                             0 15 22 30 34    43    50(diagonal2)
                                        Screen Area
      LCD-TV Improvement of Image Defects requires
        higher power consumption and higher cost

Large Screen : Same size LCD-TV will not be lower power consumption than PDP TV.
High Image Quality
  Improvement of Image retention requires:
        Black screen insert     = Decrease of luminance
         → Increase of back light number → Increase of power consumption
         → Increase of lamp luminance      → Shorter lamp lifetime
        Back light blinking     = Decrease of luminance
         → Increase of lamp luminance      → Shorter lamp lifetime or higher cost (LED)
  Increase of peak luminance:
         (Peak luminance of TV picture does not reach the value of catalogue
        spec.)
         Increase of lamp luminance     → Increase of power consumption
                                           → Shorter lamp lifetime
  Improve luminance uniformity:
        (low luminance on outer screen area)
        Increase of back light number   → Increase of power consumption & Cost up
        Improvement by optical diffuser → Cost up
  Improvement of luminous efficacy of PDP
                                      (panel power reduction)
10                                                                           1000
                                                                                       L (experiment)
  5                                                                           500
                                                                                       L (product)
  2                                                                           200      η(experiment)
  1                                                                           100      η(product)
  0.5                                                                          50

  0.2                                                                          20
  0.1
  1985            1980       1985       1990    1995       2000    2005    2010年    This figure shows
             対向型                  Surface discharge                                 that luminous
Technology




             Two-electrode type     Three-electrode type                            efficacy will
                 Front phosphor layer      Reflective phosphor layer                increase
                       He-Xe                    Ne-Xe                               continuously in
             Low Xe content (1%)             Xe (5%)              High Xe (>10%)    the near future.
 LCD is Not a high quality display for movies at home !


When does LCD seem to be beautiful?
• In brightly illuminated show rooms
• A bright environment hides the gradation in a dark picture.
• Appealing thanks to low ambient light reflectivity.

Home use:
• A picture with perfect black is important for watching movies
• Customers in Japan are not satisfied when they purchase an LCD-TV and
watch movies at home.
• The LCD black surface seems bluish and a human face seems pale-white
• PDP has perfect black at home
                                             Contrast of an LCD-TV
                    Dark room contrast ratio (horizontal direction)                            Bright room (at 100 lx) contrast ratio (horizontal
                                                                                                                 direction )
                  1200                                                                       500
                                                                                             450
                  1000                                                                       400
 Contrast ratio




                                                                                             350




                                                                            Contrast ratio
                  800
                                                                                             300
                  600                                                                        250
                                                                                             200
                  400                                                                        150
                                                                                             100
                  200
                                               LCD                                           50                      LCD       PDP
                                               PDP
                   0                                                                          0
                       -80-70-60-50-40-30-20-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80                      -80-70-60-50-40-30-20-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
                                       Viewing Angle(deg.)                                                     Viewing Angle(deg.)
 For LCD, in dark environment black image seems                                For LCD, in bright environment black image seems
 whitish and from oblique direction the effect                                 whitish from oblique direction.
 becomes large.

The quality of the image of PDP’s does not change with viewing angle.
The quality of an LCD changes with viewing angle.
Such a display is not good for large area TV in a living-room!
Response time of LCD versus PDP
                         LCD                PDP

                      Company A          Company P
                       ( 30-in.)           (43-in)


 Small change
 of luminance         40~50ms
                                            8ms
                                           (scene
                        5~16ms
 High change of                         independent)
   luminance      (but 40ms including
                    after response )
  New generation PDP address driver modules
                  (address power reduction)




           COM (Chip On Metal)            TCP (Tape Carrier Package)
               2nd generation                   4th generation
New driver IC’s for PDP with 192 outputs: $2 per IC. The total cost of
     data driver ICs for a High Definition PDP is now only $ 60
            Gen 7 Magic ?
• So what magic will result from even larger
  substrates in Gen 7 ????
• New PDP factories already uses that
  substrate size (180 x 230 cm)! Two years
  ahead of LCD!
• LCD Materials cost is dominant and this
  will not be reduced by Gen 7 lines !
Cost Roadmap 42-inch HDTV PDP-TV and LCD-TV
                 (relative values)
                    Result: 8 million PDP panels in 2007
        3.2
        3.0
        2.8
        2.6
 COST




        2.4
        2.2               LCD-TV
        2.0
        1.8
        1.6
        1.4
        1.2
        1.0
        0.8   PDP TV
        0.6
        0.4
        0.2
          0
              ’02   ’03    ’04   ’05   ’06   ’07   ’08   ’09   ’10 Year

(LCD curve adapted to include
                                                               Source: JEITA
the effect of 7G-LCD lines)
Summary

      PDP will be the Winner
           of the 42-inch Battle
                  Between
               PDP and LCD

,from any point of view: Luminance life
                         Power consumption
                         Image quality
                         Production cost
                                 Acknowledgement
                                        &
                                    Disclaimer
•   Many people have contributed to this comparison of PDP with LCD
•   I thank especially Dr Uchidoi of Pioneer for providing data from Pioneer and Larry
    Weber for providing a critical analysis of PDP versus LCD
•   Adaptation of the original material has been done by Harm Tolner and the compilation
    presented here is the copyright of Harm Tolner, and can only be further used by
    referring to this publication.
•   Any conclusions from the data in this report is at the sole responsibility of the reader.
•   Harm Tolner, nor any one else mentioned in this report, can be held liable for the
    correctness or completeness of the information given in this report.
•   Harm Tolner invites readers to send additional data for further comparison of PDP and
    LCD
•   Eindhoven, 3 February 2005

				
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