Organic vs. No-Till Movements

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					Organic vs. No-Till Movements




     So…what exactly are they?
                   Organic Farming:

•Farming method implementing natural methods
to feed soil and reduce pests
• Ideally producing good crop yields with minimal
impact on the environment and on ecological
factors
•Use of synthetically-produced fertilizers,
pesticides, growth hormones and growth
regulators is prohibited
•Biological, mechanical and cultural management
techniques
•Government approved certifiers inspect farms
and handling companies
            No-Till Farming:
• a.k.a. conservation tillage or zero tillage; once called chemical
  farming
• growing crops from year to year without disturbing the soil
  through tillage; the soil is left intact and crop residue is left on
  the field
• Helps to retain carbon in soil
• Regular tillage agitates the soil in various ways, usually with
  tractor-drawn implements
    • Tilling is used to remove weeds, mix in fertilizers, create furrows for
      irrigation and for seeding
    • Leads to unfavorable effects
        •   Soil compaction
        •   Loss of organic matter
        •   Degradation of soil aggregates
        •   Death or disruption of soil microbes, arthropods, and earthworms
        •   Soil Erosion – topsoil is blown away
                         History
                       The Organic Movement

• Rudolf Steiner
   – Biodynamics
• Sir Albert Howard (1873 – 1937)
   – Organic farming pioneer
• Lady Eve Balfour
   – “The Living Soil”
• Walter Northbourne
   – Term: “Organic Farming”
• Jerome Rodale – 1942
   – Popularized organic farming in U.S.A.
• Rachel Carson
   – “Silent Spring”
                       History
                    The No-Till Movement
• Indigenous cultures              • International and
   – Ancient Egyptians and Incas      national development
• Great Plains (1930s)                of techniques
   – Dust Bowl!                        - USA, Latin America,
• Edward Faulkner (1940s)              Africa, Australia, New
   – Plowman’s Folly                   Zealand, Asia, Europe
• Paraquat (UK - 1955)
   – Pesticide

        Ravages of the Dust
        Bowl on a Ranch in
       Texas in the 1930s >>
                  Methods
           Organic                           No-Till
         Natural Pesticides                  Cover crops

 Weed Control – Hoeing/Mulching          Pest Management

           Intercropping                   Crop Rotations

           Manual Labor                  Soil Management

             Mulching                        Equipment

          Crop Rotations               Fertilization and Liming

            Cover Crops                   Variety Selection

Balanced Host-Predator Relationships   Residue Management

Livestock Raised and Fed Organically     Climate Evaluation
Bibliography

*Organic farming label: http://www.organic-europe.net/europe_eu/default.asp
*John Deere no-till tractor: http://ag-america.org/prod02.htm
*history of organic farming: http://www.westonaprice.org/farming/history-organic-
farming.html
*Silent spring pic:
https://fifthseasongardening.com/catalog/index.php?cPath=648_649
*no-till history: http://www.rolf-derpsch.com/notill.htm
*Texas dust bowl: http://www.legendsofamerica.com/WE-Slang8.html
*Organic Farming definition:
http://www.worldhungeryear.org/fslc/faqs2/ria_609.asp?section=9&click=9
*No-till Definition: http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/notill.htm
*Organic Tomatoes: http://organicday.blogspot.com/
*Steps Toward a Successful Transition to No-Till
*Better Soils with the No-Till System
*Organic Farming Methods: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/06-
103.htm
Effects on Productivity and Environmental Issues

ORGANIC FARMING
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY
   Similar yields to
    conventional farming
   Produce is often of better
    quality
   In drought conditions,
    organic crops can have
    higher yields than
    conventional farming
   Better soil conditions lead
    to healthier crops
   Less time consuming,
    more acres can be tended
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS - SOILS
                     More organic matter in soil
                     Increased biodiversity,
                      above and below surface
                     Reduced soil erosion
                     Thicker topsoil
                     Reduced nutrient leaching
                     Greater water retention
                     Helps to build soils,
                      instead of degrading them
                     However, organic farming
                      still involves tillage
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ON
WATER RESOURCES
   Decreased runoff
    reduces pollutants in
    rivers and oceans
   Nitrate pollution in
    groundwater reduced
   No chemical treatment
    means less nutrient
    runoff
       Decreases algal blooms
       Reduction in “dead
        zones”
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
CLIMATE CHANGE
   Organic fields retain
    carbon, reducing carbon
    dioxide in the
    atmosphere
   Organically grown crops
    require less fossil fuel
    energy to produce,
    reducing carbon
    emissions
   http://amethyst.epa.gov/revatoolkit/images/pic10380.jpg
   http://www.nitrate.com/potting_soil.jpg
   http://www.hcrs.calpoly.edu/images/students/departmentFacilities/organic-farm-collage.jpg
   http://www.actnow.com.au/files/115/earth.jpg
No-Till Movement
NO-TILL

   A system for planting crops without plowing,
    using herbicides to control weeds and resulting
    in reduced soil erosion and the preservation of
    soil nutrients.
NO-TILL EQUIPMENT
   No plows or tillage equipment is needed for
    true No-till.
   No-till Drills are used to plant seed
   The drill is specialty planter that efficiently cuts
    through residue, opens the seed bed, seeds,
    and closes the trough.
NO-TILL EFFECTS

 Production Benefits and Risks
 Environmental Benefits and Risks
PRODUCTION BENEFITS

 Increased Soil Organic Matter
 Increased Water Capacity

 Increased Night Crawler Population

 Improved Soil Structure

 Reduced Field Time
PRODUCTION RISKS

 Cooler and Wetter Planting Soils
 Increase In Perennial Weeds

 Increase In Chemical Costs

 Potential For Disease Increase

 Some Crops Do Not Tolerate Competition
ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS

 Decreased Erosion Potential
 Increased Carbon Sink

 Higher Biodiversity Level
ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS

 Increased Use of Pesticides and Herbicides
 Disease Bed Potential
   http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/no-till
   http://www.montana.edu/wwwpb/ag/baudr136.html
   http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jul07/soil0707.htm
   http://www.greatplainsmfg.com/images/NoTillImages/notill.
    jpg
   http://www.gpa.notill.org/images/nt_corn.jpg
   http://caseih.com/files/tbl_s54PageItems%5CImage358%5
    C369%5CSDX40-008-04.jpg
   Betters Soils with the No-Till System
   Steps Toward a Successful Transition to No-Till
   A Conservation Catalog

				
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