Instructional Design - Download as PowerPoint by HC120308102823


Last Week: Cognitivism and
Why Lecture?

   1.
   2.
   3.
   4.
   5.

   1. To Enthuse Students

   1. To Enthuse Students
       How? Put yourself in their shoes,
       Consider, if you’ve taught the topic for years...
       Consider, if new to you to do...

   2. To give students the info they need

   2. To give students the info they need
       How? Handouts can give 10 times more material, but
        must mix info with other materials (Make sure handout
        has lots of free space)

   3. To cover the syllabus

   3. To cover the syllabus
       How? In a meaningfully manner. Give the students time
        to reflect and revise. So stop teaching for the last 3
        weeks and get students to reflect and revise.

   4. Give the student group a sense of

   4. Give the student group a sense of
       How? Group work is vital

   5. Because it’s cost-effective - large

   5. Because it’s cost-effective - large
       How? Instead of throwing out questions to students (as
        some may be intimidated) ask student to spend next 3
        minutes writing down 3 most important ideas we’ve
        been talking about, and spend a minute comparing
        you’ve with your neighbour…look for 5 volunteers.
       Rather than getting student to asks questions; at end of
        class collect on slips of paper and answer at start of
        next class or on-line on discussion board.

   6. To help map curriculum

   6. To help map curriculum
       How? Signpost the course. Show the students the
        syllabus, included learning outcomes. Number the
        topics instead of bullet pointing them

   7. To see how the students are doing

   7. To see how the students are doing
       How? Look at their faces
       How? Handout your slides, with first slide having
        questions about previous lecture - spend 5 minutes of
        lecture getting student to answer.

   8. To change student beliefs

   8. To change student beliefs
       How? By sharing your experience + Expert views +
        Existing Theories + Other students ideas.
       Make the student’s learning active, when students
        apply their ideas, it becomes their knowledge.

   9. To help students learn

   9. To help students learn
       How? For a few minutes ask the students to reflect on
        HOW they are learning. Share with others their
        approaches, their triumphs and disasters.
       How? Stop class for a few minutes and discuss their
        note-making techniques.
       How? Ask student to write down 3 things they don’t yet
        know about a topic and want to learn…amalgamate
        lists and hand to lecturer

   10. To help students figure out what the
    lecturer is going to ask in the exam

   10. To help students figure out what the
    lecturer is going to ask in the exam
       How? Students need to be more strategic about
        assessment, it is an intelligent response to their
        situation. But you just need to help them figure out your
        culture of assessment, not every little facet of it.
What can lecturers do?
   Get a notebook per course.
   Include attendance sheets, handouts, slides,
   After each lecture
       Note down errors in slides and handouts
       Write down key points of lecture
       Tricky issues
       Good examples
What can lecturers do?
   Include questions after each lecture

       What did I do best?
       What should I avoid?
       What surprised me?
       What were the good student questions?
       What couldn’t the students answer?
Instructional Design
Instructional Design
   Maximise the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of
    instruction and other learning experiences.
   The process consists of determining the current
    state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal
    of instruction, and creating some "intervention" to
    assist in the transition.
   The outcome of this instruction may be directly
    observable and scientifically measured or
    completely hidden and assumed.
Instructional Design
   We can divide models of instructional design
    broadly into two categories
       MARCO: Models which concern themselves with
        the design and planning of an entire module or
       MICRO: Models which concern themselves with
        the design and planning of an individual lecture or
        teaching session
Instructional Design
Models we’ve seen previously
Gagné’s Nine Events of
Gagné’s Nine Events of
1.   Gain attention - Curiosity motivates students to learn.
2.   Inform learners of objectives - These objectives should form the basis for
3.   Stimulate recall of prior learning - Associating new information with prior
     knowledge can facilitate the learning process.
4.   Present the content - This event of instruction is where the new content is
     actually presented to the learner.
5.   Provide “learning guidance” - use of examples, non-examples, case studies,
     graphical representations, mnemonics, and analogies.
6.   Elicit performance (practice) - Eliciting performance provides an opportunity
     for learners to confirm their correct understanding, and the repetition further
     increases the likelihood of retention.
7.   Provide feedback - guidance and answers provided at this stage are called
     formative feedback.
8.   Assess performance - take a final assessment.
9.   Enhance retention and transfer to the job - Effective education will have a
     "performance" focus.
Reigeluth’s Elaboration Theory
Reigeluth’s Elaboration Theory
 1.   Organizing Course Structure: Single organisation for complete course
 2.   Simple to complex: start with simplest ideas, in the first lesson, and then
      add elaborations in subsequent lessons.
 3.   Within-lesson sequence: general to detailed, simple to complex, abstract
      to concrete.
 4.   Summarizers: content reviews presented in rule-example-practice format
 5.   Synthesizers: Presentation devices that help the learner integrate content
      elements into a meaningful whole and assimilate them into prior knowledge,
      e.g. a concept hierarchy, a procedural flowchart or decision table, or a
      cause-effect model .
 6.   Analogies: relate the content to learners' prior knowledge, use multiple
      analogies, especially with a highly divergent group of learners.
 7.   Cognitive strategies: variety of cues - pictures, diagrams, mnemonics, etc.
      - can trigger cognitive strategies needed for processing of material.
 8.   Learner control: Learners are encouraged to exercise control over both
      content and instructional strategy. Clear labelling and separation of strategy
      components facilitates effective learner control of those components.
Instructional Design
   The Classic Macro Model:
         Bloom’s Taxonomy
Benjamin S. Bloom
   Born Feb 21, 1913
   Died Sept 13, 1999
   Born in Lansford,
   Educational
   Editor of “Taxonomy of
    Educational Objectives,
    Handbook 1: Cognitive
Bloom’s Taxonomy
   In the 1950s Bloom helped
    developed a taxonomy of cognitive
    objectives in “Taxonomy of
    Educational Objectives, Handbook
    1: Cognitive Domain”
   Means of expressing qualitatively
    different kinds of thinking
   Been adapted for classroom use as
    a planning tool and continues to be
    one of the most universally applied
   Provides a way to organise thinking
    skills into six levels, from the most
    basic to the more complex levels of
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Bloom’s Taxonomy
   •Evaluation: compare and discriminate between ideas, assess value of
   theories, presentations make choices based on reasoned argument,
   verify value of evidence, recognize subjectivity
   •Synthesis: use old ideas to create new ones, generalize from given
   facts, relate knowledge from several areas, predict, draw conclusions
   •Analysis: seeing patterns, organization of parts, recognition of
   hidden meanings, identification of components
   •Application: use information use methods, concepts, theories in new
   situations, solve problems using required skills or knowledge
   •Comprehension: understanding information,grasp meaning, translate
   knowledge into new context
   •Knowledge: observation and recall of information,knowledge of
   dates, events, places knowledge of major ideas
Bloom’s Taxonomy
   •Evaluation: appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend
   estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value
   •Synthesis: arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create,
   design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare
   •Analysis: analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast,
   criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine
   •Application: apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ,
   illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use
   •Comprehension: classify, describe, discuss, explain, express,
   identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review
   •Knowledge: arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name,
   order, recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce state
Learning Outcomes
   Example Exam Paper 1

   Example Exam Paper 2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised
   In the 1990s Lorin
    Anderson, a former student
    of Bloom, led a new
    assembly which met for the
    purpose of updating the
    taxonomy, hoping to add
    relevance for 21st century
    students and teachers
   Published in 2001, the
    revision includes several
    minor and major changes.
   The revised version of the
    taxonomy is intended for a
    much broader audience.
Original Terms      New Terms

   Evaluation        •Creating
   Synthesis         •Evaluating
   Analysis          •Analysing
   Application       •Applying
   Comprehension
   Knowledge
Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised
       Creating: Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing
        things. Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing.

       Evaluating: Justifying a decision or course of action. Checking,
        hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging

       Analysing: Breaking information into parts to explore
        understandings and relationships. Comparing, organising,
        deconstructing, interrogating, finding

       Applying: Using information in another familiar situation.
        Implementing, carrying out, using, executing

       Understanding: Explaining ideas or concepts. Interpreting,
        summarising, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining

       Remembering: Recalling information. Recognising, listing,
        describing, retrieving, naming, finding
Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised
  Creating      Green Hat, Construction Key, SCAMPER, Ridiculous
                Key, Combination Key, Invention Key

                Brick Wall Key, Decision Making Matrix, PMI,
 Evaluating     Prioritising.

  Analysing     Yellow Hat, Black Hat, Venn Diagram, Commonality
                Key, Picture Key, Y Chart, Combination Key.

                Blue Hat, Brainstorming, Different uses Key, Reverse
  Applying      Listing Key, Flow Chart.

                Graphic Organisers, Variations Key, Reverse Listing,
Understanding   PMI, Webs (Inspiration).

Remembering     White Hat, Alphabet Key, Graphic Organisers,
                Acrostic, Listing, Brainstorming, Question Key.
Instructional Design
      Other Macro Models
   The ADDIE model is used by instructional designers
    and training developers. It is composed of five
       Analysis,
       Design,
       Development,
       Implementation, and
       Evaluation
   Which represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for
    building effective training and performance support
    tools. This model attempts to save time and money
    by catching problems while they are still easy to fix.
ADDIE Model :
A = Analysis
   In analysis stage of ID process, want to find
       Who are the learners or audience
           Audience analysis
       What is the goal or intended outcome
           Goal analysis
ADDIE Model :
D = Design
   Content of the course
       Subject matter analysis

   Steps of instruction
       Lesson planning-writing objectives

   Type of media or presentation mode
       Media selection
ADDIE Model :
D = Development
   Development of instruction
       Generate lesson plans (different from lesson
        planning) and lesson materials.
       Complete all media & materials for instruction,
        and supporting documents.
       End result is a course or workshop ready for
ADDIE Model :
I = Implementation
   The delivery of the instruction.
       Purpose is effective & efficient delivery of
       Promote students’ understanding of material &
        objectives, and ensure transfer of knowledge.
ADDIE Model :
E = Evaluation
   Two related evaluations going on
    simultaneously in most ID situations.

       Formative Evaluation
       Summative Evaluation
The elusive origins of the
   Remarkably it appears that the ADDIE model
    wasn’t specifically developed by any single
    author but rather to have evolved
   informally through oral tradition.
   The ADDIE Model is merely a colloquial term
    used to describe a systematic approach to
    instructional development.
ASSURE model
   Analyze learners’ characteristics, competencies, and learning
   State objectives for what your lesson should accomplish (ABCD
   Select, modify, and design methods, media, and materials
   Utilize methods, media and materials—implement the lesson
   Require learner participation in lesson
   Evaluate learner outcomes with objectives and revise as

   From “Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning” by
    Robert Heinich, Michael Molenda, James D. Russell, Sharon E.
The ABCD Format
   Audience: The audience is the group of individuals who are targeted for instruction. While
    at first this seems straight forward, many times employees will ask “will I get anything out of
    this training?” or “should I attend this training?” or “who is supposed to go to this training?”
    Without a clear-cut audience in mind, it is difficult to pinpoint exactly who gains from the
    training and who would be better served in a different class.
   Behaviour: The behaviour element of the objective indicates the desired outcome of the
    particular learning event. The behaviour will be stated in the following form “will be able to
    detail properly” or “will be able to discuss the mechanism of action (MOA) with the doctor.”
    The behaviour is what you want the person to be able to do as a result of the training. It is
    important to clarify the behaviour because training programs can get off track when the
    desired outcome of the training activity is not clearly defined.
   Condition: The term “condition” describes circumstances under which the behaviour
    should occur. An example would be “when calling on a doctor,” The condition describes a
    trigger for the desired behaviour.
   Degree: The term “degree” represents how well the employee must perform to be
    considered acceptable. The degree of the objective is the measurable component.
    Measures can be expressed as level of productivity, quantity, quality, time, internal or
    external customer requirements, or other criteria gained from actual or anticipated work

   From “Instructional Technology - A Systematic Approach to Education” by Frederick
    G. Knirk, Kent L. Gustafson
Dick and Carey Model
   The model was originally published in 1978
    by Walter Dick and Lou Carey in their book
    entitled “The Systematic Design of
   It champions a systems view of instruction as
    opposed to viewing instruction as a sum of
    isolated parts. The model addresses
    instruction as an entire system, focusing on
    the interrelationship between context,
    content, learning and instruction.
      Dick and Carey Model


                                                                             Develop       Design and
Assess Need                       Write        Develop       Develop
                                                                            And Select      Conduct
 to Identify                   Performance   Assessment    Instructional
                                                                           Instructional   Formative
   Goal(s)                      Objectives   Instruments     Strategy        Materials     Evaluation

               Learners and                                                                  Design and
                 Contexts                                                                     Conduct
ICARE model
   Based on the Dick and Carey Model and
    pioneered by San Diego State University in
    1997, the model has found a place in the
    higher education sector.
ICARE model
   Introduce learners to what is to be learned
   Content of lesson is presented to learner
    involving active participation
   Apply new knowledge and skills with practical
   Reflect on what has been learned
   Extend learning of lesson by providing
    alternative resources
ICARE model
Tripp and Bichelmeyer
   Design that occurs in a rapid prototyping
    environment, when prototyping is specifically
    used as a method for instructional design.
   The analysis of needs and content depends
    in part upon the knowledge that is gained by
    actually building and using a prototype
    instructional system.
Tripp and Bichelmeyer
   Tripp,Steven, Bichelmeyer,Barbara, Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional
    design strategy, Educational Technology Research and Development, 38, 1,
    3/18/1990, Pages 31-44
Tripp and Bichelmeyer
   Diagram needs additions
Other Macro Models
   There are many other macro models of
    instructional design, we won’t go into them,
    but I’ve included a few pictures for your
    viewing pleasure.
Hannafin & Peck Model
Knirk & Gustafson Model
Jerrold Kemp Model
Gerlach-Ely Model
Ausubel’s Assimilation Theory
Instructional Design
        More in the Micro
Component Display Theory
   Component Display Theory (CDT) classifies learning along two
       content
           facts, concepts, procedures, and principles
       performance
           remembering, using, generalities

   The theory specifies that instruction is more effective to the extent that it
    contains all necessary primary and secondary forms. Thus, a complete
    lesson would consist of objective followed by some combination of
    rules, examples, recall, practice, feedback, helps and mnemonics
    appropriate to the subject matter and learning task. Indeed, the theory
    suggests that for a given objective and learner, there is a unique
    combination of presentation forms that results in the most effective
    learning experience.
Component Display Theory
Component Display Theory
Active Learning
   an umbrella term that refers to several
    models of instruction that focus the
    responsibility of learning on learners.
       Think-Pair-Share
       The Pause Procedure
       Fact Rounding
       Network Phasing
       Learning Cell
       Active Writing
       Team Quizzes
Active Learning
   Think-Pair-Share
       learners take a short amount of time (e.g. one minute) to
        ponder the previous lesson,
       Then they discuss it with one or more of their peers,
       finally to share it with the class as part of a formal
   It is during this formal discussion that the instructor
    should clarify misconceptions. However students
    need a background in the subject matter to
    converse in a meaningful way. Therefore a "think
    pair share" exercise is useful in situations where
    learners can identify and relate what they already
    know to others.
Active Learning
   The Pause Procedure
   We know that even the most motivated student's
    concentration declines after 10-15 minutes.
    Teaching often requires students to play passive
    roles and assume all students need the same
    information at the same pace. By using three two-
    minute pauses during the lecture (about every 13 to
    18 minutes), the students are given the chance to
    clarify, assimilate, and retain the information
    presented during the prior mini-class. The pause
    procedure can be used as a vehicle to carry into the
    traditional class a variety of active and collaborative
    learning structures.
Active Learning
   The Pause Procedure
   Examples of things do to during the 'pause' include;
       Ask students to turn to their neighbour and summarize the main ideas the
        instructor has just presented (e.g., List three major points in the last lecture
        and one point you're confused on).
       Ask students to read over their notes of the materials covered today and put
        a question mark beside anything they want either clarification on or more
        details on.
       Ask students to take out a blank sheet of paper, pose a question (either
        specific or open-ended), and give them one (or perhaps two - but not many
        more) minute(s) to respond. Some sample questions include: "What are the
        countries in Europe?", "What are 'Human Rights'?", "What is the different
        between adverbs and adjectives?" and so on (“one minute paper”).
       Ask students "What was the 'muddiest point' in today's class?" or, perhaps,
        you might be more specific, asking, for example: "What (if anything) do you
        find unclear about the lesson?" listing topics.
       Ask students to report their reactions to some facet of the course material -
        i.e., to provide an emotional or evaluative response to the material.
Active Learning
   Fact Rounding
   The Fact rounding technique works as
    follows, towards the end of a lesson the
    students are asked to recall one fact from the
    material covered. Another student should not
    repeat a fact already mentioned and the
    activity should continue until all the lesson
    material has been covered.
Active Learning
   Network Phasing
       The activity of Phasing starts off with three groups in its first Phase. These
        groups will each be assigned a particular section of a larger problem. All
        groups are then given a specific amount of time to work on either fact finding
        or a solution or both. The time frame most suitable for Phasing is two hours
        but the approach taken can vary depending on the needs of the particular
        problem. After a given period of time the group elect a leader to present their
        findings. From this short presentation the students will learn about the
        different sections of the larger problem.
       Phase 2 begins with the original groups being split in two halves and those
        halves coming to form two new groups. This formation ensures that all
        students get exposure to all areas of the larger problem. The two new
        groups will have a new solution or facts to find. Phase 2 develops in the
        same way as Phase 1 and the elected leader of each group present the
       Phase 3 takes the form of a group discussion bringing the findings of Phase
        2 together to form the solution to the larger problem. This discussion should
        be lead by the teacher to ensure the student’s findings are correct and to
        give suggested improvements.
Active Learning
   Learning Cell
   A learning cell is a process of learning where two students
    alternate asking and answering questions on commonly read
    materials. To prepare for the assignment, the students will read
    the assignment and write down questions that they have about
    the reading. At the next class meeting, the teacher will randomly
    put the students in pairs. The process begins by designating one
    student from each group to begin by asking one of their
    questions to the other. Once the two students discuss the
    question. The other student will ask a question and they will
    alternate accordingly. During this time, the teacher is going
    around the class from group to group giving feedback and
    answering questions. This system is also referred to as a
    “student dyad” (or pair).
Active Learning
   Active Writing
   The Active Writing technique is used as follows;
       at the end of the lesson students are asked to submit
        questions based on the material covered.
       These questions are used as an introduction to the next
   The purpose of this activity is to ensure that the
    students will have their questions answered and to
    reflect on the material. This activity is different to the
    other because it is spreads across two separate
    lessons. This technique can also be used to gauge
    students’ understanding of a subject based on the
    questions they submit.
Active Learning
   Team Quizzes
   The team quizzes activity divides the class into two
    groups (Group A and Group B). The groups are
    given an amount of time to generate questions on
    the material covered. The teacher aims Group A’s
    questions to Group B and visa versa. If the group
    give the correct answer a point is awarded,
    otherwise the other group must give the answer.
    The purpose of this approach is to promote the
    generation of well thought out questions and
Six Thinking Hats
Six Hats Instructional Model
BLUE:     Introduction and overview of topic

WHITE:    Facts and Figures about the Topic

YELLOW:   Positive outcomes of Topic

BLACK:    Negative outcomes of Topic

GREEN:    Interesting outcomes of Topic

RED:      Personal, emotional and people-oriented aspects of
WHITE:    Review of new facts uncovered

BLUE:     Summary and finish up
Other Micro Techniques
   Learning by teaching
   Problem-based learning
   Project-based learning
   Inquiry-based learning
   Action learning
   Progressive inquiry
   Service-learning
Put these in order of importance on student
Put these in order of importance on student
                          Lecturer influence
                          Student influence
Put these in order of importance on student

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