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The 18th Dynasty Kings (DOC)


									Once Amenhotep I, who reigned 1551-1524 BC, had full control over his
administration—he was co-regent for five years—he began to extend Egypt's
boundaries in Nubia and Palestine. A major builder at Karnak, Amenhotep, unlike his
predecessors, separated his tomb from his mortuary temple; he began the custom of
hiding his final resting place, then he continued the advances of the new Imperial
Age and emphasized the preeminence of the god Amon. His tomb was the first in the
Valley of the Kings. Thutmose II, his son by a minor wife, succeeded him, marrying
the royal princess Hatshepsut to strengthen his claim to the throne. He maintained the
accomplishments of his predecessors. When he died in 1504 BC, his heir, Thutmose
III, was still a child, and so Hatshepsut governed as a regent. Within a year, she had
herself crowned pharaoh, and then mother and son ruled jointly. When Thutmose III
achieved sole rule upon Hatshepsut's death in 1483 BC, he reconquered Syria and
Palestine, which had broken away under joint rule, and then continued to expand his
empire. His annals in the temple at Karnak chronicle many of his campaigns. Nearly
20 years after Hatshepsut's death, he ordered the obliteration of her name and images.
Amenhotep II, who reigned 1453-1419 BC, and Thutmose IV tried to maintain the
Asian conquests in the face of growing threats from the Mitanni and Hittite states, but
.they found it necessary to use negotiations as well as force

Amenhotep III ruled peacefully for nearly four decades, 1386-1349 BC, and art and
architecture flourished during his reign. He maintained the balance of power among
Egypt's neighbors by diplomacy. His son and successor, Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV),
was a religious reformer who fought the power of the Amon priesthood. Akhenaton
abandoned Thebes for a new capital, Akhetaton (see Tall al ‘Amarana , which was
built in honor of Aton, the disk of the sun on which his monotheistic religion
centered. The religious revolution was abandoned toward the end of his reign,
however, and his son-in-law, Tutankhamen, returned the capital to Thebes.
Tutankhamen is known today chiefly for his richly furnished tomb, which was found
nearly intact in the Valley of the Kings by the British archaeologists Howard Carter
and Lord Carnarvon in 1922. The 18th Dynasty ended with Horemheb, who reigned
.1321-1293 BC

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