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  (Paper presented at the Seminar on Colombia, organized at Notre Dame University,
                               March 26 and 27, 2001)


                                                              Gustavo Gallón-Giraldo
                                                 Colombian Commission of Jurists (CCJ)


Colombia, like many other countries in the world, is a beautiful nation with honest,
hard-working people and a wealth of natural resources. Yet at the same time,
Colombia, unlike many other countries, has been tormented by a deep-rooted human
rights crisis since its very inception. Far from being resolved after centuries,
Colombia’s crisis has worsened severely over the last two decades of the 20th century.
If Colombia is able to overcome this serious human rights situation, this country could
become a very attractive place to develop human potential on the planet.

At present, Colombia’s human rights crisis is characterized by a high level of
sociopolitical violence, as well as violence resulting from common crime, impunity and
social inequity. These problems have also become mixed with the broader panorama of
this country’s history of human rights violations.

   1.1. High Levels of Sociopolitical Violence

At present, Colombia has considerably high levels of political violence, a phenomenon
which has plagued this country for some time. Between 1988 and 1997, there were an
average of 10 sociopolitically motivated murders daily in Colombia. This already high
figure has doubled dramatically over the last three years. In 2000, close to 20 people
were killed each day for sociopolitical reasons. Five of those 20 deaths recorded in the
second half of the year 2000 were the a direct consequence of the armed conflict
(soldiers, guerrilla members, and non-combatant civilians killed in combat). The other
15 deaths were for individuals not killed in combat. These deaths in this latter group
can be broken down as follows: 13 were political activists, trade-unionists, peasant
activists, human rights workers, journalists, or simple civilians killed on the streets, at
work or at home; one more person has disappeared every other day, on an average, for
the same reasons, and yet another has been murdered every other day, on an average,
simply by virtue of being an indigent homeless person.1

In 2000, almost 85% of these murders were attributed to state agents and paramilitary
groups, and more than 15% to guerrilla groups. During the period from 1988 to 1997,
70% of these murders were attributed to state agents and paramilitary groups and 30%
to guerrilla groups.
The level of political violence has clearly gotten much worse over the last 20 years. In
1980, 100 people were killed for political reasons. In 1985, that figure rose to 1000, ten
times the annual political murder rate of 1980. By 1988, the yearly toll was over 4000.
From 1988 to 1997, the annual number of politically-motivated killings has remained
practically the same: between 3000 and 4000 lives per year. Thus, the deterioration of
the situation from 1988 and 1997 has been accompanied by a stabilization of an
extremely high political homicide rate. Unfortunately, this rate has increased once
again since 1998, hitting levels of over 7000 per year by the second half of the year

Colombia has also had a very high rate of kidnappings. During the bulk of the 1990s,
approximately 1200 people were kidnapped each year, for an average of three per day.
Since 1998, this rate has also risen dramatically. In 2000, there were more than 3000
people kidnapped, an average of almost nine per day. Half of these kidnappings have
been attributed to guerrilla groups. A good portion of the remaining 50% has been
attributed to present or former State agents.2

The overall human rights situation in Colombia has clearly continued to deteriorate in
recent years. The huge increase in paramilitary groups is one of the main causes of this
degradation, with consequences such as the systematic murder of human rights
defenders and the enormous rise in the ranks of internally displaced people.

1.1.1 Paramilitary Groups

In the context of the aforementioned entrenchment of political violence at high levels
since 1988, and the subsequent upsurge in 1998, there has been a notorious change in
the make-up of the actors taking part in this phenomenon. In the 1990s, paramilitary
group involvement in acts of sociopolitical violence rose substantially, in a change that
was gradual yet systematic.

There has been a progressive and enormous increase in paramilitary group involvement
in political violence since 1993, accompanied by an equally progressive and significant
decline in actions attributed to State agents. More than 50% of non-combatant acts of
political violence in 1993 were attributed to State agents, with less than 20% attributed
to paramilitary groups. Year after year, this proportion has been shifting, to the point
where in 1996, it had reversed totally. More than 50% of political killings were
attributed to paramilitary groups and less than 20% to State agents.

This change in levels of involvement has continued to evolve. Since 1997, more than
75% of politically motivated murders were attributed to paramilitary groups, less than
5% to state agents, and almost 20% to guerrilla groups.3 In 2000, almost 80% of these
murders were attributed to paramilitary groups, close to 5% to state agents, and more
than 15% to guerrilla groups. The majority of the victims are civilians.
This represents a serious and important shift in the situation of violence and human
rights violations over the past decade, a notorious rise in paramilitary actions combined
with an equally notorious fall in actions directly attributed to State agents. This change
denotes a worsening of the situation and makes its control that much more difficult.

Some Colombian authorities claim that this phenomenon is the result of a policy
oriented toward guaranteeing respect for human rights by the Armed Forces.4
Unfortunately, there are issues which make it hard to accept this conclusion. First,
despite the aforementioned changes, the continues to be strong evidence of ties between
the Armed Forces and paramilitary groups, evidence which has existed for the last two
to three years. High-ranking officers have been investigated and indicted by the
Prosecutor General's Office of being involved in serious massacres perpetrated by
paramilitary members with the complicity of the Armed Forces. When witnesses of
mass killings by paramilitary groups have been able to speak after the fact, they have
substantiates that the Army and/or the Police have supported these acts, wither by being
present or by deliberately and suddenly withdrawing from the scene. In fact, there have
been no reports of a single paramilitary group which does not have of the support, or at
the very least, the tolerance of the Armed Forces.5 The Government argues that these
are isolated cases, and that they do not mean that there is a general policy involving the
Armed Forces as a whole. Though this may well be true, it is beside the point, which is
that cases like these arise so frequently and uniformly in various regions of the country,
that they indicate the existence of repeated, strong and significant relations between the
Armed Forces and paramilitary groups. The natural result of such ties are joint actions.

A second issue which makes it difficult to conclude that the reduction of allegations
against state agents directly involved in human rights violations over the last few years
is a direct result of their greater respect for human rights, is the reluctance that the
Police and Armed Forces have shown towards acting against paramilitary groups. The
Colombian Ministry of Defense has argued that the Armed Forces have captured
approximately 900 members of paramilitary groups in the last two years. Yet the
official figures fail to indicate how many of these individuals have been captured in by
virtue of arrest warrants issued by the Prosecutor General's Office.6 In fact, the
Prosecutor General's Office has revealed that it has issued hundreds of these warrants
which the Armed Forces have not acted on. In most cases, paramilitary agents have
been captured by the Armed Forces practically by chance (i.e., they have been detained
in an unplanned confrontation with state agents and not as a result of operations
organized to apply arrest warrants issued by the Prosecutor General's Office. No
paramilitary leaders have been pursued by Army or Police Forces. The Deputy
Commander in Chief of the Army stated in 1999 that pursuit of paramilitary forces was
not one of the duties assigned to the Armed Forces under the Colombian Constitution.7
Since the 1980s, several Colombian Presidents have announced their intentions of
organizing a special task-force of 1000 specialized state agents for the specific purpose
of combating paramilitary groups. None of these announcements has materialized as
concrete actions. Given these and other circumstances, it is difficult to conclude that
state agents are truly committed to confronting paramilitary activities in Colombia.

The truth is that the total number of people killed every year for sociopolitical reasons
in Colombia did not go down in the 1990s, though the direct involvement of state agents
in such killings has apparently decreased. The reduction of criminal actions directly
attributed to state agents has been more than compensated by a rise in acts perpetrated
by paramilitary groups, evidently with the tolerance, complicity and acquiescence of
state agents.8

1.1.2 Murders of Human Rights Defenders and Other Social Activists

Recently, another factor has made the situation degenerate further, the brazen
multiplication of murders of human rights defenders and peace activists in recent years.
Since 1996, an average of more than one defender has been killed each month. Two
well-known lawyers were slain in their offices in the first half of 1998: Jesús María
Valle, Chairman of the Antioquian Human Rights Committee on February 27 in
Medellin, and Eduardo Umaña-Mendoza on April 18 in Bogota. In yet another
example, Jairo Ortega, Human Rights Officer and Vice President of Colombia’s most
important trade-union, the Central Workers’ Union (CUT), was murdered as he arrived
home on October 20. The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Ms.
Mary Robinson, who was in Bogota that day, called a press conference to express her
heartfelt concern about the situation of human rights defenders in Colombia.9

Other social sectors (such as peasants, indigenous people, and trade-unionists) and
professional segments (such as journalists and members of the judiciary), also continue
to be victimized.

1.1.3 Forced Displacement

in recent years, another telling sign of the worsening situation is the colossal rise in
forced displacements, which is directly related to the upsurge in paramilitarism.

More than two million persons have been displaced since 1985, many silently and
individually. Over the last five years, cases of collective or mass displacements have
become increasingly common: Thousands of people have had to abandon whole towns
out of fear due to recent massacres or threats of the same in areas near their homes.
These effects are felt by men, women and children, especially the latter two groups,
since over 50% of the internally displaced population are female and over 53% are

Far from declining, internal displacement is growing in leaps and bounds. By 1995,
130,000 persons were displaced annually, followed by 180,000 in 1996, and 250,000 in
1997. Since 1998, over 300,000 additional individuals have been displaced each year.10
At present, an average of seven families are displaced in Colombia every hour.11

Colombian authorities have not implemented a serious policy to aid displaced people.
Several public policies have been formulated since 1995, yet none has been coherent in
and of itself. The result has been greater confusion and neglect of these individuals.

Legislation was finally adopted in 199712 to define the State duties regarding the
internally displaced. Unbelievably, the Government took an additional three and a half
years to adopt a decree13 to enact that law, and even then only partially. Displaced
people had to bring suit against Government before the Constitutional Court, which then
ordered the Government to enact the decree, setting a maximum period of six months to
do so.14 The United Nations Secretary General’s Special Representative for Internally
Displaced People, who visited this country in 1994 and in 1999, recommended on both
occasions the necessity of adopting such measures to achieve a coordinated policy to
provide integral aid to victims of forced displacement in Colombia.

       1.2. High Levels of Common Violence

Politically-motivated violence represents less than 15% of all violence in Colombia,
with overall violence currently at a record high. In 1980, there were approximately
10,000 homicides per year. That figure rose to over 20,000 in 1988, and there have
been close to 30,000 murders per year since 1991. Colombia has one of the highest
rates of violent deaths in the world, approximately 80 per 100,000 inhabitants per

The inordinately high level of insecurity and common violence are such that they will
most likely survive the end of the armed conflict, on the remote yet always hoped-for
chance that a negotiated solution is arrived at in the near future.

       1.3. High Levels of Impunity

It is widely recognized there is almost total impunity for human rights abuses in
Colombia. Cases are rarely investigated or tried, and most of those that do go to trial
are transferred to the military courts, which have been repeatedly criticized as biased in
intergovernmental reports from the United Nations and the Inter-American System. For
violations investigated under ordinary or civil justice, those passing sentences (who can
be either prosecutors or judges under Colombian law) must often face threats and
attacks by state agents and paramilitary groups.

Impunity for human rights violations is another clear sign of a broader phenomenon of
impunity that affects the whole justice system in Colombia. Even the most optimistic
official studies report that less than 10% of common crimes are sentenced in this
country. The more pessimistic studies assert that the real figure is no greater than 0.5%.
In any case, there is an increasing consensus that "legal mechanisms have not been
really effective in achieving timely resolution of social conflicts" and that "abuses of the
state of emergency [for combating drug trafficking and rebellions through exceptional
judicial mechanisms] have robbed the judiciary of its ability to resolve daily conflicts

       1.4. Social, Economic, and Cultural Rights: High Levels of Inequity

At first glance, the poverty rates and levels of satisfaction of basic needs seem to have
improved in Colombia during the 1980s. The truth is, however, that the country suffers
now from the same deep-rooted social exclusion that has long been a problem. This
exclusion is reflected in the general poverty level (affecting approximately 50% of the
population) and the absolute poverty level (affecting over 20%). It is also seen in the
tremendous inequality of land distribution (under 10% of all landowners possess more
than 90% of all arable land), and in the obvious conditions of inferiority of most
indigenous and Afro-Colombian people. In these three overall areas (poverty, land-
ownership and ethnic marginality), the situation of women is particularly disheartening.

The situation is even more dramatic in some regions of the country where general
indices of exclusion and specific rates of satisfaction of basic needs, are considerably
lower than the national average, which is itself precarious.

The widespread acquisition of landed estates by drug traffickers has aggravated the
problem of inequality in land distribution and makes it more difficult to achieve an
equitable redistribution. It is estimated that more than 40% of lands in what is
commonly known as the “agricultural frontier” are now in the hands of drug traffickers
cum large landowners.

Moreover, coca leaf production in Colombia’s Amazon region has ensnared many who
have been excluded politically or economically from the nation’s heartland. This has
deepened the patterns of colonization of outlying areas which resulted as an aftermath
of Colombia’s political violence of the 1940s and 1950s. The solution to this problem
is not at all easy, due to its social, ecological, and political implications, nationally and

The seriousness of the Colombian human rights crisis is not only due to the high levels
of violence, impunity, and inequity, but also to the low acknowledgement of the crisis
on the part of Colombian administrations and to unsatisfactory actions taken redress the
situation. These deficiencies are related to similar shortcomings of the interpretation
given to the Colombian case by certain key actors from the international community and
the media. Some of those limitations have been overcome, but many are still confused
about the nation’s situation, which weakens their ability to demand that the Colombian
authorities take the appropriate measures to respect and protect the inhabitants of the

At least four main periods can be identified according to the problems in acknowledging
the crisis and the actions for dealing with systematic human rights violations in
Colombia since the mid 1960s. The common thread through each of these periods is
that the Colombian Government has tried to present itself either as a victim forced to
react to violent actors who threaten the State and society or as a victim who is unable to
control such violent forces. In both of these views, the Government has not fully
recognized its own responsibility for perpetrating violations and for not being
sufficiently diligent in preventing them. This reluctance to be accountable by
considering the State itself as a victim is at the bottom of the limited and insufficient
actions taken (when such actions have been taken) by the Colombian authorities to face
the human rights crisis. This view of the Colombian State as victim of the human rights
situation has also colored requests made by the international community of the
Colombian Government, diluting the strength of pressures to protect human rights and
honor its international commitments. The State as victim theory has gone through
different versions in Colombia, which can be seen as follows.17

2.1. Mid-1960s to Mid-1980s

A first period characterizing the limited acknowledgement of and actions regarding the
human rights situation in Colombia ranged from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s. 18 The
main characteristic of this period was that the existence of human rights violations was
not recognized at all in the country by the top authorities. Alleged instances of political
killings, torture, arbitrary detentions or absence of due process were explained as
"isolated cases." The Government issued frequent appeals to the whole society to
gather around and support the authorities in their fight against the dangerous forces
threatening these institutions. For the most part, the allegedly dangerous forces targeted
in this way were social movements made up of peasants, workers or students. Some
were political opposition groups. Of course, guerrilla groups, which have existed in this
country since the 1960s, were painted by the Government as a permanent danger. Drug
traffickers were added to this list in the late-1970s. To combat all these enemies, the
Government exercised extraordinary powers granted through the declaration of states of
emergency (states of siege), which allowed it to suspend constitutional guarantees for
extended periods of time in which State security forces were provided with ideal
conditions for continued human rights violations, in "isolated cases." On an average,
the country was governed under this type of measure three out of every four years (i.e.,
75% of the time) between the 1960s and the 1980s.

With few exceptions, the international community did not intervene as a whole against
this systematic practice of human rights violations. Of course, many international
human rights non-governmental organizations (NGOs) became progressively and more
involved in criticizing this arbitrary use of power, especially after the late-1970s. The
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, an inter-governmental institution, also
expressed its concern in the early-1980s. Nevertheless, the major international bodies
belonging to the United Nations system remained inactive regarding the deteriorating
situation during this period.

There are some reasons for this passivity. The international human rights system was
less developed than it is today. The perception of the Colombian situation was clouded
by other issues in the Americas that were considered to be more serious (i.e.
dictatorships in the Southern Cone and civil wars in Central America). The Colombian
human rights community was also less developed then than it is today and was not very
confident in its dealings with nor very active regarding inter-governmental bodies.
Amidst these elements which muddied the waters and made it more difficult to
acknowledge the existence of serious violations in Colombia, this nation’s authorities
were then still able to take advantage of the internationally accepted idea that Colombia
was the oldest and most stable democracy in Latin America. Ironically, this
"democracy" was almost constantly governed under a state of exception.

This made it possible for the Colombian Government to be perceived internationally as
a victim fighting its internal enemies to protect democracy, especially within the context
of the Cold War. Consequently, no significant action was undertaken by the
Government to acknowledge and to act against human rights violations in this period.

2. Mid-1980s to Mid-1990s

A second important period can be identified ranging from the mid-1980s to the mid-
1990s. One of the main differences between this timeframe and the previous one was
that the authorities recognized, or were forced to recognize (albeit in limited terms), the
existence of a cause for concern regarding human rights violations occurring in
Colombia. Certain official investigations were opened against members of the Armed
Forces involved with paramilitary groups. As a result, the State control agency, the
Attorney General’s Office,19 revealed that more than 150 officers had actively
participated with those illegal groups in 1983. One of Colombia’s security boards that
reports directly to the President’s Office, the Administrative Department of Security
(DAS), disclosed a report in 1989 showing strong structural ties between high-ranking
officers and paramilitary leaders, as well as the involvement of the former in serious

Pursuant to these admissions, the Government did take some action regarding human
rights issues, though such efforts were still limited in scope.              Colombia’s
administrations did not refrain from using state-of-emergency powers. In fact, the
country was governed under state-of-siege measures from April 1, 1984 to July 4, 1991.
Nevertheless, the Armed Forces were partially restructured, and for the first time since
the 1950s, a civilian was placed in the leadership of the Ministry of Defense in the late-
1980s. Similarly, since then a civilian has been named Deputy Attorney General for the
Military Forces with the mandate of carrying out disciplinary investigations of members
of the Armed Forces. This was a position which was formerly reserved for high-
ranking military officers, whose impartiality in such matters was not necessarily
credible. In addition, in 1989 the Government suspended a standard that had been
established in 1965 and was identified as providing the legal basis for the existence of
paramilitary groups.20

These measures and other similar decisions were based on the assumption that
perpetrators acting as state agents would automatically or progressively be weakened if
they lacked the official support of the civilian Government. Unfortunately, with rare
exceptions, this foundation was not backed up with effective actions for prosecuting
such perpetrators. Though the Government ordered the creation of a specialized task-
force to fight paramilitary groups, 21 which was to be made up of 1000 policemen under
the personal direction of the National Chief of Police, this force was never created in
practice. The administration put more efforts into altering the official language used for
human rights issues than into organizing concrete plans to block the actions of human
rights violators and punish them.

The shift in official human rights language marked the Government’s decision in this
period to accept the legitimacy of the human rights approach and marked a significant
difference with the previous period, when a simple mention of human rights was
automatically categorized as a subversive act by a Government that refused to recognize
the occurrence of serious violations in this field. As such, this modification in the
official stance on human rights was an important change, but one that was insufficient
to redress the situation.

In keeping with this point of view, substantial innovations in the area of human rights
were included in a new Political Constitution ratified in 1991.22 Peace agreements were
achieved with five guerrilla groups from 1989 to 1994.23 Those and other significant
results would not have been possible without this changed mindset and language. These
advances effectively opened the door to negotiating with an armed enemy as a political
possibility (along with the other possible outcomes, defeat, imprisonment or death).
Finally, a State built on a foundation of human rights could be admitted as a normal
principle of democracies (instead of being rejected as a proposal meant to weaken the
Government’s position). Yet the Government did not take the necessary steps to
provide decisively for the pursuit and prosecution of state agents and paramilitary
groups involved in numerous, systematic, ongoing human rights violations. The
military justice system was left untouched by the Government in this period, though
reform was obviously necessary in order to prevent impunity for crimes committed by
members of the Armed Forces. The ordinary (civil) justice system, on the other hand,
did not receive sufficient protection from the State against alleged perpetrators under
investigation in that framework, nor did it receive enough cooperation from the Police
and the Army to enforce decisions made in relation against violators.

Furthermore, the official acknowledgement of the existence of a human rights problem
in Colombia during this second period did not imply that the Government recognized
the State’s responsibility in this tragedy. As in the prior period and in keeping with the
official point of view, the State continued to present itself as a victim of the human
rights situation and not as an actor perpetrating serious violations. The difference
between these two periods is that in the latter, responsibility for the whole situation was
artificially attributed almost exclusively to a single sector: Drug traffickers. Between
1984 (with the assassination of Minister of Justice Rodrigo Lara Bonilla on March 31 at
the order of infamous drug baron Pablo Escobar) and 1993 (with the killing of Escobar
in Medellin), the main official explanation of violence and human rights violations in
Colombia was that these were violent acts by drug traffickers.

Without a doubt, drug traffickers did organize many murders and terrorist actions
oriented specifically toward blocking judicial or police actions against them and toward
forcing the Colombian Government to refuse extradition requests from the United
States. They also killed many people involved in drug trafficking as a means of
“settling accounts” or as a method of defining disputes between illegal competitors.
Some drug traffickers were also involved, along with members of the Armed Forces, in
developing new paramilitary groups or strengthening some of the existing groups which
had been created by the Armed Forces since the 1960s. Nevertheless, setting aside for
the moment the latter cases (i.e., acts performed by some drug traffickers as part of
paramilitary groups), the acts attributed to drug traffickers in their fight against the State
(i.e., murders of former collaborators who had betrayed them, killings of competitors),
were more obvious but considerably less numerous than rampant sociopolitical murders
and other human rights violations. The people being killed each day (especially
peasants from isolated rural areas) by state agents, paramilitary groups or guerrilla
forces, were not interesting topics for coverage in the media (nationally and particularly
internationally). A bomb set off by Pablo Escobar in a supermarket parking lot or on a
crowded plane, on the other hand, was invariably reported with full coverage, creating a
huge impact on public opinion domestically and abroad. This type of reporting
distorted the perception of the human rights crisis in Colombia, obscuring State
responsibility and the participation of state agents and paramilitary members (other than
drug traffickers) in the bulk of the violations.

This distortion served the needs of Colombian administrations, which fought diligently
during this second period to block in any possible way the involvement of the
international community as observers of the treatment given to the human rights crisis.
This was one of the State’s top priorities. For many years, they were successful, due to
the prevailing perception of the Colombian State as victim of drug trafficking and that
the human rights crisis was the logical result of institutions weakened and a society
threatened by drug traffickers. This view was held by several key members of the
United Nations at that time. The fact that the ever-growing number of political killings
in impunity persisted even after the end of the terrorist era in which drug traffickers like
Pablo Escobar had reigned finally showed once and for all that systematic human rights
violations in Colombia did not begin and end with drug trafficking. Consequently,
these phenomena will not end with the eventual disappearance or weakening of the
illegal drug trade.

3. Mid-1990s: Hesitant Acknowledgement

A third period of reluctant acknowledgement and action regarding the human rights
situation in Colombia came about in the mid 1990s. The Samper administration (1994-
1998) recognized for the first time that the situation was dire and that the country
needed the support of the international community to overcome this crisis. This hesitant
recognition was not always consistent, however, because at times the government would
react against concrete decisions made by international bodies. The State also tried to
put the bulk of the blame on guerrilla groups and not on its own agents, painting the
guerrillas as the main participant who was responsible for the severity and extent of the
situation as a whole. As a result, important work was done in terms of legislative or
general decisions concerning human rights, yet little was accomplished in terms of
actual measures against specific concrete perpetrators, many of whom were able to
promote or to support the shocking increase of paramilitary groups during those years
from within the State.

In 1994, the Government ratified Additional Protocol II to the Geneva Agreements on
humanitarian law. The Armed Forces had opposed this approval for 17 years, arguing
that it would imply the recognition of the "belligerent status" of guerrilla groups, even
though the Protocol explicitly states that this possibility is excluded. Other decisions
were made by the Government without the consent of the Armed Forces. In 1995, on
behalf of the State, the President accepted responsibility for a horrendous series of
massacres committed between 1989 and 1991 by military and paramilitary forces in the
town of Trujillo. This recognition was made before the Colombian people and the
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, and resulted in the destitution of an
Army Colonel who had organizes and carried out these atrocities. In 1996, the United
Nations Human Rights Commission decided to ask the High Commissioner for Human
Rights to open a permanent office in Colombia with the two-fold mandate of observing
the situation and aiding the authorities and Colombian society in improving the human
rights situation. The decision was made with the agreement of the Government, in a
decision to ignore the opposition of the High Commanders of the Armed Forces. This
Office was opened in 1997 and has issued a public annual report on the Colombian
situation to the Human Rights Commission since 1998. In 1996, the Colombian
Congress approved a bill recognizing the binding nature of decisions made by the Inter-
American Commission on Human Rights and the Human Rights Committee of the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights regarding human rights violations
in Colombia.24 This bill established a judicial and summary procedure to define the
monetary damages that must be paid to victims by the Colombian Government in cases
decided by the aforementioned agencies. This bill was also adopted without the
approval of the High Commanders of the Armed Forces.

The staunch opposition of the military to these and other decisions concerning
acceptance of international bodies’ involvement in Colombia’s human rights situation
does much to explain the inconsistencies observed on the part of the Government during
this period with respect to specific decisions or recommendations put forth by those
agencies. It also the reason behind the Colombian Government’s blind insistence that
the Inter-American and United Nations systems explicitly declare and condemn
guerrilla groups for full responsibility in this country’s human rights situation. In 1995,
Colombia’s President publicly criticized a sentence issued by the Inter-American Court
in a case of forced disappearance perpetrated by military and paramilitary forces.
According to the President, the Court should have done more to come out against
violations committed by guerrilla groups instead of harping on acts performed by state
agents. This remark flies in the face of the legal jurisdiction of the Court, which is not
permitted to pass judgement on cases committed by private groups, according to the
Human Rights Agreement of the Americas. Evidently, the President was under pressure
to ignore this minor legal detail and attack the Inter-American System as a way of
mitigating or reducing the effects of the negative reaction of Colombian Armed Forces
to the Court's important decision.

In fact, the mandate of international intergovernmental bodies, such as the Inter-
American Commission and the United Nations Human Rights Commission, does
includes the consideration of violations and abuses committed by guerrilla groups and
other private actors as part of their general reports on specific countries. Pursuant to the
specific guidelines used in issuing these reports, those organizations have done so in
their commentaries on Colombia. These accounts are not only the result of the
implementation of formal guidelines, but the consequence of undeniable guerrilla
participation in approximately 30% of political killings in this country, as well as
complex violations, such as kidnappings and indiscriminate attacks on the civilian
population, as was already stated in the first section of this paper. Yet this serious
responsibility of guerrilla groups in violating the fundamental rights of Colombians
cannot be used to discount or reduce the Government’s responsibility to protect those
very rights against violations committed by its own or private agents, including guerrilla
groups. Consequently, in this period, the recognition of the human rights crisis in
Colombia and the actions taken to face it was limited, due to the Government’s
insistence that the international community exonerate the State in its responsibilities by
blaming guerrilla groups. This was an argument that the Government expressed on
many occasions and in many different ways. Fortunately, it did not succeed in this
attempt, which was clearly improper, given the nature and duties of international human
rights bodies. Nevertheless, it did reduce the strength and scope of decisions made by
the Inter-American system and the United Nations. These were the far-reaching effects
of the new theory of the State-as-Victim.

This inconsistency in the Government's acknowledgement of the situation was reflected
in erratic actions regarding human rights. In particular, there was no policy set up to
stop or combat paramilitary groups. On the contrary, these groups were significantly
strengthened during that period; their membership grew (from about 1,000 to 4,000) as
did their presence in the territory (especially in the northern part of the country) and
their coordination (through the formation of an illegal organization called "The United
Self-Defense Groups of Colombia", literally “Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia” in
Spanish). This marked growth took place under the equally marked inactivity of the
authorities, and at times, with the public support of local government leaders. At the
national level, the Government promoted legislation oriented to legalizing the existence
of paramilitary groups with authorization to bear weapons of war, as had been the case
in the past. Under the misleadingly euphemistic name of "Coexistence Cooperatives”
(literally “Cooperativas Convivir”, in Spanish), these groups were theoretically to be
put under the supervision and control of an agency of the Ministry of National Defense.
The Constitutional Court realized that this type of supervision would be impossible to
enforce and ruled once again as it had in 1989 that paramilitary groups are
unconstitutional. This important decision led the Government to change its policy, and
it took key measures to prevent the existence of legal paramilitary groups.

During this period, the Government also tried to resurrect the practice of governing
under a state of emergency, to take advantage of the extraordinary powers granted to the
Armed Forces. The administration’s first attempt in this direction was declared
unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court in August 1995. Under the pretext of
reacting to the assassination of the leader of the Conservative Party in November 1995,
the Government attempted for the second time to declare a state of emergency. The
second time around, the Constitutional Court did not block the decree immediately, and
the Government was able to grant exceptional powers to the Armed Forces (such as the
possibility of making arrests without a warrant or forcibly occupying private property or
locales with military personnel). Fortunately, the Constitutional Court, on examining
the case more closely, decided that there was no justifiable connection between the
unfortunate and reprehensible murder of the Conservative leader and some of the
exceptional powers granted to the Armed Forces, and therefore ruled for their
revocation. The judicial investigation into the killing has since indicated that the crime
was organized by members of the Armed Forces, ironically enough, by members of the
very same body that would have benefited from the exceptional powers granted under
the state of emergency brought on by the crime.

These inconsistencies were clearly the result of conflicting tendencies regarding human
rights policies within the Government. Nevertheless, they were probably also due in
part to the Samper administration’s desire to earn the support of the Armed Forces in
the face of the political ostracism experienced after being indicted in mid-1995 of
having received funding for the election campaign from drug traffickers in 1994. For
the next year and a half (through late 1996, when the Congress decided to absolve the
President from any wrongdoing connected to these accusations), government policy was
subordinated to the more urgent goal of keeping the President in power and having him
declared innocent. This also explains why the Government felt freer to rethink certain
human rights issues in 1997 and 1998, after the storm had passed. There are two draft
bills which bear special mention in this regard: A new Military Criminal Code and
legislation against the crime of forced disappearance of individuals. The former
included the essential definition that human rights violations must be brought before the
ordinary (civil) justice system and not the military justice system, as per a
Constitutional Court decision of 1997.25 The formal recognition of the criminal nature
of forced disappearances of individuals, on the other hand, was needed because this
severe violation was not recognized as a practice that occurred in Colombia.
Prosecutors and judges, consequently, faced serious legal difficulties to investigate and
to try such acts. The opposition of the Armed Forces to legislation against forced
disappearances had been very evident over the prior ten years. Five draft bills regarding
this issue had failed since 1988 because of the active (and sometimes public) opposition
of the High-Ranking Command. When the Samper administration ended, the sixth draft
of the bill on this issue and a draft of the new military criminal code had been submitted
to Congress for approval.

2.4. Late-1990s

The current period of poor recognition of the human rights crisis in Colombia is
characterized by a significant and renewed effort to prove that state agents are not
responsible for the country’s current undeniably severe situation. If recent official
versions were to be believed, state agents would be the victims of a situation caused by
two crazed or criminal groups which are destroying the nation: the guerrillas and
paramilitary groups. According to this spin, both have connections to drug trafficking
activities because they protect coca or poppy growers in their respective territories,
thereby profiting economically by extortion payments from producers. The story goes
on to tell how they also frequently take part in processing or trading cocaine and heroin.
In keeping with this view, if state agents bolster their efforts to eradicate coca and
poppy crops, both guerrillas and paramilitary groups will be weakened and defeated,
either through armed combat or after peace negotiations. Therefore, the only thing that
the Colombian authorities need from the international community is economic and
political support for strengthening military operations and social programs to put an end
to drug production in this country. Once this is achieved, the Government expects
human rights to improve automatically in Colombia.

The plan of action under this interpretation of the facts does not necessarily have to be
implemented in any particular order (i.e., starting with crop eradication, followed by
armed combat and/or peace talks). On the contrary, these actions can be put into effect
in any order or simultaneously. In fact, the Pastrana administration started by proposing
and developing a peace process with guerrilla groups: First with the Revolutionary
Armed Forces of Colombia (i.e., FARC) in 1998, and later the National Liberation
Army (i.e., ELN) towards the end of the year 2000. At the same time, the Government
garnered the support of the United States in the form of military aid and equipment
(complemented with some social and institutional programs). This approximately one-
billion-dollar package, known as "Plan Colombia," was approved by the US Congress in
early 2000. After Israel and Egypt, this is the third largest foreign military aid package
granted by the United States.

The Colombian Government considers this economic, military, and political support
from the United States more important than the international cooperation from the
United Nations Human Rights Commission and the Inter-American Commission on
Human Rights. Their reiterated recommendations concerning the need to act against
paramilitary groups (the authors of almost 80% of sociopolitical killings, committed
with varying degrees of complicity by state agents) and strengthen the capacity of the
Colombian system to bring perpetrators to justice have fallen on deaf ears. This attitude
has limited the effects of the permanent Office of the High Commissioner for Human
Rights, established with the agreement of the Colombian authorities in 1997. Instead of
implementing those recommendations seriously, official government efforts have
focused on developing a sophisticated publicity campaign oriented toward convincing
U.S. authorities that the Colombian Government is meeting the human rights
requirements established by the United States. Some of these have been set as
prerequisites for releasing monies authorized under "Plan Colombia." To lend
credibility to its publicity campaign, the Government has issued decisions and taken
actions as proof of its willingness to redress the human rights situation. Unfortunately,
these are little more than cosmetic measures which do not express a serious
commitment to human rights protection. Consequently, they have not produced any
results in reducing the level of violations.

On August 12, 1999, the Government announced the adoption of an important policy on
human rights and humanitarian law. It included the creation of a special task force to
fight paramilitary groups, similar to the one announced ten years earlier in 1989. As
was the case with the first plan, this one has not yet become a reality, though the
Government seems to be given to reiterating its intentions to create such a group from
time to time. Instead of actually following through, the administration (and the Ministry
of National Defense) has preferred to publish statistics showing that it has captured
hundreds of paramilitary members. These figures do not indicate how many of these
individuals have been captured by the Armed Forces, and the only paramilitary leader
now in jail was captured by the Prosecutor General’s Office without the support of the
Army or the Police. The Prosecutor General has also denounced the fact that arrest
warrants issued by that Office to detain paramilitary members have not been enforced
by the Armed Forces.

The human rights and humanitarian law policy announced by the Government in 1999
included support of the draft bill forced disappearances presented to Congress by the
previous administration. That bill was approved by Congress in December 1999.
Nevertheless, contradicting its own supposed commitment, the Government then vetoed
the bill and tried to suppress its enactment as law, especially the standard instructing
that human rights violations and forced disappearances be brought before the ordinary
(civil) justice system and not before the military system. Fortunately, the Congress
reacted firmly and preserved the bill, which was in its sixth draft discussed by Congress
in 12 years. Due to this reaction and to the political gaffes committed by the
Government during its discussion of the veto, the essential rules of this bill were

The other draft bill on human rights presented by the previous administration had to do
with the adoption of a new military criminal code and was approved by Congress in
1999. Yet before it was passed, the Government authorized the military High
Command to negotiate a substantial change to the key article of the proposed code,
which originally stipulated that all human rights violations were automatically outside
of the jurisdiction of the military justice system and were the responsibility of the
ordinary (civil) justice system. The version of that article proposed by the military and
eventually approved by Congress stated that jurisdiction will be determined on a case by
case basis, by analyzing whether the violation in question is committed in the course of
fulfilling one’s duty. Thus, the new rule is actually the same old rule that the military
justice system had always applied in order to refuse to send human rights violations to
the ordinary justice system. This “new” rule also goes against a ruling handed down by
the Constitutional Court in August 1997, which clarified that every human rights
violation should be brought before the ordinary courts and not before the military
tribunals. The Military High Command also convinced Congress to modify another
article of the draft bill which originally enumerated human rights violations which
would always be outside of the jurisdiction of the military justice system, mentioning
crimes such as rape, forced displacements, and involvement in paramilitary groups.
Under the weakened version, specific mention of those crimes was suppressed. As a
result, if the August 1997 Constitutional Court decision is not respected, a crime of rape
committed by a soldier could be considered behavior that is part of his normal duties.

In that 1997 decision, the Constitutional Court ordered the military courts to transfer all
cases of human rights violations that they were then trying to the ordinary courts. None
of the more important or well-known cases, including those decided by international
bodies like the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights or the United Nations
Human Rights Committee, was transferred to ordinary courts. In mid-2000, a formal
petition was presented to the President of the Republic requesting his compliance with
the Constitutional Court’s decision through insisting that his Military Commanders
(who were acting as military judges) not impede that order by accepting or keeping
cases of human rights violations in their jurisdiction. The President denied this request,
arguing that the military judges were independent of the executive branch.
Nevertheless, one month later the President signed a brief letter announcing that the new
military criminal code, which had been approved in 1999, had finally gone into effect in
August 2000. He went on to state that he hoped that military judges would abstain from
then on from dealing with cases of human rights violations, such as forced
disappearances, genocide or torture. That letter (or some other similar instrument) was
one of the six human rights prerequisites established by "Plan Colombia" for the release
of U.S. military aid to the Colombian Government. Two days after this letter was made
public, the U.S. State Department officially certified that the Colombian Government
had fulfilled that condition and then proceeded to waive the other five conditions,
authorizing the disbursement of the promised funding to the Colombian Government,
"for national security reasons." This is a clear example of human rights decisions made
by the Government simply as part of a publicity campaign during this period.

Even after the letter signed by the President regarding this issue was made known, the
most important cases of human rights violations remained within the military courts. In
February 2001, a General was sentenced by a military court to 40 months in jail for
having been responsible "by omission" for the massacre of more than 25 people
committed by paramilitary groups in a southern Colombian town called Mapiripan. The
conclusion that the General’s responsibility in this matte was one of simple “omission”
is a stretch of the imagination. More than 200 paramilitary fighters arrived equipped
with weapons at the military airport in the city where the General was based before
continuing on to Mapiripan by river to perform the massacre. They remained in the
town for a full week, during which time a Colonel warned the General about what was
happening, yet the General did not react or intervene in any way. Under these
circumstances, the military court found the General innocent of having collaborated
with paramilitary groups and of complicity regarding the massacre. The fact that the
general was sentenced was trotted out by the authorities as unquestionable proof of their
commitment to human rights policy. Though it is true that this was the first time that a
General was condemned for human rights violations in Colombia, the refusal of the
military justice system to refer the case to the ordinary justice system was nothing less
than a bald-faced contradiction of the Constitutional Court order. Furthermore, his
absolution on the more serious and apparent of the charges he faced is evidence of the
great degree of impunity that existed during that time.

This particular General was since removed from service, along with two other Generals,
in May 1998. A fourth General was dismissed in August 1998. Subsequently, three of
the four Generals were formally accused, by the Prosecutor's General’s Office, of
having links with paramilitary groups. The Government, however, did not order the
initiation of a judicial investigation against them, nor did it support the investigation
undertaken by the Prosecutor General’s Office. The military justice system appealed
the decision to try these cases before the ordinary justice system, without receiving any
reaction from the Government. The general interpretation of these dismissals was that
they had been ordered at the request of US authorities. The Government never admitted
that the Generals had been withdrawn from service due to human rights violations. The
lack of any official acknowledgement of the reasons for the decision (i.e., indicating that
this was a government measure to improve the human rights situation) provoked
negative reactions within the Armed Forces and Colombian society. By trying to avoid
being labeled disloyal to its soldiers, the Government missed a great opportunity to
strengthen its capacity to implement a firm and decisive policy of respect for and
protection of human rights.
An additional 388 members of the Armed Forces were dismissed in October 2000.
They were initially presented by the media and by the US State Department as evidence
of the purification of Colombian institutions through the elimination of human rights
violators. Yet the Colombian Government officially denied this explanation. The
Minister of Defense admitted some days later that approximately 50 of the officers who
had been removed had joined the ranks of paramilitary groups. The administration’s
attitude in this case was as erroneous as it had been in the case of the three Generals.
None of the dismissed officers was brought to justice when fired. The Government
missed out on an opportunity to demonstrate clearly to public opinion that human rights
violations go against the principles and aims of state institutions. Any eventual positive
subliminal effects were offset by the negative impact of interpretations of the decision
as unfair, unexplained and incomplete.

At the same time as this human rights publicity campaign, the Government has
undertaken a peace talk process with the two main guerrilla groups in the country,
FARC and ELN. These efforts are significant but are also ambiguous. They are
important because they may forge a path to a political solution to the armed conflict;
they are ambiguous precisely because that path has not been paved with a serious
human rights policy. Undoubtedly the continued actions (many of which are truly
horrendous) performed by guerrillas against the population during this process have
discredited them. Yet the Government's reluctance to adopt effective decisions in order
to prevent and punish human rights violations has also deteriorated its credibility as a
negotiator determined to achieve a fair agreement. Since they began in late 1998, the
talks have been suspended several times due to the complaints made regarding the
Government's tolerance of or inactivity against the increasing violations perpetrated by
paramilitary groups. Under these circumstances, both parties not only try to strengthen
a negotiated solution but expect to legitimize their respective positions in a new and
stronger phase of armed confrontation.

Neither the Government nor the guerrillas have tried to hide this ambiguity. Guerrilla
groups have continued increasing their actions, territorial presence and military
capacity. The Government has also implemented a plan to "modernize the Armed
Forces," including new weapons, more efficient troops, and legal reforms in order to
allow them more autonomy. The Senate approved a draft bill in late-200026 that was
promoted by the Ministry of Defense. The bill authorizes the Armed Forces to capture
individuals without an arrest warrant and institutes new mechanisms of impunity in
favor of members of the Armed Forces. The draft is also one more attempt to revive the
legalization of paramilitary groups by authorizing the development of National Security
and Defense activities through private vigilante and security services, "under the control
of the Ministry of Defense." The draft bill is meant to establish that it is the duty of all
residents of Colombia to cooperate with "National Power" to obtain what it calls
"National Objectives."

This kind of proposal is not strange, compared to other practices implemented in
Colombia during the second half of the 20th century. They remind this author of similar
initiatives undertaken through the state-of-emergency regimen that was in effect from
the 1960´s to the 1990´s. They also remind this author of the more ambitious goals
inspired by the "National Security Doctrine," which governed the Southern Cone
military dictatorships during the 1970s. While such measures may be contradictory
with the current peace talk process, they may also be the natural result of the
aforementioned ambiguity. Above all, they are one of the possible outcomes of the
State-as-victim theory. If the State is indeed the victim of violent actors threatening the
society and the government, one possible solution to this weakness is to strengthen the
State, albeit through authoritarian measures. This is not a recipe that is full of

In fact, Colombia is in no way fatally destined to suffer through a National Security
Regimen as a result of the current human rights crisis. Yet in order to arrive at a
suitable solution to this crisis, the prevailing analysis of the Colombian State as victim
must be abandoned. The State’s acknowledgement of its responsibility in this crisis is a
decisive factor in being able to overcome these difficulties. Only this type of
recognition can provide the solid basis for the process of reducing and eliminating this
country’s chronic disrespect for human rights once and for all.


    3.1. The War and Human Rights Violations: A Vicious Cycle

The serious human rights situation that exists in Colombia, which has been commented on
in the first two sections of this paper, is normally interpreted by specialized analysts and
common people alike as an inevitable consequence of the armed conflict that has plagued
this country for over 30 years. There seems to be some evidence to support this belief. Inn
effect, the magnitude of the violations would not be so high if there were no guerrilla
warfare, nor would paramilitary organizations have flourished in another context.

Nevertheless, not all human rights violations are politically motivated. Perhaps less than
half of these violations are directly derived from the armed conflict. Their basis is
different types of social conflict (especially labor, peasant and ethnic strife). Of course, the
context of war does aggravate such violations, because the authorities tend to view social
protest as part of the wartime confrontation, and hence their response to it tends to be
military. Yet even under the desirable case that the armed conflict in Colombia were to
come to an end, there is no guarantee that the murders of indigenous people and peasants
would automatically cease, since it is a method that has been used for many years to
resolve conflicts over land in this country. Nor is it certain that there would no longer be
numerous trade unionists killed in confrontations between workers and employers. Even
less certain is the overnight elimination of illegal aggression against social indigents,
which currently cause the death of one person per day by virtue of the fact that they are
considered common criminals. This type of violation seems to be grounded in a deep-
rooted discriminatory mentality of Colombian society,27 a mindset that is not about to
disappear as if by magic whenever there is a definitive cease fire.

Furthermore, the eventual desirable end to the armed conflict in Colombia will not
necessarily automatically put an end to common violence and the ensuing human rights
violations. Murders committed for political or ideological reasons, though very high,
represent only 15% of violent deaths per year in Colombia.28 To make a significant
reduction in the number of murders committed or tolerated by state agents from among the
remaining 85% of cases will require a lot more than a simple signature on a peace
agreement. The experience in El Salvador shows how the demobilization of the guerrillas
has unfortunately not cut off the high level of violent deaths. In fact, the Salvadoran State
has been unable to stop or even sanction this phenomenon adequately.

What happens in reality, though it is often forgotten, is that war is not the only cause for
human rights violations. It may actually be the result of such violations, which seems to be
the case in Colombia. One of the main reasons that the armed insurgency arose in the
1960s in this country was the strong policy of political exclusion that was established in
the 1957 constitutional reform, which left a greater playing field for the Liberal and
Conservative parties. These two forces continue to be the dominant players, despite the
deep cracks that have appeared in their armors. The 1991 Constitution, however, removed
their privileges and was truly oriented toward promoting mechanisms for a pluralistic and
participatory democracy. Under these conditions, though social injustice continues to be
as notorious as it was in the past, it might no longer have been a sufficient reason to justify
the continued existence of Colombian guerrilla groups involved in armed struggle, if it
were not for the ongoing practice of human rights violations. After the fall of the Berlin
Wall and elimination of the Liberal-Conservative Pact (which was known as the “National
Front” or “Frente Nacional” in Spanish), forced disappearances and political murders are
conclusive proof of the exclusion on which guerrilla goals feed. The long-standing illegal
existence of these groups cannot be explained away as a simple matter of their having
gotten used to the funds generated by kidnapping and extortion. On the contrary, their
definition and existence owe more to their indignation regarding the deaths of the past and
the need for protection in the future.

It is impossible to view the relationship between the war and human rights violations as
going in one direction only; this is definitely a two-way street. To be more exact, it is a
vicious cycle which tends to become a spiral and which can only be adequately faced by
attacking both ends at once (as is the case with any vicious cycle).

A partial examination of the evidence seems to beg the conclusion that human rights
violations are the inevitable consequence of war. This view, though tempting, is somewhat
misleading. It is not unlike the widely held notion from days past that the sun revolved
around the earth, a conviction that was justified simply because the sun appeared during
the day and went away at night. But the danger of believing the former myth may be even
greater than the pitfalls of the latter. This erroneous conclusion could lead, and in fact has
led, to the assumption of accepting or conformist attitudes regarding current violations
(with the justification that “war is hell”), and knee-jerk reactions or passive attitudes
towards being able to overcome such actions in the future, once the dream of having
annihilated the enemy has become a reality. Thus, it will be difficult to achieve peace and
it will never be based on the solid terrain of respect for human rights.

Perhaps the surest route, through it is also the hardest and the one least followed, is the
opposite tactic: Avoid violations as much as possible, even during the war, in the hope of
preparing more fertile ground for peace. Instead of waiting for the serious human rights
situation to get better on its own after signing a peace agreement, this position implies the
simultaneous and tireless struggle for a cease fire along with the creation of the necessary
prerequisites and post-armistice conditions that facilitate its viability and make it more
3.2. Respect for Human Rights as a Path out of War

The multiple measures needed to lay solid groundwork for respect for human rights in
Colombia can be broken down into five overall topic areas or conditions: Prevention of
violations in the future, sanctioning the violations of the past, strengthening institutions
(especially in the are of justice), satisfaction of the minimum demands in terms of
economic, social and cultural rights, and the replacement of the discriminatory mindset.

3.2.1. Preventing Future Violations

What is really needed to prevent future violations is the elimination of the known factors of
current violations and control of the factors which may lead to future violations. One
known factor in such violations are the policies or standards which favor arbitrary
practices, specifically, the state of exception. This is the means used to confer exorbitant
powers on the Police and Armed Forces in terms of arresting individuals and controlling
property. There are also excessive powers granted in the area of the administration of
justice concerning limits to procedural guarantees. These very posers, more often than not,
constitute violations in and of themselves. Furthermore, they often lead to more serious
violations, such as torture, disappearance, and murder. For this reason, recommendations
have been given to the Colombian government time and time again, urging it not to abuse
the former concept of “state of siege” or the current idea of “state of internal unrest”.29

The government has also received recommendations to act against another known factor
leading to violations, which is the ongoing service of state agents notoriously proven to
have been involved in serious violations.30 Without detriment to the corresponding
investigation and legal sanctions, and in full respect for the legal guarantees, the
government can and must make use of the variety of legal mechanisms in place to remove
these individuals from active duty, just as is done with any high-ranking government
official who does not share or duly execute state policy. As long as these notorious
violators remain within the State, they will continue to be the source of serious violations
and will represent an obstacle to any investigations that are put forward. Their removal, on
the other hand (provided it is accompanied by the proper investigation and timely trial and
sentencing, where applicable), will weaken paramilitary groups that rely on their power.
This is one more way to oppose these groups decisively.

Controlling factors contributing to future violations implies the guaranteed commitment of
the high-ranking military and police commanders to develop a policy that is scrupulously
respectful of human rights. This must also be reinforced through the appropriate training
of members of the forces of law and order, based on their understanding that their mission
to guarantee security must also include human rights as the ends and the means of carrying
out their duties. They must be made aware that, paradoxically, if they do not adopt this
attitude they run the risk of becoming themselves a severe threat to security. Some
important efforts have already been brought forward in the last 15 years to discuss and
agree with the armed forces on their behavior in this area, which would have been
unthinkable in prior years. Nevertheless, it is evident that a much greater effort must still
be made.

These initiatives must be complemented with corrective mechanisms to guarantee that
respecting human rights is the rule and their violation the exception. The Attorney
General’s Office will have to take on a more active and effective than the one it has
performed to date. Military criminal justice will have to refrain from trying serious human
rights or humanitarian law violations, allowing them to be judged impartially by the
ordinary (civil) justice system, after it has been duly strengthened. This is precisely what
the civil sector recommended when the government formed a commission to design a new
military criminal code in 1995.31 In 1997, the Constitutional Court issued a definitive
decision with the same effect,32 a ruling that after many difficulties was finally adopted by
the Superior Judges Counsel (CSJ) in 2000 and was also included to a certain extent in the
new military criminal code adopted in 1999.

3.2.2. Sanctioning Past Violations

There are three major reasons why sanctioning past violations is the second important
necessity in order to guarantee respect for human rights. In the first place, it is meant to
satisfy the victims’ and families’ rights to the truth, justice and reparations. In the second
place, it allows the neutralization of violators and prevents them from acting again. In the
third place, it is a necessary condition to building the minimum level of trust between
members of society to enable civilized coexistence. A human group which is certain that
certain violations committed in the past will remain in impunity has no security regarding
the protection of their rights against any future violations. This is why, though the amnesty
proposals (i.e., “turning over a new leaf”) for serious violations of human rights and
humanitarian law may seem reasonable to many, they offer no guarantee of a solid social
foundation. On the contrary, what is needed in cases of mass violations are special
mechanisms that allow the clarification, sanctioning and reparation of the many atrocities
committed. This trend is gaining acceptance worldwide, to the extent that progress has
been made over the last ten years in the development of universal jurisdiction regarding
human rights violations (vis-à-vis Pinochet’s arrest in London followed by the revocation
of his amnesty and arrest in Chile, or the extradition and trial requests regarding
Argentinean generals, or the approval of the international Criminal Court Act).

In Colombia, it has been proposed many times that a special investigation commission be
created to this end. Such a commission would be made up of high-ranking government
officials and members of national and international NGOs. Their duties would not be to
try cases, but rather to promote and oversee legal processes through the collection and
contribution of evidence using existing trial mechanisms, without modification and
without restricting guarantees. A United Nations expert formally made this proposal tot he
government in 1989, as part of the consulting services that the Colombian authorities had
requested of Geneva at that time.33 The Government did not even bother to replicate the
suggestion nor to disclose it. Nor have administrations responded to similar proposals
made repeatedly at the beginning of the 1990s by different Colombian and international
NGOs, as well as by the Commission for Overcoming Violence (“Comisión para la
Superación de la Violencia”), which was created by the government in 1991 to receive
recommendations on peace and human rights for a six-month period after a demobilization
agreement with the former guerrilla group Popular Liberation Army (“Ejército Popular de
Liberación”) (EPL).34 Important national and international human rights organizations
along with the human rights bodies of the United Nations and the Inter-American System
have also insisted repeatedly on the need of guaranteeing the right to the truth, justice and
reparations, as well as the search for the means to achieve this.

3.2.3. Institutional Strengthening
Institutional strengthening, or to put it in other words, the full applicability of the social
Rule of Law, is of course another condition to guaranteeing respect and enforcement of
human rights. This evidently assumes the effective separation of powers and the existence
of control mechanisms in this area. Moreover, it implies the availability of resources
quickly for the protection and operation of the agencies which oversee the authorities and
aid victims, such as the national Ombudsman’s Office (called “Defensoría del Pueblo” in
Colombia). Above all, it requires the actions of a reliable justice apparatus, one that is
independent, impartial and effective. Though this may sound like an empty platitude, in
Colombia it is a heartfelt necessity.

This country shows a marked contrast between a high level of sophistication in the legal
area (as reflected by the professionalism and training of many of its judges),35 on the one
hand, and the low level of credibility and results of the judicial system itself, on the other
hand. This deficiency is relatively well-known in the criminal area, where the rate of
impunity is officially recognized as being very high. The debate centers on whether the
actual rate is 70%, 90% or 97%, but all analysts agree that whatever the actual figure is, the
rate is extremely high. It is only natural that this generates feelings of vulnerability, which
in turn lead to behaviors belying a lack of solidarity with society, since everyone tends to
feel that it is best to look out for his or her own interests, come what may.

This phenomenon is not limited to the criminal area. It also arises, though to a somewhat
lesser extent, in civil. Labor and agricultural jurisdictions. These conflicts are normally
considered minor by the authorities, though they may in fact have far-reaching
consequences for the affected parties. Be that as it may, these are the most common type
of conflict and they are difficult to process before the legal system and judges, because the
costs tend to be higher than the benefits. Breaches of small working contracts, transit
accidents, disputes of plots of land or illegal housing developments are part of the day to
day life of many Colombian people. The sad thing is that there are no real institutional
channels for resolving these matters. Certain initiatives have been promoted since the end
of the 1980s in this area, such as conciliation procedures, yet their coverage remains fairly

In the midst of this precarious situation, it is surprising that the population’s willingness to
turn to the official justice apparatus has not been destroyed altogether. The possibility of a
citizen’s injunction (called “tutela” under Colombian law and which was established in the
1991 Constitution as a quick remedy for the protection of fundamental rights) has been
used more and more in a variety of conflicts (going from 20,000 en 1992 to close to 80,000
in 1999). This shows that the generalized skepticism towards institutions can be overcome
when the institutions prove to be capable for satisfying individual basic needs, one of
which is the administration of justice.

3.2.4. Guaranteeing a Minimum Level of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

The other basic needs that must also be satisfied, guaranteeing certain minimum levels at
the very least as a necessary condition to ensure a prevalent climate of respect for human
rights, are economic, social and cultural rights. The relationship existing between these
basic privileges and civil and political rights becomes more obvious with each passing day.
Many violations of the right to life are brought about through violations of the right to
land, for example. If membership in a society is not profitable in terms of food, housing,
health, education and employment, it is only natural that harmful behaviors arise in the
attempt to acquire such goods. Furthermore, there are so many who lack these basic rights
that the abusive use of power to repress these behaviors has tended to become the rule
rather than the exception.

With over half of the population in this country below the poverty line, Colombia must
make a serious effort to redress economic distribution. It is evident that guaranteeing a
minimum level of economic, social and cultural rights is not something that can be
achieved overnight, which is why the progressive nature of this process has been pointed
out. Yet the other side of this argument is that achieving these changes cannot be put off
indefinitely. Setting goals and timeframes in which these levels become a reality must be
one of the State’s policies, in compliance with its international obligations, which
transcend the particular goals of each transitory administration.

Specifically, rural reform for redistributing land within the “agricultural frontier” is
essential for reducing the levels of social exclusion currently existing in Colombia.
Land redistribution could also have positive effects in lowering levels of poverty and
ethnic marginalization. It could also encourage colonizers now established in the
Amazon region to return to their places of origin, which would facilitate dealing with
the illegal coca crop problem and the protection of the rain forest.

Land redistribution through a rural reform may be, and frequently has been, one of the
results of a peace process. However, the institution of such a redistribution prior to
peace would be an even more positive outcome since it could facilitate the definition
and implementation of a lasting peace process and could also contribute substantially to
the elimination of the reasons for the continuation of war, should it prove impossible to
reach a negotiated solution to the conflict in the short term. However, neither former
administrations nor the current Pastrana government, has thus far made any proposal
oriented toward land redistribution in this country .

A successful approach to the problem of redistribution of land implies guaranteed
respect for civil and political rights. This is another reason to undertake both initiatives
(i.e., agrarian reform and respect for human rights) before initiating a negotiated peace
process. These goals must be approached independently to allow the peace process to
conclude successfully. Any rural reform process will have to face resistance from
traditional and newer large landowners. Some of the latter have gained access to land
due to forced displacements caused by human rights violations, or as a result of the
monetary profit and violent actions of drug trafficking. Those landowners will most
likely react with violence to any redistribution policies, a strategy that will in turn
require confrontation by credible Armed Forces that are willing to protect the rights of
those who have been forcibly expelled and uprooted from their lands. Another
requirement is a robust judicial system to deal with these reactions and a political will to
clarify, repair and punish serious past violations, many of which have resulted in
abusive land occupation. Therefore, any recommendations made for facing social
exclusion in Colombia, such as those expressed in 1995 by the United Nations
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, are crucial for achieving peace
and truly improving human rights in this country. It is important to emphasize that in
addition to the recommendations in this area related to land distribution, there are others
that relate directly to the poverty levels, ethnic marginalization and the situation of

3.2.5. Overcoming the Discriminatory Mentality

The absence of a serious plan to guarantee economic, social and cultural rights may well
be related to the fifth of the problems that must be faced in order to bring about a favorable
environment and respect for human rights: A discriminatory mindset. For years,
Colombian society has been marked by an exclusionary framework towards the least
favored sectors of the population. The demand for land presented by peasants and
indigenous peoples, as well as workers’ labor claims and pleas for better living conditions
have often been denied as extending beyond the bounds of reasonable and moderate
defense of the interests of the social sectors that would be affected by such claims (i.e.,
landowners, entrepreneurs, political leaders).         Going well beyond the level of
understandable selfishness, these interests are defended with excessive zeal, resulting in an
underestimation of the human quality of those who want their rights to be recognized.

Colombia has made a fairly rapid transition in the 20th century from a system of social
relations based on inequality and servitude to another which is based on the postulate of
equality and competition among social subjects and groups. The admission that all
Colombians, without exception, have the same rights is something which almost no one
has dared deny in theory. Yet putting this tenet into practice in day to day life has been
traumatic and difficult in a context where there are differences in terms of culture and
physiognomy that are so notorious they become abhorrent.

This discriminatory mentality that is still present in Colombian society today also exists
among the state agents responsible for ensuring the safety of the citizens. Imbued by the
idea that they have an official right to bear arms, the discriminatory attitudes of the forces
of law and order are strengthened in their daily confrontations with those coming from the
most destitute sectors of the population, which statistically constitute the bulk of those
captured committing crimes.

The armed conflict has accentuated this discriminatory mindset. The view of the other as
the enemy, which is a normal assumption in armed confrontations, has become
commonplace as well in civil conflicts. For this reason, perhaps more than other
populations with similar origins and discriminatory practices in principle, Colombian
society needs to make even greater efforts to reduce the discriminatory attitudes that are
predominant. Educational campaigns are not enough, though they are undeniably
important. The starting point must be to ask ourselves where does this exclusionary trend
arise in concrete conditions in each of the country’s regions. This type of blunt and honest
examination may shed light on how to counteract these attitudes, especially given the brad
diversity of contexts.

It is also crucial to promote in-depth education in human rights for Colombian society, as
required under the Constitution and the “general educational law”, as well as under the
international human rights treaties that Colombia has ratified.
3.3. Factors Hindering and Favoring Democratic Coexistence

The story that has just been told is not a very heartening one. It is difficult to promote and
expect significant results in the medium-term regarding the five aspects already mentioned
herein: prevention, impunity, the administration of justice, socioeconomic rights and
discrimination. It is even less likely to expect progress right now, with the uncertainty of
the peace process and the conversations between the government and guerrillas, which
give rise to frequent and more clamorous demands for a hard line and all out war,
accompanied by proposed restrictions of rights under the pretext of preparing a much
stronger front to face the guerrilla groups. The armed conflict thus tends to make the
human rights situation even more precarious, and more and more people feel that the
pursuit of peace through this means is an unrealistic and utopian ideal.

After the ratification of the 1991 Constitution, constitutional reforms have been proposed
once and again. These are geared toward suppressing restrictions to the use of the state of
exception, in the hope of allowing the military to initiate legal investigations of civilians.
Instead of combating paramilitary groups, from 1993 to 1997, efforts concentrated on
legalizing their activity through provisions to authorize the operations of “rural security
cooperatives” and through the proposal to foresee the formation of militias
constitutionally. Although the legalization of paramilitary groups through this means has
been legally disavowed, there is nothing to prevent these initiatives or others like them to
come back with a vengeance in the first decade of the new century. In face, there is a draft
bill before Congress regarding this issue, as has already been mentioned. Other similar
proposals form part of the platform of one of the presidential candidates for the 2002
election, which has caused enthusiasm among important entrepreneurs and landowners.

Nor has significant progress been made in terms of countering impunity in human rights.
The Prosecutor General’s Office has made serious and significant efforts in this area, yet
they have not been supported sufficiently by the Government and the Police and Armed
Forces, since the latter are reluctant to implement arrest warrants issued for paramilitary
members. They are also unwilling to transfer serious cases of human rights violations
which are still currently under the military criminal justice system to the ordinary (civil)
system. In the year 2000, an important achievement was made, overcoming much
resistance, because laws came into effect which ordered that human rights violations must
be investigated and processed by the ordinary justice system, when the Superior Judges
Counsel (CSJ) finally fulfilled a ruling by the Constitutional Court which had so decreed in
1997. These are, without a doubt, great legislative and judicial advances. Nevertheless,
there are still many doubts in terms of whether these standards will be truly complied with,
how long they will remain in effect and which decisions will be issued in the future. The
Ministry of National Defense and other sectors have continued to push their proposals to
strengthen military amnesty, which is a clear effort to prevent actions on the part of the
Prosecutor General’s Office and the Attorney General’s Office, to say nothing of the
constitutional right to citizen’s injunctions (called “tutelas” in Spanish), when directed
against officers and soldiers.

Furthermore, the administration of justice is still a long way from including among its
priorities the necessary attention to the common needs of the people, which have more to
do with muggings and violence through common crime and breach of smaller contracts
than with rebellion or drug trafficking. The resources of the judicial apparatus continue to
represent a mere 3% of the national budget, while funding for security forces still exceed
20%, which as been the case since the 1970s.

Social spending cuts have been a constant during the last three administrations, a fact that
was further aggravated by the fiscal deficit from 1998-2000. There have been no serious
goals in terms of housing, employment, diet, health or education in the last decade, nor at
the start of the new century.

In terms of tolerance and fighting discrimination, some valuable efforts have been put forth
in the areas of ethnic struggles and gender sensitivity, yet they have not been able to
eradicate the military mentality which automatically sees the specter of the guerrilla behind
every social conflict.

Colombia is going through a difficult time, without a doubt. The persistent and growing
aggression against the population by guerrilla groups, as shown in the increasing number
of kidnappings, the horrifying practice of mass kidnappings, armed attacks on towns using
weapons that wreak indiscriminate damage, such as the gas tanks, have done nothing to
help matters take a more positive course. At the same time, by insisting on repeated acts of
war instead of complying with humanitarian law, paramilitary groups have thoroughly
tarnished their image. This has never been more obvious than through the new modality of
abuse undertaken by these groups in 1996 and which consists of kidnapping or murdering
the family members of guerrillas. It is also evident in generalized massacres of the civilian
population, which now occur at the rate of more than one per day. It is not strange, then, in
the midst of this intensely unsafe situation that the possibility of a military coup is
mentioned from time to time. Though it does not appear to be an imminent possibility, it
can never be discarded out of hand.

The undeniable gravity of this point in time does not eliminate the necessity to continue
proposing and requiring a suitable human rights policy, on the contrary, it makes it even
more urgent.

In order for this demand to be viable, and if peace can be reached through choosing the
path of respect for human rights and humanitarian law, the collaboration of the
international community will be decisive as a result of the supervision that Colombian is
currently being subjected to in terms of human rights. In 1996, the United Nations Human
Rights Commission decided by consensus and with the approval of the Colombian
Government to ask the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to establish
a permanent office in Colombia with the mandate of aiding the Colombian authorities and
civil society in terms of promoting and protecting human rights. In addition, that office
would have the responsibility of monitoring the human rights situation through the
preparation of analytical reports which would be sent to the Commission through the High
Commissioner. That Office was indeed set up in 1997, and it has submitted an annual
public report to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Both the actions of
this Office as well as those of the Commission itself may contribute to contain some of the
authoritarian initiatives which are currently in vogue as well as to inhibit the perpetration
of violations. When looked at in the most positive light, if these efforts are performed in
keeping with the principles of transparency, objectivity and impartiality inherent to the
United Nations, the may even contribute to promoting a true understanding of the
importance of human rights by broad sectors of the population and undermining
ideological preconceptions regarding this topic.
Numerous important international human rights organizations are awaiting the appropriate
performance of this mandate, as are a significant number of States which consider
themselves to be Colombia’s friends. One of the most important of these is the European
Union, whose parliament has examined the human rights situation in this country with
great care and concern, and has continuously approved orders, which are successively
more decisive and documented, on Colombia’s need to respect human rights and define a
negotiated peace settlement.

The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, at the same time, had maintained
sharp watchfulness over the Colombian situation, both in terms of the individual cases of
violations that have been submitted for its study, as well as in its evaluation of the whole
series of deeds that have come up in this area.

International accompaniment is not enough on its own to avoid greater deterioration, yet its
insufficiency should not be grounds for discarding it altogether. This is a factor which did
not exist before the beginning of the 1990s, and it is likely that it will be more common in
the future. It is a factor which must also be met with greater consolidation and
strengthening of Colombian social sectors which are in favor of peace based on respect for
human rights. The key to success for the efforts of these social sectors in terms of
accompaniment by the international community must be measured in terms of the
investment in the current prevailing mentality, which has conditioned the possibility of
enjoying human rights to the termination of the war.

When Colombia’s military and political leadership stops treating human rights as another
card to play at the negotiating table, one which must be saved to trump the guerrillas in the
event of a future peace agreement, the first step will have been taken not only towards
achieving consistent protection of human rights, but also towards the construction of
peace. Respect for human rights as an attitude determinedly assumed by the Colombian
State and society is the surest path towards neutralizing acts of war in this country.

Bogota, March 2001.
  The data presented in this paper regarding human rights in Colombia are based on reports prepared by
the Colombian Commission of Jurists (CCJ), particularly in “Comisión Colombiana de Juristas”,
Colombia, derechos humanos y derecho humanitario: 1996, Bogota, 1997, and “Comisión Colombiana
de Juristas”, Panorama de derechos humanos y derecho humanitario. Avance del segundo semestre de
2000, Bogota, 2001 (forthcoming).
   In November 1998, a Police Colonel who was then Agency Chief for the Anti-Kidnapping Unit
(GAULA), was subpoenaed to testify before the Prosecutor General's Office (“Fiscalía General de la
Nación”) about kidnappings allegedly attributed to him (El Tiempo daily newspaper, 11/26/98, Legal
   The exact figures are 76.1%, 4.2%, and 19.7%, respectively: Comisión Colombiana de Juristas,
Colombia, derechos humanos y derecho humanitario: 1997, Bogota, forthcoming, 1998, Table 2.
   See, for instance, Colombian Ministry of National Defense, Annual Human Rights and International
Humanitarian Law Report 2000, Bogota, January 2001.
  Inter-American Council on Human Rights, Tercer informe sobre la situación de Derechos Humanos en
Colombia, Bogota, Comisión Colombiana de Juristas, 1999.
  The Ministry of Defense reports that only 349 arrest warrants issued against paramilitary agents between
1998 and August 2000 have been applied, out of the total 1,662 warrants issued by the Prosecutor
General's Office: Colombian National Ministry of Defense, Illegal Self-Defense Groups in Colombia,
Bogota, December 2000, p. 29.
  U.S. State Department, Country Report on Human Rights Practices 1999 (Chapter on Colombia).
  Inter-American Council on Human Rights, Tercer informe…. Op.cit.
  "The High Commissioner for Human Rights Condemns the Murder of Trade-Union Leader in Bogota.
Mrs. Robinson Issues a Cal1 for Full Protection of Human Rights Defenders", United Nations Press
Release, Bogota, October 21, 1998 (translation by this author). See also editorial in El Tiempo, Bogota,
lO/25/98, p. 4A; and "Guerra Sucia, ¿Quién está matando a los defensores de los derechos humanos en
Colombia? ¿Por qué ahora?" in Revue Semana, Bogota, 04/27/98, pp. 24-30.
     Some 315,000 people in 2000, according to CODHES, "Quarterly Monitoring 2000," Bogota,
CODHES-SISDES, Mimeo, January 19, 2001.
   U.S. Committee for Refugees, Colombia's Silent Crisis. One Million Displaced by Violence,
Washington, D.C., 1998.
   Bill 387, adopted July 18, 1997.
   Decree 2569, December 12, 2000.
   Constitutional Court Sentence SU-1150, August 30, 2000.
    El Salvador’s rate is even higher than Colombia’s, at over 100 per 100,000. Following Colombia is
Brazil, with a rate of under 50 per 100,000.
    Colombian National Planning Department (DNP), La Paz: el Desafío para el Desarrollo, Bogota,
Tercer Mundo Editores publishers, 1998, p. 102 (translation of quote by this author). The essay on
justice included in this book (pp. 99-122), prepared by Los Andes University’s Center for Legal
Research under the direction of Professor Mauricio García, is an excellent, authorized and brief diagnosis
of the problem, including important proposals for its solution. The justice data cited herein come from
this study, unless otherwise indicated.
    More detailed information on this issue can be seen in Gustavo Gallón, "Diplomacia y Derechos
Humanos: entre la Inserción y el Aislamiento", in Socorro Ramírez and Luis Alberto Restrepo (eds.),
Colombia: entre la inserción y el aislamiento. La política exterior colombiana en los años noventa,
Bogota, Siglo del Hombre Editores publishers and IEPRI (National University of Colombia), pp. 202-
    In order to facilitate an easy reading of the text, the four periods are expressed in terms of decades
(using the distinctions mid-[decade], early-[decade] and late-[decade]). These periods correspond more
precisely to the following dates:
          1. First period (mid-60s to mid-80s): Actually, from 1964 to 1982. In May 23, 1963, President
          Guillermo León Valencia declared a state of siege to deal with a strike organized by oil workers
          in Barrancabermeja and three other neighboring towns. This decision initiated a long period in
          which Governments dealt with social conflicts predominantly with a show of force, including
          bombing of peasant settlements, similar to the case of individuals who, after having been
          attacked in 1964, decided to organize as a reaction the guerrilla group known as the
          Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). The predominant and almost exclusive use
          of force and of decrees of states of siege in the face of social protest was clearly in effect until
          the end of the government of President Julio César Turbay (August 7, 1982), during which
          arbitrary legislation known as the "Anti-Terrorist Act" was adopted. This period of state of siege
          was lifted on June 12, 1982. In general terms, no recognition of human rights violations was
          accepted during this period.
          2. Second period (mid-80s to mid-90s): Actually, from 1982 to 1994. In December 1982, the
          Congress approved a bill proposed by the Government to grant amnesty to guerrillas in order to
          launch negotiations with guerrilla groups. This was a period of political reform, including the
          popular election of mayors (begun in 1986) and a new and more democratic Constitution (since
          1991). This was also a period of a increasing of violence in this country, and coincided with the
          administrations of Belisario Betancur (August 1982-August 1986), Virgilio Barco (1986-1990),
          and César Gaviria (1990-1994). In general terms, limited recognition of human rights violations
          was gradually accepted during this period.
          3. Third period (mid-90s). Actually corresponds to the administration of Ernesto Samper (1994-
          1998). There was more recognition of human rights violations in this period, as well as an
          increase in decisions, nationally and internationally, to deal with human rights in Colombia.
          Nevertheless, these decisions continued to be very limited in terms of their actual effects.
          Paramilitary groups and paramilitary action grew notoriously in this period.
          4. Fourth period (late-90s). Actually corresponds to the administration of Andrés Pastrana
          (1998-to the present). Political negotiations with guerrilla groups, such as FARC and ELN,
          prevail on this administration’s agenda. The Government has tried to counter-balance United
          Nations involvement as observers of the Colombian human rights crisis by increasing US
          military and political support.
   The "Attorney General’s Office" is the name the U.S. State Department has given in English to the
Procuraduría General de la Nación, a State agency "which oversees the performance of all public sector
employees." See U.S. State Department, Country Reports on Human Practices 2000, released by the
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, (Chapter on Colombia), February 2001, p. 6 and 18.
The same report uses the name of "Prosecutor General's Office" for the Fiscalía General de la Nación,
which is the Government bureau that carries out criminal investigations. This paper respects that
   This standard authorized the Armed Forces to release weapons of war (which are restricted by law for
the exclusive use of the Armed Forces) to groups of civilians (Decree 3398 of 1965, Article 33, Paragraph
3, approved as a "temporary measure” under a State of Exception, and later enacted as permanent
legislation through Bill 48 of 1968). In May, 1989, only one month after the suspension of the standard,
achieved through Decree 815 of 1989, the Supreme Court annulled it as being unconstitutional.
   Decree 814, April 1989.
   See G. Gallón, "Derechos humanos en la Constitución de 1991," in Pedro Pablo Morcillo, Cambio y
perpectivas en el derecho colombiano en la segunda mitad del siglo XX", Tomo XI, Derechos de última
generación, forthcoming.
   In 1989, with M-19. In 1991, with the Revolutionary Party of Workers (PRT), the indigenous group
Quintín Lame Armed Movement, and an important faction of the Popular Liberation Army (EPL). In
1994, with the Socialist Renovation Stream, a group formerly belonging to the National Liberation Army
   Bill 288 of 1996
   Sentence C-358, August 5, 1997.
   Draft Bill No. 81 of 1999 (Senate).
   Comisión de Superación de la Violencia, Pacificar la paz, Bogota, Instituto de Estudios Políticos y
Relaciones Internacionales de la Universidad Nacional, CINEP, CECOIN, Comisión Andina de Juristas
(CAJ), Seccional Colombiana (now know as the Colombian Commission of Jurists (CCJ), pp. 144-150.
   Comisión Colombiana de Juristas, Colombia, derechos humanos y derecho humanitario: 1995, Bogota,
1996, p. 3.
   Informe del Grupo de Trabajo sobre desapariciones forzadas o involuntarias acerca de su visita a
Colombia en 1988, United Nations Document E/CN.4/1989/Add.1, par. 132.
    Informe del Relator Especial de Naciones Unidas sobre Ejecuciones Extrajudiciales, Sumarias o
Arbitrarias, acerca de su visita a Colombia en octubre de 1989, United nations Document
E/CN.4/1990/22/Add.1, par. 67 (there is an edition available in Colombia, published by ILSA and the
Andean Commission of Jurists (CAJ), Colombian Branch, now known as the Colombian Commission of
Jurists (CCJ).
   Gustavo Gallón, Ser o no ser? Justicia Penal Militar, Bogota, Comisión Colombiana de Juristas, mimeo,
   Sentence C-358, August 1997.
   Report by Argentinean expert Raúl Aragón, sent to the United Nations Center for Human Rights on August
18, 1990, entitled, La desaparición forzada e involuntaria en Colombia.
   Amnesty International, Violencia política en Colombia. Mito y realidad, Madrid, EDAI, 1994, pp. 89-91;
Comisión para la Superación de la Violencia, Pacificar la paz, Bogota, Instituto de Estudios Políticos y
Relaciones Internacionales de la Universidad Nacional, CINEP, CECOIN, Comisión Andina de Juristas
(CAJ), Seccional Colombiana (now known as the Colombian Commission of Jurists (CCJ)), 1992, pp. 167-
   Comisión Andina de Juristas, Colombia: el derecho a la justicia, Lima, 1988.
   See The national Ombudsman’s Office (“Defensoría del Pueblo”) and Comisión Colombiana de
Juristas, Contra Viento y Marea. Conclusiones y Recomendaciones de la ONU y de la OEA para
Garantizar la Vigencia de los Derechos Humanos en Colombia: 1980-1997, Bogota, Tercer Mundo
Editores publishers, pp. 143-149.

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