Bell Quiz: Use Pages 719-721
1) What was Malcolm X’s real last name AND
why did he change it?
2) Who converted Malcolm X to the Black
3) List 2 controversial teachings of Malcolm’s
prior to his pilgrimage to Mecca.
4) What was Malcolm’s new slogan after
returning from Mecca?
5) What happened to James Meredith during his
“walk against fear?”
Bell Quiz Answers
1) Malcolm Little: changed it to X to drop his slave
2) Elijah Muhhamad
3) Whites were to blame for the black man’s social
problems, armed self-defense and “Any Means
Necessary, African-Americans should have pride in
their identity and culture, blacks should separate
from white society and quit trying to act like the
4) Ballots or bullets.
5) Shot and wounded. Could not continue the march
1) Understand how disagreements among civil
rights groups created a violent period in the
fight for civil rights.
2) Explain the difference in the teachings and
tactics of Dr. King, Malcolm X, and the Black
Bell Quiz: Use Pages 714-719
1) List two types of discrimination that the Civil
Rights Act of 1964 banned.
2) What was the goal of Core and SNCC workers
in Mississippi during Freedom Summer?
3) Which amendment banned poll taxes?
4) Define de facto and de jure segregation.
Provide an example of each.
5) What caused urban rioting during the 1960’s?
Bell Quiz Answers
1) Banned discrimination in employment and in
2) Register southern blacks to vote.
3) 24th Amendment
4) De facto=segregation that exists by practice or
custom. De jure=segregation by law (Jim Crow).
5) A-A’s were sick of inequality and discrimination
in job opportunities, housing, and education. New
Civil Rights leaders encourage blacks to take
control of their neighborhoods.
“It is criminal to teach a man not to defend
himself when he is the constant victim of
brutal attacks…The time has come for the
American Negro to fight back in self-
defense whenever he is being unjustly and
*Head of the Nation of
Islam or Black
*Converted Malcolm X
to his teachings.
*Main Teaching: whites
were the cause of the
conditions in which
Malcolm (Little) X,
dropped his “slave name”,
converted to the Nation of
Islam while serving time
in jail for burglary and
famous disciple in 1952.
1) Whites were to blame for the
black man’s social problems.
2) Blacks should separate from
white society . Quit trying to
act like the white man!
3) Armed self-defense and “Any
4) African-Americans should
have pride in their identity
“Ballots or Bullets”
Malcolm broke from Elijah Muhammad in March
1964 because of differences in strategy and
In April 1964 Malcolm takes a pilgrimage to
Mecca and learns that orthodox Muslims believe
in equality of all races!
Malcolm returns to America and radically changes
his teachings: ok to hate racism and injustice, but
it is wrong to hate the white race!!
“Ballots or Bullets”
After returning from Mecca, Malcolm
begins to preach a new slogan “Ballots or
Meaning: “If you and I don’t use the ballot,
we’re going to be forced to use the bullet.
So let us try the ballot.”
On February 21, 1965,
Malcolm X was
assassinated in Harlem as
he took the podium to
deliver a speech.
He was shot 16 times at
close range by 3 Black
Muhammad ordered the
Influential leader of
SNCC was arrested on
June 17, 1966 for
setting up a tent on the
grounds of an all black
high school for an
This was his 27th
That night marchers
held a rally to show
their support for
Carmichael showed up
at the end of the rally
with his face swollen
from a police beating.
“This is the 27th time I have been arrested-and I
ain’t going to jail no more!…We been saying
freedom for 6 years-and we ain’t got nothin’.
What we’re gonna start saying now is BLACK
Meaning: black people should begin to define
their own goals and lead their own organizations.
He didn’t want any more help from white people
in achieving equality.
Perceived message: Many people, especially
whites, thought he was encouraging an armed and
BLACK PANTHER PARTY
In October 1966, Huey
Newton and Bobby Seale
formed the Black Panther
Party in Oakland, CA to
fight police brutality in
The Black Panthers
began to preach many of
the violent ideas of the
To raise $ for their organization they sold
copies of the writings of Mao Zedong,
leader of the Chinese Communist
Slogan: “Power flows out of the barrel of a
Members of the Black
Panthers wore black
black leather jackets,
black trousers, black
shirts, and shiny black
•On the morning of October 17, 1968, U.S. athlete Tommie Smith won the 200
meter race in a world-record time of 19.83 seconds, with Australia’s Peter Norman
second with a time of 20.07 seconds, and the U.S.'s John Carlos in third place with
a time of 20.10 seconds. After the race was completed, the three went to collect
their medals at the podium. The two U.S athletes received their medals shoeless,
but wearing black socks, to represent black poverty. Smith wore a black scarf
around his neck to represent black pride, Carlos had his tracksuit top unzipped to
show solidarity with all blue collar workers in the U.S. and wore a necklace of
beads which he described "were for those individuals that were lynched, or killed
and that no-one said a prayer for, that were hung and tarred. It was for those thrown
off the side of the boats in the middle passage.”
•Both U.S. athletes intended on bringing black gloves to the event, but Carlos forgot
his, leaving them in the Olympic Village. It was the Australian, Peter Norman, who
suggested Carlos wear Smith's left-handed glove, this being the reason behind him
raising his left hand, as opposed to his right, differing from the traditional Black
Power salute. When “The Star Spangled Banner" played, Smith and Carlos
delivered the salute with heads bowed, a gesture which became front page news
around the world. As they left the podium they were booed by the crowd. Smith
later said "If I win, I am American, not a black American. But if I did something
bad, then they would say I am a Negro. We are black and we are proud of being
black. Black America will understand what we did tonight.”
International Olympic Committee (IOC) president, Avery Brundage, deemed it to
be a domestic political statement, unfit for the apolitical, international forum the
Olympic Games were supposed to be. In an immediate response to their actions, he
ordered Smith and Carlos suspended from the U.S. team and banned from the
Olympic Village. When the US Olympic Committee refused, Brundage threatened
to ban the entire US track team. This threat led to the two athletes being expelled
from the Games. A spokesman for the IOC said it was "a deliberate and violent
breach of the fundamental principles of the Olympic spirit.”
Black Panther Teachings
1) “Program for the People”- taking control of the
communities in which African-Americans
lived, full employment, and decent housing.
2) Established day care centers, free breakfast
programs and other services in the ghettos.
3) See 10 point document.
The Panthers drew much support from African-
Americans and recruited many members from
other non-violent movements.
Stokely Carmichael joined the Black Panther Party
The police and FBI had many shoot outs with the
Panthers throughout the years.
Newton was arrested in 1968 on manslaughter
charges, but was released in 1970 when it was
found that police illegally tapped his phone lines
and searched his property.
By 1970 the Party had
split so many times due to
internal problems that it
Carmichael left the party
because he wanted all
whites banned from it.
Seale and Newton
resigned in the same year.
The party continued for a
short time under new
service projects in the