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Malcolm X and Black Panthers

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					  Bell Quiz: Use Pages 719-721
1) What was Malcolm X’s real last name AND
   why did he change it?
2) Who converted Malcolm X to the Black
   Muslims?
3) List 2 controversial teachings of Malcolm’s
   prior to his pilgrimage to Mecca.
4) What was Malcolm’s new slogan after
   returning from Mecca?
5) What happened to James Meredith during his
   “walk against fear?”
             Bell Quiz Answers
1) Malcolm Little: changed it to X to drop his slave
   name.
2) Elijah Muhhamad
3) Whites were to blame for the black man’s social
   problems, armed self-defense and “Any Means
   Necessary, African-Americans should have pride in
   their identity and culture, blacks should separate
   from white society and quit trying to act like the
   white man.
4) Ballots or bullets.
5) Shot and wounded. Could not continue the march
                 Objectives
TSW:
1) Understand how disagreements among civil
   rights groups created a violent period in the
   fight for civil rights.
2) Explain the difference in the teachings and
   tactics of Dr. King, Malcolm X, and the Black
   Panthers.
  Bell Quiz: Use Pages 714-719
1) List two types of discrimination that the Civil
   Rights Act of 1964 banned.
2) What was the goal of Core and SNCC workers
   in Mississippi during Freedom Summer?
3) Which amendment banned poll taxes?
4) Define de facto and de jure segregation.
   Provide an example of each.
5) What caused urban rioting during the 1960’s?
            Bell Quiz Answers
1) Banned discrimination in employment and in
   public accommodations.
2) Register southern blacks to vote.
3) 24th Amendment
4) De facto=segregation that exists by practice or
   custom. De jure=segregation by law (Jim Crow).
5) A-A’s were sick of inequality and discrimination
   in job opportunities, housing, and education. New
   Civil Rights leaders encourage blacks to take
   control of their neighborhoods.
           CIVIL RIGHTS
“It is criminal to teach a man not to defend
  himself when he is the constant victim of
  brutal attacks…The time has come for the
  American Negro to fight back in self-
  defense whenever he is being unjustly and
  unlawfully attacked.”
                        Malcolm X
Elijah Muhammad
        *Head of the Nation of
          Islam or Black
          Muslims.
        *Converted Malcolm X
          to his teachings.
        *Main Teaching: whites
          were the cause of the
          conditions in which
          blacks found
          themselves.
Malcolm X
        Malcolm (Little) X,
         dropped his “slave name”,
         converted to the Nation of
         Islam while serving time
         in jail for burglary and
         drugs.
        Became Elijah
         Muhammad’s most
         famous disciple in 1952.
Malcolm X
        Malcolm’s teachings:
     1) Whites were to blame for the
         black man’s social problems.
     2) Blacks should separate from
         white society . Quit trying to
         act like the white man!
     3) Armed self-defense and “Any
         Means Necessary.”
     4) African-Americans should
         have pride in their identity
         and culture.
          “Ballots or Bullets”
 Malcolm broke from Elijah Muhammad in March
  1964 because of differences in strategy and
  doctrine.
 In April 1964 Malcolm takes a pilgrimage to
  Mecca and learns that orthodox Muslims believe
  in equality of all races!
 Malcolm returns to America and radically changes
  his teachings: ok to hate racism and injustice, but
  it is wrong to hate the white race!!
         “Ballots or Bullets”
 After returning from Mecca, Malcolm
  begins to preach a new slogan “Ballots or
  bullets.”
 Meaning: “If you and I don’t use the ballot,
  we’re going to be forced to use the bullet.
  So let us try the ballot.”
Malcolm’s Assassination
               On February 21, 1965,
                Malcolm X was
                assassinated in Harlem as
                he took the podium to
                deliver a speech.
               He was shot 16 times at
                close range by 3 Black
                Muslims. Elijah
                Muhammad ordered the
                hit.
Stokely Carmichael
          Influential leader of
           SNCC was arrested on
           June 17, 1966 for
           setting up a tent on the
           grounds of an all black
           high school for an
           overnight
           demonstration.
          This was his 27th
           arrest!
Black Power
       That night marchers
        held a rally to show
        their support for
        Carmichael.
       Carmichael showed up
        at the end of the rally
        with his face swollen
        from a police beating.
       Carmichael began
        preaching “Black
        Power.”
               Black Power
 “This is the 27th time I have been arrested-and I
  ain’t going to jail no more!…We been saying
  freedom for 6 years-and we ain’t got nothin’.
  What we’re gonna start saying now is BLACK
  POWER.
 Meaning: black people should begin to define
  their own goals and lead their own organizations.
  He didn’t want any more help from white people
  in achieving equality.
 Perceived message: Many people, especially
  whites, thought he was encouraging an armed and
  violent revolution.
BLACK PANTHER PARTY
Black Panthers
        In October 1966, Huey
         Newton and Bobby Seale
         formed the Black Panther
         Party in Oakland, CA to
         fight police brutality in
         the ghetto.
        The Black Panthers
         began to preach many of
         the violent ideas of the
         Black Muslims.
           Black Panthers
 To raise $ for their organization they sold
  copies of the writings of Mao Zedong,
  leader of the Chinese Communist
  revolution.
 Slogan: “Power flows out of the barrel of a
  gun.”
Black Panthers
          Members of the Black
           Panthers wore black
           berets, sunglasses,
           black leather jackets,
           black trousers, black
           shirts, and shiny black
           shoes.
                          1968 Olympics
•On the  morning of October 17, 1968, U.S. athlete Tommie Smith won the 200
meter race in a world-record time of 19.83 seconds, with Australia’s Peter Norman
second with a time of 20.07 seconds, and the U.S.'s John Carlos in third place with
a time of 20.10 seconds. After the race was completed, the three went to collect
their medals at the podium. The two U.S athletes received their medals shoeless,
but wearing black socks, to represent black poverty. Smith wore a black scarf
around his neck to represent black pride, Carlos had his tracksuit top unzipped to
show solidarity with all blue collar workers in the U.S. and wore a necklace of
beads which he described "were for those individuals that were lynched, or killed
and that no-one said a prayer for, that were hung and tarred. It was for those thrown
off the side of the boats in the middle passage.”
•Both U.S. athletes intended on bringing black gloves to the event, but Carlos forgot
his, leaving them in the Olympic Village. It was the Australian, Peter Norman, who
suggested Carlos wear Smith's left-handed glove, this being the reason behind him
raising his left hand, as opposed to his right, differing from the traditional Black
Power salute. When “The Star Spangled Banner" played, Smith and Carlos
delivered the salute with heads bowed, a gesture which became front page news
around the world. As they left the podium they were booed by the crowd. Smith
later said "If I win, I am American, not a black American. But if I did something
bad, then they would say I am a Negro. We are black and we are proud of being
black. Black America will understand what we did tonight.”
International Olympic Committee (IOC) president, Avery Brundage, deemed it to
be a domestic political statement, unfit for the apolitical, international forum the
Olympic Games were supposed to be. In an immediate response to their actions, he
ordered Smith and Carlos suspended from the U.S. team and banned from the
Olympic Village. When the US Olympic Committee refused, Brundage threatened
to ban the entire US track team. This threat led to the two athletes being expelled
from the Games. A spokesman for the IOC said it was "a deliberate and violent
breach of the fundamental principles of the Olympic spirit.”
     Black Panther Teachings
1) “Program for the People”- taking control of the
  communities in which African-Americans
  lived, full employment, and decent housing.
2) Established day care centers, free breakfast
  programs and other services in the ghettos.
3) See 10 point document.
http://www.marxists.org/history/usa/workers/blac
  k-panthers/1966/10/15.htm
             Black Panthers
 The Panthers drew much support from African-
  Americans and recruited many members from
  other non-violent movements.
 Stokely Carmichael joined the Black Panther Party
  in 1967.
 The police and FBI had many shoot outs with the
  Panthers throughout the years.
 Newton was arrested in 1968 on manslaughter
  charges, but was released in 1970 when it was
  found that police illegally tapped his phone lines
  and searched his property.
Black Panthers
          By 1970 the Party had
           split so many times due to
           internal problems that it
           became ineffective.
          Carmichael left the party
           because he wanted all
           whites banned from it.
          Seale and Newton
           resigned in the same year.
           The party continued for a
           short time under new
           leadership providing
           service projects in the
           ghettos.
THE END

				
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