Sonata in A for piano
Structure and Form
The second movement of the sonata is a minuet and
trio. The minuet is in ternary form(ABA)
• The A section is from bars 1 to 18.
• B from bars 19-30.
• The A section is repeated at the end, it is identical to the
first 7 bars of the piece, but the next three bars end on an
imperfect cadence as opposed to the original sections
perfect cadence (E major to A major, dominant to tonic).
This is followed by a repeat of bars 11-18, this time
played in A major, the tonic. There are differences in the
scalic runs, and also, the left hand in bars 45 and 46 plays
a chordal accompaniment.
The trio is in D major. It is also in ternary form, and the
repeated A section is a variation of the original.
• The A section is from bars 49-64.
• The B section is from bars 65 to 84.
• The A section is repeated, but like the structure of the
minuet it is played in the tonic, the ideas and themes are
kept the same, but there are variations of the original
The second movement is based around the key of A
major. This is unusual as the second movement was
typically changed to create tonal contrast within the piece.
• The movement opens with a sequence made up of notes
from the A major triad. The frequent use of D sharp from
bar 11, shows the change to a tonic of E major, and this in
turn, is changed to E minor. The music moves to A minor
(the tonic minor) and the B section ends on the dominant
chord of E major. This prepares for the repeat of the
opening A section, this time played in the tonic.
• The trio is in the key of D major.
• The key changes to E minor (the dominant minor) at the
beginning of the B section shown by the repeated use of C
• In the B section there are many changes in key from E
minor to C major to D minor, before moving to the
dominant chord of A major. The B section ends with
imperfect cadences in D minor.
• As in the minuet, the repeated A section does not modulate
to the dominant, instead it stays in the tonic key, and ends
with a perfect cadence from A to D major (dominant to
• The texture of the second movement is a mixture of
homophonic and polyphonic. The opening bars are
homophonic, but then it changes to polyphonic in bar 6.
The melody is played mostly by the right hand(not in the
trio), and the left hand plays some chordal accompaniment
in the form of triads (and inversions of triads). This
technique is used to emphasise important aspects of the
piece, like the opening sections, and during perfect
cadences(see bars 17 and 18).
(bars 3 and 4)
• The accompaniment also includes Alberti bass throughout
the movement(an accompaniment made up from broken
chords). This form of accompaniment was common
during the classical period.
(bars 7 and 8)
• The melody is made up of scalic runs (for example bars
12-16) in the minuet.
(bars 14 and 15)
• Also leaps using notes from the arpeggios of the current
chords are used.