E213.jqnb9292 by mohamedssakr

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									            Designation: E 213 – 98                                                                                                              An American National Standard




                   Standard Practice for
                   Ultrasonic Examination of Metal Pipe and Tubing1
                   This standard is issued under the fixed designation E 213; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
                   original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
                   superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.


1. Scope                                                                                       2.2 ASNT Documents:
   1.1 This practice2 covers a procedure for detecting discon-                                 Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A for Nondestructive
tinuities in metal pipe and tubing using pulse-reflection ultra-                                  Testing Personnel Qualification and Certification4
sonic contact or immersion angle beam techniques. Artificial                                    ANSI/ASNT CP-189 Standard for Qualification and Certi-
discontinuities consisting of longitudinal reference notches are                                 fication of Nondestructive Testing Personnel4
employed as the primary means of standardizing the ultrasonic                                  2.3 Military Standards:
system. If transverse as well as longitudinal examination is                                   MIL-STD-410 Nondestructive Testing Personnel Qualifica-
desired, a procedure for employing transverse notches is                                         tion and Certification5
provided.
                                                                                            3. Terminology
   1.2 This practice is intended for use with tubular products
having outside diameters approximately 1⁄2 in. (12.7 mm) and                                   3.1 Definitions—For definitions of terms used in this prac-
larger, provided that the examination parameters comply with                                tice, see Terminology E 1316.
and satisfy the requirements of Section 12. These procedures                                4. Summary of Practice
have been used successfully for smaller sizes, however, and
may be specified upon contractural agreement between the                                       4.1 A pulsed ultrasonic angle beam by either the surface
using parties.                                                                              contact or immersion method shall be used. Fig. 1 illustrates
                                                                                            the characteristic angle beam sound entry into the pipe wall for
   NOTE 1—Caution: Exercise caution when examining pipe or tubes                            both contact and immersion testing using a single search unit.
near or below the 1⁄2-in. specified limit. Certain combinations of search
unit size, frequency, thin wall thicknesses, and small diameters could                        NOTE 2—Immersion test method may include tanks, wheel search units,
cause generation of unwanted sound waves that may produce erroneous                         or systems that use liquid streams.
test results.                                                                                 4.2 Variations of the single-search unit method using
   1.3 This practice does not establish acceptance criteria; they                           multiple-search units with the same or various angles and
must be specified by the using party or parties.                                             special gating are sometimes desirable and may be necessary
   1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded                             for efficient examination of thicker wall material.
as standard. The SI equivalents are in parentheses and may be
approximate.                                                                                5. Significance and Use
   1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the                                   5.1 The purpose of this practice is to outline a procedure for
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the                                 detecting and locating significant discontinuities such as pits,
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-                             voids, inclusions, cracks, splits, and the like, by the ultrasonic
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-                               pulse-reflection method.
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.
                                                                                            6. Basis of Application
2. Referenced Documents                                                                        6.1 The following are items that must be decided upon by
  2.1 ASTM Standards:                                                                       the using party or parties.
   E 543 Practice for Evaluating Agencies that Perform Non-                                    6.1.1 Size and type of tubing to be examined,
    destructive Testing3                                                                       6.1.2 Extent of examination, that is, scanning in one or both
   E 1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations3                                      circumferential directions, scanning in one or both axial
                                                                                            directions, weld zone only if welded, pitch of feed helix during
                                                                                            scanning, etc.,
    1
      This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-7 on Nonde-                  6.1.3 The point(s) in the manufacturing process at which the
structive Testing and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.06 on                material will be examined,
Ultrasonic Method.
    Current edition approved May 10, 1998. Published December 1998. Originally
                                                                                               4
published as E 213 – 63 T. Last previous edition E 213 – 93.                                     Available from American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc., 1711
    2
      For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Practice            Arlingate Lane, Columbus, OH 43228.
                                                                                               5
SE-213 in the Code.                                                                              Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, Bldg. 4 Section D, 700
    3
      Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.03.                                             Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, Attn: NPODS.



Copyright © ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.



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                                                                    E 213




                                      FIG. 1 Circumferential Propagation of Sound in Tube Wall


   6.1.4 Surface condition,                                             fied by the employer or certifying agency, as applicable. The
   6.1.5 Maximum time interval between equipment standard-              practice or standard used and its applicable revision shall be
ization checks, if different from that described in 13.2,               identified in the contractual agreement between the using
   6.1.6 Type, dimensions, location, method of manufacture,             parties.
and number of artificial discontinuities to be placed on the
                                                                        8. Surface Condition
reference standard,
   6.1.7 Method(s) for measuring dimensions of artificial dis-              8.1 All surfaces shall be clean and free of scale, dirt, grease,
continuities and tolerance limits if different than specified in         paint, or other foreign material that could interfere with
Section 11,                                                             interpretation of test results. The methods used for cleaning
   6.1.8 Criteria for reportable and rejectable indications (that       and preparing the surfaces for ultrasonic examination shall not
is, acceptance criteria),                                               be detrimental to the base metal or the surface finish. Excessive
   6.1.9 Reexamination of repaired/reworked items is not ad-            surface roughness or scratches can produce signals that inter-
dressed in this standard and if required shall be specified in the       fere with the test.
contractual agreement.                                                  9. Apparatus
   6.1.10 Requirements for permanent records of the response               9.1 The instruments and accessory equipment shall be of the
from each tube, if applicable,                                          pulse-reflection type and shall be capable of distinguishing the
   6.1.11 Contents of testing report,                                   reference notches described in Section 11 to the extent required
   6.1.12 Operator qualifications and certification, if required,         in the standardization procedure described in Section 12. Fig.
and                                                                     1 illustrates the refraction of sound in the pipe or tube wall, and
   6.1.13 Qualification of Nondestructive Agencies. If speci-            the circumferential direction of ultrasonic energy propagation
fied in the contractual agreement, NDT agencies shall be                 used to detect longitudinal notches.
qualified and evaluated as described in E 543. The applicable
edition of E 543 shall be specified in the contractual agreement.        10. Couplant
   6.1.14 Level of personnel qualification. (See 7.1)                      10.1 A liquid couplant such as water, oil, or glycerin,
                                                                        capable of conducting ultrasonic vibrations between the trans-
7. Personnel Qualification                                               ducer and the pipe or tube being tested shall be used. Rust
  7.1 If specified in the contractual agreement, personnel               inhibitors, softeners, and wetting agents may be added to the
performing examinations to this standard shall be qualified in           couplant. The couplant liquid with all additives should not be
accordance with a nationally recognized NDT personnel quali-            detrimental to the surface condition of the pipe or tube, and
fication practice or standard such as ANSI/ASNT-CP-189,                  shall wet the surface of the material to provide adequate
SNT-TC-1A, MIL STD-410, or a similar document and certi-                coupling efficiency.

                                                                    2
                                                                             E 213
   NOTE 3—In contact testing, some couplants result in better ultrasonic            NOTE 6—For as-rolled or scaly tube surfaces, it may be necessary to
transmission when the tubing is precoated several hours before the test.         modify 11.5.1. Two acceptable modifications are listed below. Modifica-
                                                                                 tion (a) is preferred; however, modification (b) may be used unless
11. Reference Standards                                                          otherwise specified.
   11.1 A reference standard of a convenient length shall be                       (a)   The circular tube surface may be smoothed or prepared in the notch
                                                                                         area, or
prepared from a length of pipe or tube of the same nominal                         (b)   The notch depth shall be within 60.001 in. (0.025 mm), or + 10, − 15 %
diameter, wall thickness, material, surface finish, and heat                              of the specified depth, whichever is greater.
treatment as the material to be examined. The reference pipe or                     11.5.2 The width of the notches shall be as small as
tube shall be free of discontinuities or other conditions pro-                   practical, but should not exceed twice the depth.
ducing indications that can interfere with detection of the
                                                                                    11.6 Other types and orientations of reference discontinui-
reference notches.
                                                                                 ties may be specified by the using party or parties.
   11.2 Longitudinal (axial) reference notches shall be intro-
duced on the outer and inner surfaces of the standard.                           12. Standardization of Apparatus
  NOTE 4—For sizes below 1⁄4-in. inner diameter, the ratio of the outer             12.1 Using the reference standard specified in Section 11,
diameter to wall thickness must be taken into consideration.
                                                                                 adjust the equipment to produce clearly identifiable indications
   11.3 If two or more reference notches are placed on the                       from both the inner and outer surface notches. The relative
same end of the reference standard, they shall be separated                      response from the inner and outer surface notches should be as
sufficiently (circumferentially or axially or both) to preclude                  nearly equal as possible. Use the lesser of the two responses to
interference and interpretation difficulties.                                    establish the rejection level. On large diameter or heavy wall
   11.4 All upset metal, burrs, etc., adjacent to the reference                  pipe and tubing, if the inner and outer surface notch amplitude
notches shall be removed.                                                        cannot be made equal because of test metal distance and inside
   11.5 The notch dimensions, which are length, depth, and                       diameter curvature, a separate rejection level may be estab-
width (and for V-notches, the included angle) must be decided                    lished for the inner and outer surface notches.
upon by the using party or parties. Fig. 2 illustrates the
common notch configurations and the dimensions to be mea-                           NOTE 7—Indication amplitude may not be proportional to notch depth.
sured (Note 5). Reflection amplitudes from V-, square-, and                          12.2 Standardize the equipment under dynamic conditions
U-shaped notches of comparable dimensions may vary widely                        that simulate the production examination. The pipe or tubing to
depending on the angle, frequency, and vibrational mode of the                   be examined and the search unit assembly shall have a rotating
interrogating sound beam.                                                        translating motion relative to each other such that a helical scan
   NOTE 5—In Fig. 2 (a), ( b), and (d), the sharp corners are for ease of        path will be described on the outer surface of the pipe or tube.
illustration. It is recognized that in normal machining practice, a radius       Maintain the speed of rotation and translation constant within
will be generated.                                                               610 %. Axial scanning with circumferential indexing may be
  11.5.1 The notch depth shall be an average measured from                       used to provide equivalent coverage.
the circular tubing surface to the maximum and minimum                              12.3 The pitch of the feed helix shall be small enough to
penetration of the notch. Measurements may be made by                            ensure 100 % coverage at the test distance and sensitivity
optical, replicating, or other agreed upon techniques. Notch                     established during calibration.
depth shall be within 60.0005 in. (0.013 mm) of the specified
value for notches 0.005 in. (0.13 mm) or less in depth, and                      13. Procedure
within + 10, − 15 % of the specified value for notches over                         13.1 Unless otherwise specified, examine the pipe or tubing
0.005 in. in depth.                                                              with the ultrasound transmitted in one circumferential direction




                                                           FIG. 2 Common Notch Shapes


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                                                                                E 213
under the identical conditions used for equipment standardiza-                         NOTE 9—Some traversing mechanisms do not allow examination of
tion (Note 8). Examination may be required with the ultra-                          tubing ends. When this condition exists, clearly indicate the extent of this
sound transmitted in both circumferential directions (see                           effect, per tube, in the examination report.
Supplementary Requirement S1). If the examination is to be
                                                                                    14. Interpretation of Results
performed in both directions, conduct the standardization
procedure of Section 12 in both directions.                                            14.1 All indications that are equal to or greater than the
                                                                                    rejection level established during standardization as described
   NOTE 8—Identical conditions include all instrument settings, mechani-
                                                                                    in Section 12, or as specified by the using party or parties, shall
cal motions, search unit position and alignment relative to the pipe or tube,
liquid couplant, and any other factors that affect the performance of the           be considered as representing defects and may be cause for
examination.                                                                        rejection of the pipe or tube.
   13.2 Periodically check standardization of the equipment by                         14.2 If, upon examination of the pipe or tube, no rejectable
passing the reference standard through the examination equip-                       indications are detected, the material shall be considered as
ment. Make these checks prior to any examination run, prior to                      having passed the ultrasonic examination, except as noted in
equipment shutdown after an examination run, and at least                           13.4.
every 4 h during continuous equipment operation. Restandard-                          NOTE 10—Rejected pipe or tubes may be reworked in a manner
ize the equipment in accordance with Section 12 any time the                        acceptable to the purchaser. If, upon ultrasonic reexamination of the
equipment does not present a clearly defined, rejectable signal                      reworked pipe or tube, no rejectable indications are detected, the material
from both the inner and outer surface notches of the standard.                      should be considered as having passed the ultrasonic examination.
   13.3 For many tubular sizes and examination arrangements,                          NOTE 11—Care should be exercised to ensure that reworking a pipe or
there will be a reflection from the entry surface of the pipe or                     tube does not change its acceptability with respect to other requirements
                                                                                    of the material specification such as wall thickness, ovality, surface finish,
tube. This signal may be observed, but not gated, as a                              length, and the like.
supplement to the required checking of the reference standard
to give increased assurance that the equipment is functioning                       15. Report
properly. If such a signal does not exist, make more frequent
                                                                                       15.1 When a report is required, it shall contain such
equipment standardization checks.
                                                                                    information as is mutually considered adequate to document
   13.4 In the event that the equipment does not present signals
                                                                                    that the pipe or tubes supplied meet the requirements of this
as outlined in 12.1 and 13.2, reinspect all pipe or tubing
                                                                                    practice.
examined since the last acceptable standardization after Re-
standardization has been accomplished.
   13.5 Do not make any equipment adjustments unless the                            16.
complete standardization procedure described in Section 12 is
performed.                                                                          17. Keywords
   13.6 The examination shall be applied to 100 % of the pipe                          17.1 angle beam; nondestructive examination; pipe; tubing;
or tubing unless otherwise specified.                                                ultrasonic examination


                                                     SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS

                                                                   Precision and Bias

                   These requirements shall apply only when individually specified by the using party or parties. When
                 details of these requirements are not covered herein, they may be subject to agreement by a using
                 party.

S1. Scanning                                                                        described in Section 11, a transverse (circumferential) notch
   S1.1 Scanning shall be conducted with the ultrasonic beam                        shall be introduced on the inner and outer surfaces of the
directed in both circumferential directions.                                        reference standard. The requirements of 11.3-11.5 shall apply
                                                                                    to transverse notches.
S2. Distance – Amplitude Correction                                                    S3.2 An independent channel of instrumentation (including
  S2.1 A method of compensating for the reduction in ultra-                         search unit assembly) shall be employed for the purpose of
sonic signal amplitude as a function of test metal distance shall                   detecting transverse discontinuities.
be employed. Details of the procedures used to establish and                           S3.3 When transverse notches are required, the using party
apply the distance – amplitude correction (DAC) curve shall be
                                                                                    or parties shall also determine whether scanning is required in
established by the using party or parties.
                                                                                    one or both axial directions. Fig. 3 illustrates the refraction of
S3. Transverse Notches                                                              sound in the pipe or tube wall, and the axial propagation of
  S3.1 Instead of (or in addition to) the longitudinal notches                      ultrasonic energy to detect transverse notches.


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                                                                                     E 213




                                                        FIG. 3 Axial Propagation of Sound in Tube Wall



  NOTE S00012—If a requirement exists for both longitudinal and trans-                    S5. Report
verse notches, and scanning for each in two directions, the following three
options are available:                                                                      S5.1 The supplier shall submit to the purchaser a report that
   (a)   Each pipe or tube is passed through a single channel examination sta-            includes at least the following information:
         tion four times, twice in each direction,                                          S5.1.1 Identification of the material by type, size, lot, heat,
   (b)   Each pipe or tube is passed through a two-channel examination station
         twice, once in each direction, or                                                and the like.
   (c)   Each pipe or tube is passed through a four-channel examination station             S5.1.2 Identification of the examination equipment and
         once.
                                                                                          accessories.
S4. Recording                                                                               S5.1.3 Details of the examination technique, including ex-
                                                                                          amination speed, testing frequency, and end effects if any (Note
   S4.1 A permanent record containing objective evidence of
                                                                                          S00012 13).
the examination results shall accompany each accepted pipe or
tube. This may be in the form of a strip chart recording of the                             S5.1.4 Description of the reference standard, including the
ultrasonic instrument output during the examination. It shall                             actual (measured) dimensions of the artificial discontinuities.
contain recordings of all standardizations and standardization                              S5.1.5 Description of the distance – amplitude correction
checks and shall be annotated to provide a positive correlation                           procedure, if used. (See Supplementary Requirement S2.)
between each test record and the corresponding pipe and tube.                               S5.1.6 Examination results.

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