Cholera Disease (Cholera)
Cholera (cholera) is a disease of acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio
cholerae, the bacteria enter the body through contaminated food or drink. The bacteria release an
enterotoxin (poison) in the intestinal tract so that there was diarrhea (diarrhea) with acute
vomiting and severe, resulting in a person in just a few days to lose a lot of body fluids and get in
on the state of dehydration.
If dehydration is not treated immediately, it will continue towards hypovolemic and metabolic
acidosis in a relatively short time and can cause death if treatment is inadequate. Provision of
drinking plain water will not help much, Patient (patient) cholera require intravenous fluid sugar
(Dextrose) and salt (normal saline) or intravenous fluids that form in the mix of both (Dextrose
Cholera Spread of Disease Transmission
Cholera can be spread as the disease is endemic, epidemic, or pandemic. Although many large-
scale studies conducted, but the condition of this disease remains a challenge for modern
medicine. Vibrio cholerae bacteria multiply and spread through the feaces (feces) of humans,
when feces containing the bacteria contaminating the river water and so the other person who
comes in contact with water are at risk of cholera as well.
For example washing hands are not clean and did eat, wash vegetables or foods with water
containing cholera bacteria, eating fish that live in water contaminated with cholera bacteria,
even the water (like a river) water used by other people who live around it.
Cholera Disease Symptoms and Signs
In people who feacesnya found cholera bacteria for 1-2 weeks may not feel the complaint means,
but when an attack is a sudden infection occur with diarrhea and vomiting as a condition serious
enough to cause an acute attack of diarrhea experienced by vague kind.
However, in patients with cholera there are some signs and symptoms that revealed, among
- Diarrhea is watery and abundant without preceded by heartburn or tenesmus.
- Feaces or droppings (feces) which was originally colorless and odorless turned into a cloudy
white liquid (such as rice water) with no foul odor or fishy, but such a sweet smell.
- Feaces (liquid) that resemble rice water is deposited will be issued if the clumps of white.
- Diarrhea occurs frequently and in considerable amounts.
- The occurrence of diarrhea preceded by vomiting after that happens, the patient does not feel
- Muscle cramps can also be felt in the abdomen accompanied by severe pain.
- The amount of fluid that comes out will lead to dehydration with signs such as rapid heartbeat,
dry mouth, physical weakness, sunken eyes, hypotension, and others that if they do not
immediately get the handler replacement of lost body fluids can lead to death.
Handling and Treatment of Cholera Disease
Patients who have cholera shall be mandapatkan penaganan immediately, by giving replacement
fluids lost as a first step. Fluid administration by infusion / Drip is the most appropriate for
people with a lot of fluid loss through diarrhea or vomiting. Next is the treatment of infections,
namely by giving antibiotics / antimicrobials such as Tetracycline, Doxycycline or class
Vibramicyn. This antibiotic treatment within 48 hours to stop the diarrhea that occurs.
In certain circumstances, especially the region of the cholera outbreak affected the provision of
food / fluid conducted by means of a tube from the nose to the stomach (sonde). As many as 50%
of cases of cholera are severe tergolang can not overcome (death), while the number of 1% of
cholera patients who received inadequate treatment died. (Massachusetts Medical Society, 2007:
Getting Serious about Cholera).
Cholera Disease Prevention
How to prevent and terminate a transmission of cholera is the principle of environmental
sanitation, especially hygiene water and sewage (feaces) in place that meet environmental
standards. Others are drinking water that has been cooked first, wash your hands thoroughly
before eating using soap / antiseptic, washing vegetables, water view, especially vegetables that
are eaten raw (fresh vegetables), avoid eating fish and shellfish are cooked half done.
If the affected family members have cholera, should be isolated and immediately get treatment.
Objects contaminated with vomit or feces should be in the sterilization of patients, searangga
flies (vector) other transmitters soon be eradicated. Cholera vaccination can protect people in
direct contact with patients.