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					The Characteristics of Employed
Female Caregivers and their Work
      Experience History

            Sheri Sharareh Craig
            Alfred O. Gottschalck
             U.S. Census Bureau
  Housing and Household Economic Statistics
                   Division
        Labor Force Statistics Branch
Introduction
                     Background
   According to projections from the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
    females will make up nearly half of the work force (47 percent), and
    51 percent of the new additions to the labor force, between 2004 and
    2014.

   As female workforce participation increases, caregiving could pose
    even greater financial challenges for many female workers given
    that females compose the majority of caregivers.

   Data from the 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation
    (SIPP) show that individuals who interrupt their work careers to
    provide care (i.e., caregivers) have lower mean earnings compared
    to those who do not have such work career interruptions (i.e., non-
    caregivers).
Employed caregivers were more likely to be women.


          Percent Distribution of Caregiver Status by Sex




                             (N=61.2 million)   (N=53.6 million)

                               Male              Female
                   93.1

                                                   60.0
                                                                   40.0

 6.9


       Caregiver                                      Non-caregiver


       (N=14.6 million)                              (N=100.4 million)
                 Objective
 The purpose of this research is to investigate the
  type of work interruptions experienced by
  currently employed women by comparing the
  demographic and socioeconomic characteristics,
  such as sex, age, race, educational attainment,
  occupation, and earnings, of women with past
  caregiving and non-caregiving work histories.
Percent Distribution of Employed Women by Work Interruption Status



  Forty-four percent of employed females        Fifty-seven percent of employed females
  interrupted their work life at least once.   who interrupted their work life at least once
               (n=23.7 million)                       did so to take care of someone.
                                                              (n=13.6 million)




                               At least one
                               interruption          With interruption
           No                     for any                for other       With interruption
     interruption                 reason                 reasons          to take care of
        for any                     44%                     43%              someone
        reason                                                                  57%
          56%
           Focus of Analysis
 What are the characteristics of employed women
  who have interrupted their work life at any time,
  for 6 months or longer, to provide care for a
  minor child, an elderly family member, or a
  disabled but non-elderly family member
  compared to women who have not had such
  interruptions?
Universe


 Employed women 25-62 years old, who have ever
 worked six straight months or longer.

 N= 53.6 million
                   Definitions
 Caregivers: Those who had a work interruption for 6
  months or longer from a paid job or business because they
  were taking care of a child, an elderly family member, or a
  disabled but non-elderly family member.
       N = 13.6 million

 Non-caregivers: Those who had a work interruption for 6
  months or longer at a paid job or business for reasons
  other than caregiving or did not have any work
  interruptions over their work life.
       N = 40.1 million
          Definitions - continued
 Work Interruption: An interruption of work lasting 6
  straight months or longer.

 Employed Workers: Persons with a job or business
  during the reference period.

 Main Caregiving Responsibility: The main caregiving
  responsibility during the caregiving episode; that is, for a
  minor child, an elderly family member, or a disabled but
  non-elderly family member.
                 Data Source
 Survey of Income and Program Participation
  (SIPP)

     • Multistage-stratified sample of the U.S. civilian
       noninstitutionalized population
     • Approximately 38,000 longitudinally interviewed households
     • Typically each panel is 2 ½ to 4 years in length
     • Collects demographic, labor force, income, and program
       participation data
     • SIPP wave one, 2004 panel collected from February–May 2004
      Data Source - continued
 The Employment History Topical Module

Collects data on:
      • Patterns of employment
      • Number of times away from work (i.e., interruptions of 6
        months or longer)
      • Reasons for work interruption (e.g., for caregiving)
      • Length of interruption
                              Employment Status of Women
                             25-62 Years by Caregiving Status

                      100%
                                                                 Out of
Female caregivers                25.0                26.1        Labor force
                      80%
and Female non-                   3.0                 2.8        Unemployed
caregivers
                      60%
were equally likely
to be currently       40%
                                 72.1                71.2
                                                                 Employed

employed.
                      20%


                       0%
                              Caregiver          Non-caregiver
                             (n=18.6 million)    (n= 56.3 million)
Caregivers
  only
 Employed women who had interruptions in their work life for caregiving
  were more likely to be White non-Hispanic and less likely to be Black.

                            Percent Distribution of Race by Caregiving




                                   Caregiver               Non-caregiver
              79.7
                     67.9




                                      14.4                                               11.1
                                8.4                                                6.2
                                                2.4 3.9          3.3 2.8


               White             Black           Asian            Other            Hispanic
                Non-                                              Race              of any
              Hispanic                                                               Race

* American Indian or Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander
Employed female caregivers were more likely to be married
                 than non-caregivers.

          Percent Distribution of Marital Status by Caregiver Status




   70.7               Caregiver       Non-caregiver
          59.6

                                       20.7 17.5               20.4
                      2.6 2.5                            6.0


   Married           Widowed        Divorced or          Never
                                     Separated           Married
Employed female caregivers were more likely to have cared for a child
               during their caregiving interruption.

Percent Distribution of Main Caregiving Responsibility Among Employed Women Caregivers
                                      (n=13.6 million)



            94.7




                                         3.8                         1.5

           Child                      Elderly                     Disabled
           (n=12.8 million)            (n=0.5 million)            (n=2.1 million)
Forty-three percent of female caregivers had two or more work
          interruptions in their lifetime for caregiving.


Percent Distribution of Employed Female Caregivers by Number of Interruptions

                               (n=13.6 million)




                       Three or more
                           times
                           20.8%

                                             One
                        Two                  time
                       times                57.4%
                       21.8%
Caregiving women with two or more interruptions currently earned less per
 month than caregiving women with only one interruption for caregiving.

              Mean Monthly Earnings for Employed Women Caregivers by Number
                               of Interruptions for Caregiving

             The difference between mean earnings is statistically significant at the 10% level.




   One Interruption                                                                  $2,406




      Tw o or More
                                                                              $2,153
      Interruptions




                                                                                              2004 dollars
 Caregiver

     vs.

Non-caregiver
Comparisons
Caregivers were more likely to be between 45 and 62 years old.


              Percent Distribution of Age by Caregiver Status




           Caregiver                      Non-caregiver




                                      36.0
           30.4     29.0 31.2                26.7
                                                        20.1
    15.0                                                        11.7



      25-34           35-44             45-54            55-62
Employed female caregivers were less likely to have a bachelor’s degree
    or higher levels of educational attainment than non-caregivers.
               Percent Distribution of Educational Attainment by Caregiver Status




                CaregiverLess than                           Non-caregiver
                                        High
                                       school                                                 High school
                                        5.5%                                                  graduate or
                                                                                                less, no
                                                                                                diploma
                                                                                                  7.8%
        Bachelor's
        degree or                    High
          higher                    school                                               High school
                                  graduate,                   Bachelor's
          27.0%                                                                           graduate,
                                      or                       degree,
                                                             graduate or                 diploma or
                                  equivalent                                               GED or
                                    24.1%                    professional
                                                                degree                    equivalent
                                                                33.8%                       22.0%


                                                                              Some
                       Some                                                 college or
                     college or                                             associate
                     associate                                               degree
                      degree                                                  36.5%
                       43.4%
  There were small differences between employed female caregivers and
non-caregivers in terms of work experience. This may be due to caregivers
being older on average and/or working longer to catch up as a result of lost
                          time in the workforce.
Percent Distributions of Employed Female Caregivers and Non-caregivers by Work Experience

                   Caregiver                               Non-caregiver
                       Fewer than
                         5 years                                     Fewer than
                          2.0%                                         5 years
                                                                        5.5%


                       5 to 10
                        years
                        9.0%
                                                                          5 to 10
                                                                           years
                             11 to 15                                     13.7%
                              years
      21 or more              15.0%                    21 or more
         years                                            years
                                                                                    11 to 15
        56.1%                                            50.0%
                                                                                     years
                                                                                     15.3%
                          16 to 20
                           years
                           17.6%                                      16 to 20
                                                                       years
                                                                       15.5%
       Employed female non-caregivers were more likely to be in
   management, professional and related occupations, and employed
      female caregivers were more likely to be in sales and office
                            occupations.

                 Percent Distribution of Occupation by Caregiver Status


                                    Caregiver            Non-caregiver


   38.7   41.5
                      36.8
                             31.8

                                         18.0   18.3

                                                           5.4   7.2
                                                                             1.0   1.1


  Management,     Sales and office        Service          Production,     Construction,
professional, and                                      transportation,and   extraction,
     related                                             material moving maintenance, and
  occupations                                                             repair, farming,
                                                                            fishing and
                                                                              forestry
  Although the majority of the employed female caregivers worked full time
over their work careers, those who had interruptions to take care of someone
were more likely to currently work part time compared to those who never had
                              such interruptions.

           Percent Distribution of Caregivers and Non-caregivers by Work Status



                           Caregiver        Non-caregiver



                           68.9
                58.2

                                                        41.8
                                                                   31.1




                  Full-time                               Part-time
                Caregiving women had lower mean monthly earnings
                            than non-caregiving women.

                 Mean Monthly Earnings for Caregiver and Non-caregiver Women


        The difference between mean earnings is statistically significant at the 10% level.




    Caregiver                                                                  $2,298




Non-caregiver                                                                                 $2,817




                                                                                  2004 dollars
Summary
Compared with non-caregivers, caregivers
          were more likely to:

  Be older

  Be less educated

  Possess similar work experience levels

  Work in a sales or office type occupation

  Be part-time employees

  Earn less money
Caregivers were more likely to:

    Be White non-Hispanic

    Be married

    Have taken care of a child rather than an elderly or
     disabled family member

    Have interrupted their work careers two or more
     times

    Earn more if they only have one work interruption
     compared to those caregivers with multiple work
     interruptions
 Contact Information
    Sheri Sharareh Craig
sheri.s.sharareh.craig@census.gov
    Phone: (301) 763-5793
     U.S. Census Bureau

				
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