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April 29-30, 2005 / The Claremont Resort and Spa, Berkeley, California

The Half-Time Internship: Coming Into the Mainstream convened in Berkeley, California, April 29-
30, 2005. The purpose of the conference, organized by the California Psychology Internship
Council (CAPIC) and sponsored by numerous organizations, was to address issues of high-quality
psychology training in half-time internships, and to further develop models of such training, includ-
ing structures, standards and evaluation guidelines. Opening remarks, a keynote speech and panel
presentations were given by leading figures in the field of psychology training, to help frame and
focus a series of workgroups.

Although APA Guidelines and Principles for Accreditation do not preclude the development
and approval of half-time internships, such internships have yet to gain widespread acceptance.
This was the first national conference focusing on half-time internships in the field of psychology.
Nearly 100 delegates attended the conference (, representing
23 organizations and councils in psychology ( as well as intern-
ships and doctoral programs.

Drs. Luli Emmons and Cynthia Belar began the conference with opening remarks. Dr. Emmons
spoke of the need to gain recognition for the value of half-time internships by the psychology
profession and their relevance to the pressing questions currently surrounding supply and demand,
quality assurance, funding and the future of our profession. Dr. Belar presented the historical
context for a conference on training, the timeliness and importance of the topic, and the need to
adhere to our highest standards for quality assurance as we consider recommendations for training
programs in psychology. In the keynote address, Reconsidering Assumptions: Toward Half-Time
Internships, Dr. Roger Peterson (co-author Margaret D. Ober) placed clinical psychology education
in its intellectual and historical context, and outlined the political ramifications of and prejudices
about training structures. Encouraging thinking from a broader perspective, Dr. Peterson and
Ms. Ober proposed training cultures, rather than models, to better accommodate the multifaceted
complexity of contemporary training programs. Dr. Peterson underscored the economic and
statutory realities of internships as a significant challenge to the field, and concluded with a
number of recommendations for next steps.


The conference included two panel presentations, the first on exemplary half-time internships,
and the second on diversity, community and social responsibility with respect to training.

Exemplary Half-Time Internships
Moderator: Lorraine Mangione, Ph.D.

Four half-time internship programs were described. Panelists outlined a variety of structures, client
populations served, and quality assurance oversight mechanisms. The four programs described
were: 1) WestCoast Children’s Clinic in California (CAPIC member), a free-standing two year half-
time internship; 2) Widener University’s exclusively affiliated integrated internship in Philadelphia
(APA-accredited); 3) CAUSES, a blended half-time and full-time internship in Chicago (APPIC mem-
ber); and 4) the Carson Center for Families, a two-year half-time model in rural Massachusetts

                                                      April D. Fernando, Ph.D., Clinical and Training
a . Tw o - y e a r h a l f - t i m e C A P I C m e m b e r i n t e r n s h i p :
Director at WestCoast Children’s Clinic described a two-year half-time internship in a child outpa-
tient program that highlighted the many strengths of half-time community based internships
including: 1) commitment to training students to serve in community settings with at-risk popula-
tions (e.g., children in foster care); 2) the importance of developing the sequence of the training
experience, keeping in mind the balance between client needs, individual training needs, and
length of time in the internship; and 3) the blending of traditional as well as innovative approaches
April 29-30, 2005 / The Claremont Resort and Spa, Berkeley, California

to clinical interventions (e.g., clinic-based and home-based therapy, traditional and Therapeutic-
Collaborative assessment models) to meet the needs of a diverse client population. The role of the
training program in an agency’s mission and vision, particularly as it relates to the commitment of
agency resources (i.e., funding) was also addressed.

b . Tw o - y e a r h a l f - t i m e ( 2 , 0 0 0 h o u r s ) A PA - a c c r e d i t e d i n t e r n s h i p : David Arbeitman, Ph.D., Director
of Training of the Internship in Professional Psychology at the Carson Center for Adults and
Families, described a two-year half-time (2,000 hours) internship that has a number of advantages,
including: 1) opportunities for interns to do longer-term therapy; 2) cost-effectiveness in terms of
reduced start-up and wind-down time; 3) opportunities to learn and practice more complex treat-
ment models (e.g. DBT); 4) increased flexibility for interns who have family or other responsibilities;
and 5) opportunities to supplement the internship stipend with other higher paying work.

c . E x c l u s i v e l y a f f i l i a t e d , i n t e g r a t e d t w o - y e a r h a l f - t i m e A PA - a c c r e d i t e d i n t e r n s h i p : Jules C.
Abrams, Ph.D., ABPP, provided a history of the development of an exclusively affiliated, integrated
two-year half-time internship at Widener University which is an essential component of the doctor
of psychology program. The important factors of having a "captive" internship along with the even
more important aspects of integrating the clinical experience with the didactic work in the program
were discussed. Dr. Linda Knauss, Director of Training, presented details of the program structure
and implementation.

                                                     Robert Spector, Ph.D., Training Director at
d . Tw o - y e a r h a l f - t i m e A P P I C m e m b e r i n t e r n s h i p :
CAUSES, presented a two-year half-time internship model within the context of a long term outpa-
tient treatment program for children who have been physically and/or sexually abused. This training
model allows interns to gain experience in developing and maintaining long-term treatment rela-
tionships with their clients as well as develop a greater sense of mastery (as opposed to exposure) in
working with very challenging clients and clinical issues. The two-year interns also develop a greater
sense of feeling integrated within the treatment program and tend to be better prepared to make
the transition to the profession after the completion of their training.

D i v e r s i t y, C o m m u n i t y, a n d S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y
Moderator: Gloria Saito, Ph.D.

A second panel, Diversity, Community, and Social Responsibility, addressed the critical issues of how
half-time internships can enhance attention to multicultural competence in intern training, meet the
training needs of students from underrepresented and marginalized populations, and provide need-
ed mental health services for underserved communities. The distinguished panel included Dr. Joseph
White, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of California, Irvine, and a pioneer in the
field of Black psychology, Dr. Abner Boles III, Executive Director of Westside Community Mental
Health Center, San Francisco, and Dr. Gilbert Newman, Director of Clinical Training at the Wright
Institute and President-elect of the California Psychological Association.


Delegates met in workgroups to discuss six general themes under the leadership of group leaders.
A dialogue was begun around these fundamental questions: Why do we need or want half-time
internships in psychology? How do we regard those that already exist? How can we develop more?
What form and structure should they have? What type of accreditation, regulation and evaluation
guidelines should we use for these internships? Where do we find the resources to support and
develop these internships? Which students should be trained in these settings?

These vibrant and hardworking groups brought a diversity of perspectives and interests in response
to workgroup questions. Leaders summarized their workgroups’ conclusions and recommendations
April 29-30, 2005 / The Claremont Resort and Spa, Berkeley, California

in the final plenary session. Everyone agreed that the results of the workgroups, in which represen-
tatives of many concerned groups participated, will be extremely useful for determining the future
of half-time internship training.


Rationale:      Making the Case for Half-Time Internships
Leader: Philinda Hutchings, Ph.D., Argosy University/Phoenix

Participants articulated the need to increase the range of options for trainees for opportunities for
inclusiveness, diverse trainees, diverse training activities; and the benefits these options have for
trainees, doctoral programs, the community, the profession and training sites.

As the profession of psychology has changed over the years, our models of training have changed,
albeit sometimes more slowly and in opposite directions. The half-time internship is not a new
model of training, but has become much less common than the full-time internship model over
time, so that now, half-time internships, with some exceptions, are hard to find. Yet, the diversity
of psychology students, training models, training sites, and the community and profession would
likely be better served by the development of more half-time internships along with other training
models. If we want our profession to be diverse, and serve a diverse community, we need to
provide diverse training opportunities and models, because one model will not adequately serve
all the constituents of education and training in psychology.

This workgroup identified many benefits that half-time internships provide to those various

Benefits to trainees:
•   Multi-year internships offer diverse training to diverse populations.
•   Multi-year internships increase the range of options (for potential pool of interns) available to
    predoctoral interns.
•   Training is a developmental process; multi-year is consistent with developmental process, e.g.,
    distributed practice.
•   Multi-year internships offer training in longer-term therapy, and other models that require more
    than a year.
•   Multi-year internships provide more opportunities for mentoring and dissertation advisement.
•   Multi-year internships provide more exposure to different supervisors, different populations, and
    service delivery models or systems. There is potential for more variety.
•   Multi-year internships allow more time to work on dissertations while completing the internship.
•   Developing more alternative models of multi-year programs may allow for more sites to develop
    more positions.
•   Multi-year sites may offer more training over the two-year period than one-year of full-time

Benefits to doctoral programs:
•   Multi-year internships place a greater percentage of students in internships, improving the supply
    side of the supply-demand problem.
•   Multi-year internships allow doctoral programs to responsibly invite more people into programs,
    attracting students and fulfilling their needs in a timely fashion.
•   Multi-year internships allow doctoral programs to create integrative models, combining education
    and training.
•   Multi-year internships are compatible with APA-accreditation Guidelines and Principles.
•   Multi-year internships allow faculty mentors to keep well-trained research students nearby to do
April 29-30, 2005 / The Claremont Resort and Spa, Berkeley, California

•   The quality of training in the 21st century should acknowledge the browning of America. For
    traditional and multi-year interns, the training program must prepare the student for what the
    internship requires.
•   Domain D: Diversity considerations; sending students to work with underserved populations may
    help programs gain accreditation.

Benefits to the community:
•   Multi-year internships make more diverse services available to diverse populations.
•   Multi-year internships make less frequent breaks in the service-provider relationship and create
    opportunities for longer-term treatment.
•   Multi-year internships make services available to people who need them and who had previously
    been unaware of the services. Small agencies that can't afford full-time interns or supervisors
    may be able to afford half-time interns.
•   Internships honor social justice commitment through the multi-year option (treating underserved).
    Small agencies with limited funding get left out of the training arena when only full-time intern-
    ships are considered possible.
•   Bringing training in tends to increase and enhance the level of service provided in agencies.

Benefits to the profession:
•   Multi-year internships enrich by reflecting the society they serve.
•   Multi-year internships expand the opportunities for serious dialogue across racial and ethnic
•   The profession needs to recognize needs of populations to be served and the populations to
    be trained.

Benefits to training sites:
•   Less time is spent orienting trainees to a site, if staying at the same site for an additional year.
•   Multi-year internships are better integrated into the doctoral program, with better oversight.
•   Lived experience from community enriches supervisor and their own development.
•   Multi-year internships allow more continuity of care and opportunity for longer-term treatment.
•   Trainees at multi-year internships become more advanced over the two-year period.

We recommend to all constituent groups in education and training in psychology, including the
American Psychological Association Committee on Accreditation, the Council of University Directors
of Clinical Training (CUDCP), the National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional
Psychology (NCSPP), the Consortium of Combined-Integrated Doctoral Programs in Psychology
(CCIDPIP), the Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs (CCPTC), the Council of
Directors of School Psychology Programs (CDSPP), the Association of Counseling Center Training
Agencies (ACCTA), the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC),
CAPIC, and others, that they actively encourage and support development of more half-time
internship training programs in psychology along with other innovative models of training.

Creating Half-Time Internships: Obstacles and Solutions
Leader: Mary Beth Kenkel, Ph.D., Florida Institute of Technology

The group identified a number of obstacles and potential solutions.

Obstacle 1:  Insufficient information on the need for half-time internships and their geographical
placement. Some students are in programs where a half-time internship is integrated with half-time
academic studies over two years. In other placements, students may want half-time internships
because of family, academic, or work responsibilities. For most students, there is a need to remain
close to their home or academic program while in a half-time internship.
April 29-30, 2005 / The Claremont Resort and Spa, Berkeley, California

S o l u t i o n 1 : Survey to assess the need, motivations, and desired locations for half-time internships.
Different models of half-time internships are necessary to accommodate the diverse needs and
motivations for them.

Obstacle 2:         Misunderstandings and lack of knowledge about the different half-time models. For
example, some think that students do only one year of a half-time internship to fulfill their entire
internship experience. Many do not know how to include half-time internships with full-time
internships at the same site or how half-time internships could meet APA accreditation criteria.
S o l u t i o n 2 : Develop common terminology for describing half-time internships and disseminate
viable models of half-time internships to academic and internship programs, students, and profes-
sional training associations.

Obstacle 3:         Because half-time internships often encounter difficulty in meeting some policies of
APA accreditation, APPIC, and/or state licensing boards, many of the existing half-time internships
are not APA-accredited or members of APPIC. Because they are not accredited, they may not be as
highly perceived or sought after as accredited ones. Without including half-time internships in the
APPIC directory, it is harder for students to find out about their availability.
S o l u t i o n 3 : Review APA/APPIC/licensing board policies to determine if they do, in fact, present
obstacles to the creation of half-time internships and determine if changes can be made. For
example, rather than accrediting an academic program and an affiliated internship separately, the
Committee on Accreditation could consider a single accreditation for a program with an integrated
internship. In another example, APPIC requires 2 full-time or 4 half-time interns at each site. Is it
necessary to have four interns to fulfill the principle of “peer interaction?” CAPIC does a good job
of coordinating and distributing information on half-time internships in California. Consider
exporting the CAPIC model to other regions where the demand for half-time internships is high.

O b s t a c l e 4 : Because of great financial pressures on the agencies that provide half-time internships,
there is a lack of resources for interns’ stipends or supervisory time. The lack of stipends is often
the major reason for not seeking APA accreditation.
S o l u t i o n 4 : Consider whether financial savings, such as half-time students’ not being required to
interview nationally for sites or to relocate, warrant the suspension of the requirement for stipends
(or reduced stipends) at half-time internships. Develop and disseminate innovative methods for
funding half-time interns. Academic programs should consider the waiving of all tuition payments
for internship experience. APA might consider pro-rating the accreditation fee for half-time

Funding and Advocacy
Leader: Gilbert Newman, Ph.D., The Wright Institute

This group made the following recommendations that represent a multi-pronged approach –
addressing issues simultaneously at the local, state, and federal levels:

1 ) Improve information sharing about funding opportunities and strategies. Successfully funded
internships should provide guidance to other programs. Develop or utilize a local training consor-
tium to serve as a resource center for funding strategies. Develop a committee for funding and
advocacy. Build a toolkit: how to increase internship and training funding.

2) “Follow the Money.” Learn to identify the source of funding for training and service programs
and develop relationships with the people responsible for the funding. Clarify our professional roles
and contributions so funding entities and policy makers can distinguish our unique role and why
they need our service.
April 29-30, 2005 / The Claremont Resort and Spa, Berkeley, California

3)Graduate students and faculty should be taught advocacy and how to value their professional
community. Encourage faculty, students and graduates to become members of their local, state
and national associations. Improve contributions to political action committees.

Participant Action Items (Applications):
• Join local, state and national associations
• Follow the money, build bridges to policy groups
• Join or create a consortium
• Define what we do for funders
• Promote the development of grant-writing skills
• Establish local funding and advocacy committees
• Take advantage of website and listserv technology to share information, i.e., develop a web based
  campaign similar to
• Gather and disseminate comparison data from internships regarding funding activities
• Make political contributions, congressional contacts, and develop advocacy activities

Broad and General Preparation, Sequence and Regulations
Leader: Andrea Morrison, Ph.D., Argosy University/San Francisco Bay Area

1 ) Multiple models of training need to be available to fit the learning needs of our increasingly
diverse students, as well as the treatment needs of our diverse communities. Collaboration between
the graduate program and the training site is essential for bringing students to entry-level compe-
tency as psychologists.

2) One important standard for training psychology professionals at the doctoral level is that organ-
ized training experiences, such as internships, should be broad and general enough to adequately
prepare graduates for pre-doctoral training and eventual entry into the field. When internship
training is to be accomplished over several years and possibly multiple sites, it is essential that the
doctoral program stay intimately involved in the student’s training experience. The doctoral program
must have primary oversight of the sequencing and progression of each individual student’s train-
ing, in order to assure that the training is sufficiently broad and general. It is important to note that
“sufficiently broad and general” may be defined differently in the context of an academic program
than in the context of an internship setting. Furthermore, there are many ways possible to achieve
sufficiently broad and general training in the multiple internship model of training.

3 ) Systematic and thoughtful consideration of diversity as it relates to education and training is
essential. Achieving competence with regard to issues of diversity requires a philosophical, program-
matic and personal commitment on the part of internship programs and their staffs to be socially
responsive to both the populations and students served. This focus on diversity must be seen as a
commitment to social responsibility that is infused throughout the entire clinical training curriculum.
Diversity is understood in its broadest sense: ethnic, racial, cultural, age, sexual orientation, class,
religion, disability, national origin, etc.

4) Multiple models of training need to be available to fit the learning needs of our increasingly
diverse students, as well as the treatment needs of our diverse communities. Collaboration between
the graduate program and the training site is essential for bringing students to entry-level compe-
tency as psychologists. Doctoral programs and internship programs need to create multiple oppor-
tunities for collaboration, that go well beyond the current practice of focusing on problematic
trainees. The development of a resource guide that would help to establish processes, procedures,
and means for quality assurance would greatly enhance the opportunities for collaboration between
doctoral programs and internship sites.
April 29-30, 2005 / The Claremont Resort and Spa, Berkeley, California

5)Current regulations do not restrict the possibility of students pursuing internships at sites which
have multiple year models of training. It is, however, the responsibility of doctoral programs to
advise students of the potential implications of their internship choices.

Structure of Half-Time Internships
Leader: Leon VandeCreek, Ph.D., Wright State University

Several basic principles were articulated for half-time internships, including: a) training needs must
take precedence over service needs; b) a training plan and contract need to be in place; c) training
should be integrated within the agency’s functions; d) training must be developmental for the
intern; e) assessment of competence should occur along the way, and; f) socially responsible train-
ing an social justice issues should be taken into consideration. These principles generally hold for
full-time internships, too.

Several additional questions were considered, including: should the internship be intensive or exten-
sive?, and should the planning and oversight be centralized within the doctoral program or distrib-
uted? The group identified four existing models. They were defined as (1) One Agency Model (two
years in one agency), (2) Half-time Placements, Exclusively Affiliated with a Doctoral Program Model
(two rotations coordinated by and integrated with the doctoral program, (3) Consortium Model
(two or more agencies that cooperate in offering sequenced rotations, either affiliated or non-
affiliated with a doctoral program, and (4) Autonomous Coordinated Model (autonomous agencies
offering half-time rotations, coordinated by a doctoral program).

Criteria for APA accreditation, APPIC listing, and CAPIC membership were extensively discussed.
Only a few variables distinguish these three groups, although some of these issues may represent
significant obstacles, such as stipends and half-time rotations that are not integrated by either the
doctoral program or internship sites.

Quality Assurance
Leader: Kathi Borden, Ph.D., Antioch New England Graduate School

1) Quality is best monitored by different parties using different methods at different times, and
must be measured against the broad and general function of the internship experience in psycholo-
gy training, as well as the goals of the particular internship program. Quality assessment must keep
in mind differences between psychology and other fields, and differences in the goals and objec-
tives of practicum vs. internship training. Distinguishing internship from practicum has historically
been a challenge for half-time internships. Factors like the learning environment and the social
value of teaching interns to serve underserved groups might be considered as well as training in
previously published competency areas.

2 ) There are pros and cons of different internship structures; two-year internships, for example,
allow longer-term therapy, following clients through normative life events and transitions, supervi-
sion of first-year interns by second-year interns, etc. One-year internships allow a more intense
immersion in the internship site, daily contact with inpatients, etc. Sequential half-time internships
allow intense exposure to two different agencies and selectively filling gaps in a student’s experi-
ence base. Quality assurance is best served when the potential strengths (and weaknesses) of the
various models are assessed; assessment should not be limited by traditional notions of internship

3) Accreditation is one indicator of quality, but is not the only way to assure quality internships.
It may be possible for some currently unaccredited sites to obtain accreditation; if a critical mass of
high quality internships cannot achieve accreditation (e.g., due to insufficient stipends or part-time
rather than full-time psychologists at the site), it may be necessary to work toward changing
April 29-30, 2005 / The Claremont Resort and Spa, Berkeley, California

accreditation criteria. Internship quality is best monitored and assured when there is open
communication among academic programs, students/interns, internship staff, and perhaps external,
third-party reviewers. Half-time internships often (not always) accept students from local academic
programs. This has the potential of enhancing communication and collaboration in the training of

Recommendations and Next Steps

A final comment by one of the conference delegates: “I think one of the amazing things that this
conference has done is to educate all of us about what the different models of internship training
are and correcting some of those myths brought here. It took a while in each group for people to,
first of all, just understand what other people were saying about their internship models. So the
more we can take this conversation out into the broader world of psychology and disseminate
the information that we’ve gained here, I think the world of psychology will be better.” Dr. Belar
stated in her concluding remarks that conferences such as this one are mechanisms for linking and
collaborating within the necessary diversity that is American Psychology today.

In the spirit of these remarks, several papers about the conference are being planned, as is a con-
ference on training that includes a broader scope of issues, perhaps as far-reaching as Dr. Peterson’s
suggestion for a conference that looks at rethinking training for the 21st century.


Numerous organizations sponsored The Half-Time Internship: Coming Into the Mainstream.

The National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology (NCSPP) was a major
sponsor of the conference.

We also received sponsorship from the American Psychological Association Board of Educational
Affairs (APA BEA), Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC),
Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB), Fielding Graduate University,
Forest Institute of Professional Psychology, John F. Kennedy University, Pacific Graduate School of
Psychology, Phillips Graduate Institute, Wright Institute, Antioch New England Graduate School,
Pacifica Graduate Institute, and the California School of Professional Psychology/Alliant International

The following organizations also supported the conference: American Psychological Association
Division 29 (Psychotherapy), Association of Counseling Center Training Agencies (ACCTA),
California Institute of Integral Studies, American Psychological Association Division 12 (Society of
Clinical Psychology), and California Psychological Association Division II (Education and Training).

For a list of these sponsors, please see

Luli Emmons, Ph.D., Conference Chair and Organizer
June 20, 2005

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