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Modern Latin America Unit 7C Global History and Geography 10 Background Why “Latin” America? After all, they do not speak Latin. THE GEOGRAPHY OF LATIN AMERICA (05:01) How does the geography affect the way people live? Give examples. Geography Location (Where?) Central America Caribbean Sea South America Place (What is there?)- variety of landforms and climates Mountains Plains Rainforests Fragmentation People isolated/separated CULTURAL DIVERSITY ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF LATIN AMERICA (02:15) What defined these groups as “civilizations”? History Ancient civilizations Olmecs Incas (Andes) Aztec (Mexico) Maya (Central Mexico) History Had characteristics of civilizations (WHAT ARE THEY???) Aztecs & Incas ended with arrival of the Spanish (1500’s- beginning of the Columbian Exchange) EUROPEAN EXPLORATION, COLONIZATION, AND SETTLEMENT OF LATIN AMERICA (03:48) What impact did exploration have on Latin America? History Imperialism- 1500’s – 1800’s Spain and Portugal control Latin America as colonies Columbus Cortes Pizarro History Revolution- 1800’s to today Several Latin American countries broke away from Spain and Portugal Military dictatorships came into control Influence of the Roman Catholic Church Large land holdings by the few (“iron triangle”) Economically dependent upon Europe for loans, investments, & trade. 1960’s – overthrow of dictators civil wars “The Role of the Church “ reading What kinds of influence has the Roman Catholic Church had upon Latin America? What is “liberation theology”? How has it affected Latin America? Economic status of Latin America Economic Development After Independence Political independence did not bring about economic independence. Control by only the elite (Spanish heritage). Economic imperialism – only wanted goods. Latin America Today Many capitalist economies (private individuals own large farms). Some socialist leaders want to redistribute the wealth (associated with liberation theology). High rates of poverty (called “developing nations”) Good natural resources Dictatorships did not allow free enterprise Important products: Coffee Bananas Beef Leather Agriculture 1/3 of land is arable Most nations agrarian (many people) Struggle to feed people Tenant farmers Subsistence farming Single crop economies (+/-???) Colombia – coffee decreased farmers grew coca for cocaine instead More crop diversification today (more stable crops- wheat, corn…) Land Reform Attempt to make the land more evenly distributed Some nations used nationalization of land Done with no compensation Many upper class came to the United States. Cuba Revolution in Cuba 1898- Independence from Spain (José Martí; Spanish American War) To the 1950’s- Authoritarian rule Ally of the United States CASTRO TRIUMPHS; HAVANA CROWDS HAIL SUCCESS OF REVOLT (02:15) How did this event change Cuba? Revolution in Cuba 1959- Revolution Fulgencio Batista had ruled harshly Fidel Castro Leads revolt Takes control Ally of the USSR Revolution in Cuba Cuba becomes a communist state (against USA) Key events since 1959 Bay of Pigs Cuban Missile Crisis Today Poor relations Future??? Raúl Castro Mexico Brief History 1821- Independence from Spain 1821 to 1910- Dictatorship 1910 to 1930- constitution and “democracy” but one party (Institutional Revolutionary Party…PRI) dominated politics for 70 years. National Action Party (PAN) dominates today (led by President Vincente Fox) Current President Felipe Calderón Argentina Recent History and Juan Peron (01:49) Briefly describe the state of politics in Argentina since the early 20th century. Changes to Argentina 1946- Juan Peron rose to power Peron’s wife, Eva (“Evita”) initiated many social reforms large debt Opposition from large landowners, military, and R.C. Church (“iron triangle”) Changes to Argentina 1955- Peron is ousted exiled to Spain (returns briefly to power in 1973 before his death) Other dictators followed 1982- attempts to take away British control of the Falkland Islands loses new civilian rule Nicaragua U.S. Involvement 1912- U.S. sends troops (at the request of the Nicaraguan gov’t.) to protect business interests Somoza gov’t.- dictatorship …few civil liberties 1979- Sandinistas – Daniel Ortega- take control (communists government supported by Soviets) U.S. Involvement U.S. cut off aid and backed the rebel Contras 1988- cease fire Debt, high inflation, unemployment defeat of Sandinistas in 1990 El Salvador Military governments and Conflict Main issue- land reform 1979-1984: Civil War 1984- José Napoleón Duarte- elected president Economic dependence on U.S. aid “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights “ reading Are there rights not in the document that should be added? After viewing the film, “Romero”, follow the directions on the back of the packet.
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