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					      Modern
       Latin
      America
Unit 7C
Global History and
Geography 10
Background
    Why “Latin” America?
   After all, they do not speak Latin.
     THE GEOGRAPHY OF
    LATIN AMERICA (05:01)




   How does the geography affect the way
    people live? Give examples.
                     Geography


       Location (Where?)
          Central America
          Caribbean Sea
          South America
       Place (What is there?)- variety
        of landforms and climates
          Mountains
          Plains
          Rainforests
       Fragmentation
          People isolated/separated 
           CULTURAL DIVERSITY
    ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF
      LATIN AMERICA (02:15)




   What defined these groups as “civilizations”?
                    History
       Ancient
         civilizations
            Olmecs
            Incas (Andes)
            Aztec (Mexico)
            Maya (Central
             Mexico)
                    History
   Had characteristics of civilizations
    (WHAT ARE THEY???)




   Aztecs & Incas ended with arrival
    of the Spanish (1500’s-
    beginning of the Columbian
    Exchange)
        EUROPEAN EXPLORATION,
    COLONIZATION, AND SETTLEMENT OF
         LATIN AMERICA (03:48)




   What impact did exploration have on Latin America?
                  History
   Imperialism- 1500’s – 1800’s
       Spain and Portugal control Latin America
        as colonies




Columbus



                   Cortes


                                    Pizarro
                       History
   Revolution- 1800’s to today
        Several Latin American countries broke away from Spain
         and Portugal
        Military dictatorships came into control
        Influence of the Roman Catholic Church
        Large land holdings by the few (“iron triangle”)
        Economically dependent upon Europe for loans,
         investments, & trade.
        1960’s – overthrow of dictators  civil wars
        “The Role of the
           Church “
               reading
   What kinds of
    influence has the
    Roman Catholic
    Church had upon
    Latin America?
   What is “liberation
    theology”? How has
    it affected Latin
    America?
  Economic
status of Latin
   America
Economic Development
 After Independence
   Political independence
    did not bring about
    economic
    independence.
   Control by only the elite
    (Spanish heritage).
   Economic imperialism –
    only wanted goods.
Latin America Today
       Many capitalist economies (private
        individuals own large farms).
       Some socialist leaders want to redistribute
        the wealth (associated with liberation
        theology).
       High rates of poverty (called “developing
        nations”)
       Good natural resources
       Dictatorships did not allow free enterprise
       Important products:
            Coffee
            Bananas
            Beef
            Leather
Agriculture
    1/3 of land is arable
    Most nations agrarian (many
     people)
    Struggle to feed people
    Tenant farmers
    Subsistence farming
    Single crop economies (+/-???)
        Colombia – coffee decreased 
         farmers grew coca for cocaine
         instead
    More crop diversification
     today (more stable crops- wheat,
     corn…)
             Land Reform

   Attempt to make the land more evenly
    distributed
   Some nations used nationalization of land
       Done with no compensation
       Many upper class came to the United States.
Cuba
Revolution in Cuba
            1898- Independence
             from Spain (José
             Martí; Spanish
             American War)
            To the 1950’s-
                Authoritarian rule
                Ally of the United
                 States
CASTRO TRIUMPHS; HAVANA CROWDS
     HAIL SUCCESS OF REVOLT (02:15)




   How did this event change Cuba?
    Revolution in Cuba




   1959- Revolution
       Fulgencio Batista had ruled harshly
       Fidel Castro
          Leads revolt
          Takes control

          Ally of the USSR
    Revolution in Cuba
   Cuba becomes a
    communist state
    (against USA)
   Key events since 1959
       Bay of Pigs
       Cuban Missile Crisis
   Today
       Poor relations
       Future???
Raúl Castro
Mexico
Brief History
      1821- Independence from
       Spain
      1821 to 1910- Dictatorship
      1910 to 1930- constitution
       and “democracy” but one
       party (Institutional
       Revolutionary Party…PRI)
       dominated politics for 70
       years.
      National Action Party (PAN)
       dominates today (led by
       President Vincente Fox)
Current President
 Felipe Calderón
Argentina
      Recent History and
      Juan Peron (01:49)




   Briefly describe the state of politics in
    Argentina since the early 20th century.
Changes to Argentina
        1946- Juan Peron rose to
         power
        Peron’s wife, Eva (“Evita”)
         initiated many social
         reforms  large debt
        Opposition from large
         landowners, military, and
         R.C. Church (“iron
         triangle”)
Changes to Argentina
   1955- Peron is ousted  exiled to Spain
    (returns briefly to power in 1973 before
    his death)
   Other dictators followed
   1982- attempts to take away British
    control of the Falkland Islands  loses
     new civilian rule
Nicaragua
        U.S. Involvement
   1912- U.S. sends troops (at
    the request of the
    Nicaraguan gov’t.) to
    protect business
    interests
   Somoza gov’t.-
    dictatorship …few civil
    liberties
   1979- Sandinistas –
    Daniel Ortega- take control
    (communists government
    supported by Soviets)
      U.S. Involvement
   U.S. cut off aid and backed the rebel
    Contras
   1988- cease fire
   Debt, high inflation, unemployment
     defeat of Sandinistas in 1990
El Salvador
Military governments
     and Conflict
             Main issue- land
              reform
             1979-1984: Civil
              War
             1984- José
              Napoleón Duarte-
              elected president
             Economic
              dependence on
              U.S. aid
    “The Universal Declaration
         of Human Rights “
                  reading
   Are there rights
    not in the
    document that
    should be added?
    After viewing the
    film, “Romero”,
    follow the
    directions on the
    back of the
    packet.

				
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