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Assignor Assignee US Patent Name of or No. Year Inventor Company 200,521 1878 Thomas A. Edison(1847-1931) 341,214 1886 Chichester A. Bell and Sumner Tainer 534,543 1895 Emile Berliner(1851-1929) The United States Gramophone Company 655,557 1900 Eldridge R. Johnson(1867-1945) 683,615 1901 Miller and Aylsworth National Phonograph Company in New Jersey RE012096 1902 Thomas H. Macdonald American Graphophone Company in District of Columbia 736,773 1903 Petit The International Phonograph & Indestructible Record Company in UK. 736,948 1903 Victor H Emerson American Graphophone Company 739,318 1903 Eldridge R. Johnson Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey 749,092 1904 Petit 763,903 1904 Joseph W. Jones American Graphophone Company 782,375 1905 Aylsworth New Jersey Patent Company 783,420 1905 Capps and Emerson American Graphophone Company 879,363 1908 G. K. Cheney Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey 893,292 1908 Wlost in Germany Gebruder Junghans & Thomas Haller (clock maker) 936,976 1909 Edgar Maurice Berliner (Son of Emile Berliner) 996,625 1911 Thomas A. Edison New Jersey Patent Company 1,041,983 1912 Thomas A. Edison Thomas A. Edison, Incorporated 1,062,579 1913 Aylsworth Thomas A. Edison, Incorporated 1,080,924 1913 Owen Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey 1,110,428 1914 Thomas A. Edison New Jersey Patent Company 1,146,388 1915 Aylsworth New Jersey Patent Company 1,212,692 1917 Ruckgaber 1,234,450 1917 Thomas A. Edison New Jersey Patent Company 1,246,651 1917 Petit 1,251,565 1918 Emil Pathe in France 1,251,851 1918 Wickes Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey 1,286,259 1918 Thomas A. Edison New Jersey Patent Company 1,290,712 1919 Frank L. Capps Pathe Freres Phonograph Company in New York 1,291,398 1919 Frank L. Capps American Graphophone Company 1,353,522 1920 V.H. Emerson 1,358,135 1920 Frank L. Capps Pathe Freres Phonograph Company in New York 1,368,745 1921 Owen and Hewitt Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey 1,372,992 1921 Beadle Columbia Graphophone Manufacturing Company 1,396,412 1921 Eldred The Commercial Research Company 1,481,743 1924 T.C. Roberts Columbia Graphophone Manufacturing Company 1,516,595 1924 Frely in France Societe des Establissements GAUMONT in Paris, France 1,535,538 1925 Maxfield and Harrison Western Electric Company, Incorporated. 1,576,642 1926 Bishop The Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company in Delaware 1,606,744 1926 Bodine and Lucarelle Dictaphone Corporation 1,637,082 1927 Maxfield Western Electric Company, Incorporated. 1,649,847 1927 Nightingall in Australia 1,661,539 1928 Maxfield Western Electric 1,663,884 1928 Harrison Western Electric 1,669,170 1928 Nicolson Wired Radio, Inc. 1,677,806 1928 J. Weinberger Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in Delaware 1,708,334 1929 Spencer Crocker-Wheeler Electric Manufacturing Company 1,711,551 1929 Sykes in UK 1,713,039 1929 Espenschied American Telephone and Telegraph Company 1,713,195 1929 H. J. Round in England Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company, England 1,719,339 1929 Reddie and Mittel in UK Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey 1,733,608 1929 Knox Bell Telephone Laboratories 1,756,966 1930 Alden The Alden Manufacturing Company 1,767,610 1930 O'Learly 1,782,781 1930 High Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 1,783,044 1930 Kellogg General Electric Company (GE) 1,787,579 1931 Hutter Webster Electric Company, of Rachine 1,792,554 1931 Adolph A. Thomas 1,792,859 1931 Mitchell Columbia Phonograph Company 1,799,799 1931 W. C. Jones Bell Telephone Laboratories 1,816,447 1931 Richard E. Sumner The Calco Chemical Company 1,816,906 1931 W. C. Jones Bell Telephone Laboratories 1,817,094 1931 S. T. Moore Thomas A. Edison, Incorporated 1,817,787 1931 R R. Vermeulen and Arend Thomas adio Corporation of America (RCA) in Delaware 1,823,533 1931 Frederick Diehl Diehl Manufacturing Company in New Jersey 1,835,073 1931 Stanly McClatchie 1,858,016 1932 W.D. La Rue RCA 1,866,403 1932 Elmer Bell Telephone Laboratories 1,868,304 1932 Cargill in New Zealand 1,915,357 1933 Fernberg in UK Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey 1,916,703 1933 White & Payne in UK Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey 1,918,972 1933 King Bell Telephone Laboratories 1,927,158 1933 Edison) Theodore M. Edison (Son of TAThomas A. Edison, Incorporated 1,928,169 1933 Clark in UK Columbia Graphophone Company in UK 1,932,889 1933 Groff Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 1,933,400 1933 Victor 1,947,164 1934 Morrison Bell Telephone Laboratories 1,960,007 1934 Harrison Bell Telephone Laboratories 1,963,673 1934 Patino 1,981,793 1934 Keller Bell Telephone Laboratories 1,985,005 1935 Wiebusch Bell Telephone Laboratories 2,018,471 1935 Russel Bell Telephone Laboratories 2,018,496 1935 Keller Bell Telephone Laboratories 2,024,271 1935 Blumlein and Holman in UK Columbia Graphophone Company in UK 2,025,388 1935 Henning Bell Telephone Laboratories 2,027,168 1936 Harrison Bell Telephone Laboratories 2,032,194 1936 Wiebusch Bell Telephone Laboratories 2,034,872 1936 Keller Bell Telephone Laboratories 2,037,165 1936 Harrison, Keller and Pollard Bell Telephone Laboratories 2,055,187 1936 Vieth Bell Telephone Laboratories 2,093,540 1937 Blumlein(1903-1942) EMI=Electric and Musical Industries in UK 2,114,471 1938 Keller and Rafuse Bell Telephone Laboratories 2,133,596 1938 Lincoln Thompson 2,139,916 1938 Seeley 2,141,584 1938 Wittander in Sweden 2,148,796 1939 Barbieri Amperite Company 2,161,489 1939 Vieth, Wiebusch and Yenzer Bell Telephone Laboratories 2,173,051 1939 De Madalaer and Woolf Film Recording Corporation in New York 2,174,156 1939 Guedon RCA 2,174,720 1939 Edwards Aluminum Company of America 2,187,512 1940 Frank L. Capps 2,238,863 1941 Norton Dictaphone Corporation 2,240,918 1941 Vermeulen etc RCA 2,242,983 1941 M.L.Thompson Philco Radio and Television Corporation 2,247,640 1941 Nielsen Cinaudagraph Corporation 2,247,651 1941 Carson RCA 2,247,924 1941 Saliba Presto Recording Corporation 2,251,204 1941 Reid The Crosley Corporation in Ohio 2,269,267 1942 Hunter RCA 2,284,744 1942 Kellogg RCA 2,286,178 1942 Kornei The Brush Development Company 2,286,494 1942 Lynn and Hathaway RCA 2,290,057 1942 Theodore Lindenberg (1911-1994) 2,310,049 1942 Albersheim Western Electric 2,320,416 1943 Dally Webster Electric 2,320,429 1943 Hasbrouck RCA 2,326,280 1943 Bauer (1913-1979) Shure Brothers 2,326,564 1943 Rigby and Leedy 2,328,952 1943 Burt RCA 2,330,801 1943 Abbot Physicists Research 2,347,347 1944 Yenzer Bell Telephone Laboratories 2,350,490 1944 Herbert S. Berliner in Canada (eldest son of Emile Berliner) 2,351,948 1944 P.S. Gay The Wilcox-Gay Corporation 2,367,846 1945 Albert W. De Sart United Acoustigraph Corporation 2,369,676 1945 Hunt and Pierce 2,373,181 1945 Fleming 2,379,782 1945 Bobb Philco Radio and Television Corporation 2,383,994 1945 G. Smith National Company, Inc., in Massachusetts 2,384,253 1945 Jearum in England 2,386,089 1945 Bobb Philco Radio and Television Corporation 2,391,784 1945 Johnston The Gray Manufacturing Company 2,400,953 1946 H E Roys (1902-1988) RCA 2,406,597 1947 Faus General Electric Company (GE) 2,416,082 1947 Balmer The Sound Scriber Corporation 2,422,817 1947 D. J. Baker 2,423,208 1947 Sinnett RCA 2,426,061 1947 Snepvangers(1900-1967) RCA 2,434,033 1948 Cain Wilcox-Gay Corporation 2,454,425 1948 Bauer Shure Brothers, Incorporated 2,464,032 1949 Franz Dictaphone Corporation 2,469,933 1949 H.F. Schwartz Decca Limited in UK 2,473,650 1949 Kalmus Zenith Radio Corporation 2,478,712 1949 Rockwell Crosley Broadcasting Corp. in Ohio 2,480,907 1949 Dally Electrovox Company in New Jersey 2,483,196 1949 Gordon Bendix Aviation Corporation 2,485,432 1949 Cornwell 2,491,794 1949 Bachman (1908-1996) GE 2,492,186 1949 Royston American Type Founders 2,501,233 1950 O'Brien Decca Limited in UK 2,507,708 1950 Greener Pennsylvania Electronics Inc. 2,510,342 1950 Kilgour Avco Manufacturing Inc. 2,511,663 1950 Bachman GE 2,513,269 1950 Bauer Shure 2,516,338 1950 H.F. Olson (1901-1982) RCA 2,516,565 1950 Guy GE 2,518,861 1950 Burtch The Brush Development Company 2,526,188 1950 Andres Permo, Incorporated in Chicago 2,528,826 1950 Hanson and Saars USA as represented by The Secretary of Navy 2,530,284 1950 Isabel Capps and Emory Cook Frank L. Capps & CO. Inc. in New York 2,531,242 1950 Yenzer Bell Telephone Laboratories 2,534,725 1950 Stewart M. Miller 2,543,127 1951 Pickering Pickering Associates, Inc. 2,547,227 1951 O'Neal Philco Corporation 2,551,506 1951 Rockwell Crosley Broadcasting Corp. in Ohio 2,554,209 1951 Miner etc GE 2,554,696 1951 Bruderlin 2,564,054 1951 Dreisbach The Magnavox Company 2,570,040 1951 Rovert Thorens and Thevanaz Herman Thorens S.A. in Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 2,573,723 1951 McClain 2,584,922 1952 Reid Avco Manufacturing Corporation 2,591,996 1952 Arentzen Fonofilm Industri A/S (Ortofon) 2,593,633 1952 Umpleby The Decca Record Company, Limited, London 2,595,795 1952 Kovach Rond Records, Inc. 2,596,494 1952 Lynch The Brush Development Company 2,606,254 1952 A. R. Sugden in UK 2,611,038 1952 George K. Graham RCA 2,617,894 1952 Arentzen Fonofilm Industri A/S (Ortofon) 2,619,440 1952 Lord EMI 2,627,416 1953 Schoemehl etc RCA 2,629,605 1953 Krisch 2,631,859 1953 Ellsworth 2,639,156 1953 Ward GE 2,647,753 1953 Goldmark (1906-1977) Columbia Broadcasting System 2,650,953 1953 Gunter Shure 2,658,763 1953 H E Roys RCA 2,668,196 1954 Bauer Shure 2,676,806 1954 Bachman Columbia Broadcasting System 2,681,388 1954 Goldmark Columbia Broadcasting System 2,689,275 1954 H.C. Hansen in Denmark 2,703,343 1955 Snepvangers Columbia Broadcasting System 2,704,461 1955 Jahncke Herman Thorens S.A. in Sainte-Croix, Switzerland 2,716,551 1955 Bachman Columbia Broadcasting System 2,734,748 1956 Parvin RCA 2,738,385 1956 Bachman Columbia Broadcasting System 2,742,530 1956 Mayer The Astatic Corporation 2,743,478 1956 Harlow and Smith RCA 2,744,212 1956 Baum 2,749,131 1956 Kelly in UK Cosmocord Limited in UK 2,752,428 1956 Bauer Shure 2,754,372 1956 Weathers Weathers 2,759,732 1956 O'Neal Philco Corporation 2,772,888 1956 Doncaster Columbia Broadcasting System D179570 1957 Heintze Rek-O-Kut 2,780,680 1957 Jensen Webster Electric 2,792,456 1957 Theodore Lindenberg 2,819,088 1958 Boisselier, Ellyn and Felix Sears, Roebuck & Co. 2,819,089 1958 Williams etc Dictaphone Corporation 2,840,644 1958 Klingener Sonotone Corporation 2,847,514 1958 Evans RCA 2,848,559 1958 Palo The Astatic Corporation in Ohio 2,854,529 1958 Ferranti Limited in UK David T.N. Williamson in Scotland 2,858,374 1958 Goldmark Columbia Broadcasting System 2,858,375 1958 Olson and Preston RCA 2,864,897 1958 Kaar Hoffman Electronics Corporation 2,875,282 1959 Reiback 2,879,413 1959 Smith-Johannsen Sonotone Corporation 2,883,478 1959 McConnell Electro-Sonic Laboratories 2,917,590 1959 Stanton (1915-2001) 2,934,610 1960 Norman Dieter Sonotone Corporation 2,939,464 1960 Guest BSR(Birmingham Sound Reproducers Ltd) 2,939,716 1960 Bauer etc Shure 2,947,821 1960 Heibel Erie Resistor Corporation 2,948,783 1960 Scully 2,951,915 1960 Pearson Sonotone Corporation 2,960,759 1960 Bondley GE 2,962,561 1960 Redlich, Klemp and Neumann TELDEC, Telefunken-Decca Schallplatten GmbH 2,963,556 1960 Redlich TELDEC 2,965,378 1960 Assie Les Industries Musicales et Electrique Pathe Marconi, Paris 2,967,214 1961 Vanderlyn EMI=Electric and Musical Industries in UK 2,974,961 1961 Goldmark Columbia Broadcasting System 2,976,551 1961 Watts Cecil E Watts 2,983,514 1961 Thevenaz Thorens S.A. 2,983,516 1961 Bauer etc Shure 2,983,796 1961 Marshall The Garrard Engineering & Manufacturing Company Limited, Swindon, UK 2,984,711 1961 Raymond William Bayliff in UK 2,993,234 1961 Miura etc Tokyo Shibaura Elec (=Toshiba) 2,993,698 1961 Stanton 2,998,622 1961 Renoux in France S.A.I.P(SOCIETE D'APPLICATIONS INDUSTRIELLES PLASTIQUES) 3,000,005 1961 Moyer RCA 3,002,056 1961 Batch and Freise Telefunken GmbH 3,005,060 1961 Weathers 3,013,125 1961 Goldmark, Bauer and Hollywood Columbia Broadcasting System 3,014,992 1961 Redlich, Neumann and Angenendt Telefunken GmbH 3,014,993 1961 Narma Fairchild Recording Equipment 3,020,361 1962 Minter 3,023,459 1962 Emory G. Cook 3,028,161 1962 Siebert General Dynamics 3,040,136 1962 Grado 3,048,667 1962 Jensen Jensen Industry 3,051,494 1962 John Walton in UK Cosmocord Limited in UK 3,051,798 1962 Knudsen Fonofilm Industri A/S (Ortofon) 3,053,943 1962 Bachman Columbia Broadcasting System 3,055,988 1962 Bauer Shure 3,060,280 1962 Wood Electro-Voice 3,060,281 1962 Snepvangers Fairchild Recording Equipment 3,062,925 1962 Pritchard GE 3,067,295 1962 Stanton Pickering & Company, Inc. 3,075,052 1963 Terry EMI=Electric and Musical Industries Limited in UK 3,077,521 1963 Ahrens etc Shure 3,077,522 1963 Gunter etc Shure 3,084,228 1963 Shiga Nippon Columbia (Denon) 3,088,742 1963 Alexandrovich Fairchild Recording Equipment 3,103,364 1963 Macks etc Tribo-netics Laboratory in Ohio 3,111,635 1963 Skov and Narma Fairchild Recording Equipment 3,118,977 1964 H.F. Olson RCA 3,129,008 1964 Suzuki etc JVC 3,133,161 1964 Georg Neumann (1898-1976) 3,142,729 1964 Davis Litton Systems 3,146,319 1964 Stanton Pickering & Company, Inc. 3,151,221 1964 Pyke EMI=Electric and Musical Industries 3,167,317 1965 Percy Wilson (1893-1977) 3,184,242 1965 Capps & Co., Inc. Richard Marcucci and Isabel Capps 3,184,555 1965 Marshall Garrard 3,186,029 1965 William Joseph Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc. [MGM] 3,186,932 1965 Gelfand and Scott Audio Matrix, Inc. 3,189,353 1965 Grado 3,194,896 1965 Redlich TELDEC 3,201,432 1965 Hammond V-M Corporation 3,201,527 1965 Ahrens in Kiel, Germany Electroacustic Gesellschaft (ELAC) 3,207,857 1965 Poutot US Philips 3,215,439 1965 Theodore Lindenberg The Astatic Corporation in Ohio 3,215,440 1965 Wood in Puerto Rico Euphonics Corporation, Puerto Rico 3,215,785 1965 Cvetko and Palo The Astatic Corporation in Ohio 3,216,730 1965 Ogura family 3,218,399 1965 M. de Vries in Amsterdam Ronette Piezoelectrische Industrie, Amsterdam 3,219,351 1965 Shaper etc Dyna-Empire(EMPIRE) 3,229,038 1966 Richter RCA 3,229,048 1966 Fox RCA 3,229,321 1966 C.E. Watts (Cecil E Watts Limited) 3,230,318 1966 Engel etc Telefunken 3,231,283 1966 Stanton 3,235,672 1966 Beguin American Optical Company 3,236,955 1966 Klemp and Redlich Telefunken GmbH 3,243,188 1966 Caddy etc Garrard 3,243,524 1966 Laux RCA 3,254,897 1966 Holmes 3,261,925 1966 Albert B. Smith A. Bernard Smith Laboratories, Inc. in Ohio 3,264,003 1966 Thevenaz Thorens S.A. 3,292,935 1966 M.J. Cooper in UK Decca Limited in UK 3,292,936 1966 Grado 3,294,405 1966 Pritchard Audio Dynamics Corp (ADC) 3,297,831 1967 Stanton 3,298,059 1967 Sakamoto JVC 3,299,219 1967 Madsen Bang & Orfusen (B&O) 3,301,565 1967 Bachman Columbia Broadcasting System 3,315,967 1967 Laufer Dual Gebruder Steidinger 3,318,603 1967 Mortimer Garrard 3,328,037 1967 Lehmann/Harnisch Dual 3,329,997 1967 Rand etc EMI=Electric and Musical Industries 3,351,830 1967 Wilner Endevco Corporation 3,356,795 1967 Shaper Dyna-Empire(EMPIRE) 3,360,616 1967 Shiga etc Denon 3,383,474 1968 Kriebel etc Electroacustic Gesellschaft (ELAC) 3,383,752 1968 Hukao etc Toshiba 3,388,912 1968 Shimoda etc Sony 3,390,888 1968 Klemp and Redlich TELDEC 3,393,915 1968 Osborne etc The Wurlitzer Company 3,399,900 1968 Tsukamoto 3,402,935 1968 Kitazawa Nippon Columbia (Denon) 3,403,233 1968 D.H. Cooper 3,420,967 1969 Goldmark Columbia Broadcasting System 3,440,461 1961 Batchelor etc EMI 3,441,688 1969 Shaper Empire 3,444,335 1969 John Walton in UK 3,457,374 1969 Klemp and Redlich TELDEC 3,469,040 1969 Shaper Empire Scientific Corp(EMPIRE) 3,479,038 1969 Eisner 3,482,061 1969 Grado 3,484,566 1969 Kuriyagawa etc Toshiba 3,486,757 1969 Loescher Lenco A G 3,490,771 1970 BB Bauer Columbia Broadcasting System 3,494,623 1970 Nesle Firma Perpetuum Ebner, Fabrik fur Fein-mechanik und Elektrotechnik Steidinge 3,497,636 1970 Bayless 3,503,615 1970 Matsuda Denon 3,524,950 1970 Konagaya Tokyo Shibaura Elec (=Toshiba) 3,526,690 1970 Bachman CBS 3,526,728 1970 Iga Matsushita=Technics 3,528,127 1970 Damm etc Carl Lindstrom Gesellschaft in Germany 3,528,665 1970 Klemp and Redlich TELDEC 3,531,601 1970 Muttick Sonotone Corporation 3,534,425 1970 C.E. Watts (deceased) Cecil E Watts 3,534,968 1970 Puleston Bruce Diamond Corporation 3,538,266 1970 Cho Micro Seiki 3,542,972 1970 Karl Braun 3,546,399 1970 Stanton and Kuehn Pickering & Company, Inc. 3,572,724 1971 Rabinow Max L. Libman 3,572,725 1971 Murphy Pickering & Company, Inc. 3,576,955 1971 Obata Matsushita=Technics 3,610,840 1971 Michael Evans Miller RCA 3,627,931 1971 Matsuda Denon 3,632,886 1972 Peter Scheiber 3,635,622 1972 Wechsler Capitol Records, Inc. 3,641,284 1972 Westerkamp and Dubois Huber & Co. in Swiss 3,645,541 1972 Robertson-Aikman; Alastair John ("Stokes," Steyning, Sussex, EN) 3,646,279 1972 Stanton Pickering & Company, Inc. 3,654,660 1972 Taylor etc 3,665,123 1972 K Ikeda Mitachi Onkyo Seisakusho (brand name "GLANZ") 3,666,896 1972 Laue Dual Gebruder Steidinger 3,673,354 1972 Oda etc Matsushita=Technics 3,679,843 1972 Cho Micro Seiki 3,682,485 1972 Guha V-M Corporation 3,683,128 1972 Grado 3,683,248 1972 Kobayashi etc Matsushita=Technics 3,686,471 1972 N. Takahashi Victor Company of Japan (JVC) 3,686,939 1972 Fuchs etc Shure 3,697,087 1972 Y. Takahashi Pioneer 3,700,829 1972 Anneberg etc Fonofilm Industri A/S (Ortofon) 3,720,796 1973 Honma Audio Technica 3,722,893 1973 Shimoda Toho Machine CO., Ltd. 3,729,596 1973 Toth in Germany Hermut Wilms in Lubeck, Germany 3,731,009 1973 Watanabe etc Toshiba 3,731,938 1973 Wren Plessey Handel und Investments AG. Swiss 3,745,263 1973 Kawakami 3,760,125 1973 Laue Dual Gebruder Steidinger 3,761,647 1973 Nemoto and Honma Audio Technica 3,763,335 1973 Morita Matsushita=Technics 3,770,901 1973 B.B. Bauer Columbia Broadcasting System 3,771,797 1973 Karl Braun 3,774,918 1973 Norio Shibata Victor Company of Japan (JVC) 3,779,563 1973 Irisawa 3,786,193 1974 Tsurushima Sony 3,787,622 1974 Itoh etc Sansui 3,813,101 1974 Ernst Benz in Switzerland 3,829,615 1974 Hiramatsu Mitsubishi Denki(Electric) 3,830,459 1974 Strausfeld EMI Electrola in Germany 3,836,155 1974 Joannou 3,846,592 1974 Stanton 3,850,436 1974 Rabe Polyband Gesellschaft in Munich 3,871,664 1975 Hughes Diamagnetics, Inc. 3,904,837 1975 Sugimoto etc Hitachi 3,918,722 1975 Nakajima etc Sony 3,918,723 1975 Nakajima etc Sony 3,923,309 1975 Nakajima etc Sony 3,927,887 1975 Oda and Otani Matsushita=Technics 3,932,087 1976 Nilsson and Lindell in Sweden Toolex Alpha Aktiebolag (Sweden) [now ALPHA SWEDEN] 3,936,619 1976 Sugimoto etc Matsushita=Technics 3,941,547 1976 Hunyar and Green United Artists Music and Records Group, Inc. 3,944,754 1976 Ishigaki Victor Company of Japan (JVC) 3,945,647 1976 Rangabe 3,948,529 1976 Wittenberg Pickering & Company, Inc. 3,951,841 1976 Maier Discwasher Inc 3,952,171 1976 Dieter Micro-Acoustics Corporation 3,954,273 1976 Shaper etc Empire 3,956,598 1976 Kawakami etc Sony 3,958,292 1976 Powell Milty Products Limited 3,960,790 1976 Khanna etc RCA 3,961,797 1976 Tsukagoshi Pioneer 3,963,246 1976 Trochimowski in Canada 3,963,880 1976 I Ikeda FR 3,964,752 1976 Andre Marie Bernard Charlin(1903-1983) 3,966,330 1976 Ridler etc Strathearn Audio Limited 3,973,777 1976 Guha Avnet, Inc. 3,975,025 1976 Obata etc Matsushita=Technics 3,983,335 1976 Nemoto Audio Technica 3,988,024 1976 Watanabe etc Toshiba 3,989,903 1976 D.H. Cooper etc Nippon Columbia (Denon) 3,991,284 1976 Karl Braun 3,993,315 1976 S. Hansen and Sorensen B&O 3,997,174 1976 Kawashima Sony 3,997,817 1976 Secker, University Collage of North Wales 4,001,519 1977 Rangabe 4,009,885 1977 Pritchard Sonic Research Corp. 4,011,417 1977 Kageyama etc Mitachi Onkyo Seisakusho (brand name "GLANZ") 4,023,130 1977 Ridler etc Strathearn Audio Limited 4,031,335 1977 Smit US Philips 4,033,591 1977 Ichikawa Ichikawa Hoseki Kabushiki Kaisha 4,033,592 1977 Tokuta etc Victor Company of Japan (JVC) 4,037,060 1977 Uchida etc Japan Piezo Co., Ltd (Azden) 4,038,009 1977 Toull EMI Limited in UK 4,039,194 1977 Nakagawa Matsushita=Technics 4,039,195 1977 Iyeta Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) 4,046,386 1977 Gosling etc Strathearn Audio Limited 4,047,721 1977 Hermann Dual 4,053,721 1977 Nishikawa Pioneer 4,054,291 1977 Maeda Sony 4,065,188 1977 Ridler etc Strathearn Audio Limited 4,070,028 1978 Percy Wilson Metrosound Audio Products Ltd 4,072,823 1978 Minamizono (=Namizono?) Mitachi Onkyo Seisakusho (brand name "GLANZ") 4,075,418 1978 Nemoto etc Audio Technica 4,079,942 1978 Kunen Jazlowiecki; Edward A. 4,079,943 1978 Morita and Yasuda Matsushita=Technics 4,085,940 1978 Hoshimi Sony 4,090,039 1978 Mori etc Sony 4,093,833 1978 Tsukamoto 4,093,897 1978 Fujita etc Hitachi 4,101,133 1978 Aoki etc Denon 4,102,536 1978 Clunis Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company 4,103,116 1978 Mishima Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) 4,103,117 1978 Morinaga Trio 4,105,212 1978 Ogura Ogura Jewel Industry 4,105,213 1978 Owaki etc Victor Company of Japan (JVC) 4,106,776 1978 Gillespie 4,109,114 1978 Baer etc Marvin Glass & Associates 4,113,265 1978 Iyeta Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) 4,113,266 1978 Alexandrovich Pickering & Company, Inc. 4,114,060 1978 Mclean and Holt Strathearn Audio Limited 4,117,412 1978 Holman, II; Tomlinson M. Advent Corporation 4,121,837 1978 Tominari etc Onlife Research (Dynavector) 4,124,216 1978 Sorensen B&O 4,124,782 1978 Schon AKG 4,124,783 1978 Nemoto Audio Technica 4,128,909 1978 Kawabe etc Nagaoka 4,132,935 1979 Gaus etc Braun Aktiengesellschaft 4,135,086 1979 Baba Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) 4,138,121 1979 Nakajima etc Sony 4,138,122 1979 H. Nakatsuka Ortofon 4,140,321 1979 Albert Pickering & Company, Inc. 4,140,886 1979 Itoh Matsushita=Technics 4,143,248 1979 Broeksema US Philips 4,149,036 1979 Okamoto etc Nippon Columbia (Denon) 4,151,998 1979 Kurtin etc Discwasher Inc 4,157,460 1979 Bottali etc CBS 4,161,631 1979 Matsuda Denon 4,167,026 1979 Sambe etc Aiwa 4,170,361 1979 Zwicky etc Willi Studer (REVOX) 4,177,360 1979 Fujimoto etc Sansui D251558 1979 Christle and M. Ikeda Infinity Systems, Inc 4,183,537 1980 H. Nakatsuka Namiki 4,185,835 1980 Robertson-Aikman; Alastair John ("Stokes," Steyning, Sussex, EN) 4,194,744 1980 Groh, Karlov and Happ Shure 4,199,375 1980 Muller 4,205,856 1980 K. Hayashi Stax Industries 4,209,669 1980 Hayashi Denon 4,209,670 1980 Ono etc Victor Company of Japan (JVC) 4,211,422 1980 Rangabe Zerostat Components Ltd 4,212,471 1980 Nishiwaki etc Victor Company of Japan (JVC) 4,218,591 1980 Iwasawa 4,220,926 1980 Buckner in UK Plessey Handel und Investments AG. Swiss 4,221,937 1980 I Ikeda FR 4,225,928 1980 Henderson 4,230,323 1980 Tsuji etc Sharp=OPTONICA 4,232,072 1980 Pardee Ball Corporation 4,232,202 1980 Mori etc Sony 4,232,869 1980 Wakabayashi etc Matsushita=Technics 4,233,476 1980 I Ikeda 4,237,347 1980 Burundukov 4,237,349 1980 B.S. Hansen and Gudmandsen Ortofon 4,238,646 1980 Aizawa etc Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) D261882 1981 Obata etc Matsushita=Technics 4,249,747 1981 Bauer (deceased) 4,251,080 1981 Sumachev; Jury N. (Leningrad, SU) 4,256,312 1981 M Ikeda R & D Office Makoto Ltd 4,257,615 1981 Morch(Moerch) 4,261,580 1981 Tsukagoshi etc Pioneer 4,263,483 1981 Obata Matsushita=Technics 4,264,078 1981 Hattori Koshin Denki 4,270,758 1981 Kehl Shure 4,271,382 1981 Maeda and Matsuoka Matsushita=Technics 4,275,888 1981 Anderson etc Shure 4,276,635 1981 Obata etc Matsushita=Technics 4,277,070 1981 Dinsdale etc from UK Cranfield Institute of Technology 4,279,691 1981 Aoki etc Matsushita=Technics 4,281,225 1981 Ito etc Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) 4,293,823 1981 Hochberg and Borland Logitek Electronic Systems, Inc. 4,295,277 1981 Dennessen etc Dennessen Electronics 4,305,147 1981 Onishi Pioneer 4,312,061 1982 Hayashi Denon 4,317,191 1982 Tatara Sony 4,323,997 1982 Kuribayashi etc Pioneer 4,325,016 1982 Takeuchi Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) 4,325,132 1982 Kuehn Audio Dynamics Corp (ADC) 4,326,283 1982 Toulan and Rensky Quality Audio Components 4,326,285 1982 Dieter etc Micro-Acoustics Ltd 4,328,573 1982 Kurtin etc NAD International in Germany 4,330,884 1982 Obata etc Matsushita=Technics 4,332,050 1982 Okuda Kyushu Hitachi Maxell, Ltd. 4,337,533 1982 Ando etc Aiwa 4,345,322 1982 Aizawa etc Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) 4,346,467 1982 Souther 4,351,045 1982 Townshend 4,352,176 1982 Itoh Matsushita=Technics 4,352,178 1982 Kitamura etc Kitamura 4,359,768 1982 Abbagnaro and Gust CBS 4,363,705 1982 Hunyar and Hand Capitol Records, Inc. 4,364,120 1982 Honma Audio Technica 4,365,325 1982 Van Den Hul 4,367,544 1983 Fidi AKG 4,367,546 1983 Shibata Victor Company of Japan (JVC) 4,368,527 1983 Goldstein 4,368,528 1983 Sakano etc Sony 4,370,371 1983 Nakahira Hohyu Rubber 4,376,304 1983 Uchida etc Azden 4,383,310 1983 Itoh Matsushita=Technics 4,385,375 1983 Okura Pioneer 4,395,920 1983 Kurtin etc Audio Dynamics Corp (ADC) 4,397,012 1983 Burundukov in USSR 4,397,013 1983 Shiomi etc Kyocera/Nagaoka 4,403,880 1983 Sandors etc California Sounds Ltd 4,409,526 1983 Yamauchi etc Sony 4,416,003 1983 Suzuki Sharp=OPTONICA 4,416,006 1983 Kitamura etc (no assignment, but the inventors are mainly engineers of JVC) 4,423,499 1983 Peschel AKG 4,434,483 1983 Vinogradov in USSR 4,434,484 1984 Iwata Audio Technica 4,437,179 1984 Nishikawa etc Pioneer 4,441,177 1984 Groh etc Shure 4,441,178 1984 Kobayashi etc Nakamichi 4,449,214 1984 Rangabe 4,453,243 1984 Tanaka etc Sony 4,455,641 1984 Sliski Dennesen Electrostatics, Inc. 4,462,097 1984 Janda etc TESLA, koncernovy podnik 4,468,627 1984 Fushiki Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) 4,470,020 1984 Mohr 4,473,897 1984 Seeler Shure 4,475,185 1984 Fujio etc Sansui Electric 4,479,281 1984 Mikutowski 4,484,320 1984 Redlich TELDEC 4,488,284 1984 Aoki etc Denon 4,490,816 1984 Kehl Shure D279,775 1985 Nemoto Audio Technica 4,494,227 1985 van Vroonhoven US Philips 4,509,159 1985 Alexandrovich Pickering & Company, Inc. 4,512,008 1985 Yokoyama Nippon Gakki (Yamaha) 4,521,877 1985 Shimamoto Namiki Precision Jewel 4,528,653 1985 Asano Sony 4,536,865 1985 Kenmotu etc Pioneer 4,538,255 1985 Kern Georg Neumann GmbH 4,547,819 1985 Meitner etc Amber Electro Design, Inc. (Montreal, CA) 4,547,874 1985 Mori etc Sony 4,558,443 1985 Koyama and Nakamura Tekudaiya Kabushiki Kaisha in Japan 4,570,253 1986 Firebaugh 4,580,257 1986 Kikuchi etc Pioneer 4,580,258 1986 Dinsdale etc in UK Cranfield Institute of Technology/Elite Townshed, Ltd. 4,628,500 1986 Thigpen etc Eminent Technology 4,644,517 1987 Tominari Dynavector 4,675,859 1987 Croopnick and Fletcher Sumiko 4,681,527 1987 Amory etc Pathe-Marconi EMI SA in France 4,686,664 1987 Robert J. Graham 4,729,146 1988 Barr 4,792,938 1988 Firebaugh 4,802,081 1989 Otzipka etc US Philips 4,855,989 1989 Gyger, Jr.; Fritz (CH-3645 Gwatt, CH) 4,870,631 1989 Stoddard etc Finial Technology, Inc. 4,884,262 1989 Larsen/Gudmandsen/Winfeld Ortofon 5,003,522 1991 Ray M Dolby 5,781,525 1998 Neulinger 6,070,721 2000 Levitan 6,185,179 2001 Mohrin 6,469,974 2002 Kaneko Vestax 6,661,767 2003 Warden Numark Industries, LLC 6,818,815 2004 Cohen Stanton Magnetics 6,829,207 2004 Singer Convolve, Inc. 7,042,811 2006 Penn and Phelps Syracuse University 7,086,071 2006 Schroeder 7,106,685 2006 Calaio 7,345,975 2008 Fadeyev and Haber The Regents of the University of California 7,382,713 2008 Robert J. Graham 7,630,288 2009 Riggle 7,944,803 2011 Perkins Who first obtained clear idea about differentiating method? Newton (1642-1727) in England? Leibnitz (1646-1716) in Germany? or Takakazu Seki (1642?-1708) in Japan? Not yet exactly, but near to it by proposing a determinant and find Bernoulli number befo They did not know each other But the essence of idea was similar and they got ideas in same era. Differentiating method is a fact like sunshine - and who is able to see can see. There might be the mature time for natural/human progress. Once a great inventor Jacob Rabinow said as follows: "People are so carried away with their own brilliance that it is hard for them to believe that the world is filled w One gains tremendous respect for the human race when one sits in the Patent Office Search Room for a day and looks through the tremendous variety of ideas on any subject one can possibly conceive." Assumed Realised Models Main point of claims Phonograph or Speaking machine (as it stands on drawing, but patent front page titled "I Recording and Reproducing Speech and other Sounds. Disk with spiral groove type "pho tates Gramophone Company Gramophone (Disk). His older patent 372786(1887) for Gramophone (horizontal recordin Sound Recording and Reproducing Machine. Also 601198 for Gramophone and Actuating nograph Company in New Jersey Method of duplicating phonographic records aphophone Company in District of Columbia Sound-Record [making of cylinders from matrix mold]. His patent 682992(1901) is reissue onal Phonograph & Indestructible Record Company in UK. Method of forming metal matrices and duplicating Sound-Record Cylinders [by Electrodep Stylus or Needle for Sound-reproducers. Long life needle made of hard small diameter rod ng Machine Company in New Jersey Sound-Record [Label pressed to record together with pressing the disc in heated condition] Double-Faced Sound-Record. In 1904 Odeon produced double-sided records. Some early O Sound-Recording Apparatus. Cutting tool for lateral-cut groove of uniform depth consists o Composition of making duplicate phonograph-records (cylinders). Mixture of metallic soap Production of Quasi-Original Sound Records (duplication of matrix for lateral-cut disks). A ng Machine Company in New Jersey Die-Plate for Stamping up Sound Records. Cheny invented 655195(1900): Gramophone So nghans & Thomas Haller (clock maker) Feeding Mechanism for Talking Machine [Linear Tracking Arm fed by worm gear so that w Multi-track (for example triple-track spiral) sound grooves with lead-in markings [The simi Phonograph-Reproducer (Ball Bearing Needle) Phonograph-Stylus of crystallized boron. Talking Machine (Vacuum suction turntable for thin flat flexible disc record) ng Machine Company in New Jersey Stylus for sound-reproducing machine. Elliptical tungsten stylus Edison Diamond disc Process of forming phonograph styli (Diamond Stylus Tip). Hard record material such as P Edison Diamond disc Process for making sound records (record made of fusible Phenol resin etc) Speed-Regulator for Phonographs (Electric Motor regulating with eddy current disks) Celluloid Record-Blank. Also 1248468. Mainly cylinder type though in patent 1234451 Ed Record for Talking Machine. Lateral cut record with new groove configurations (the walls Talking Machine. Improving means for supporting sound box. In 1894 Charles and Émile P ng Machine Company in New Jersey Molding-Press. Also 941291: Apparatus for making sound-records for talking machines (M Means for recording sound. Multi-sound sources received through horns are electrically mi Phonograph Company in New York Electric-Motor Phonograph Talking Machine. Universal joint between tone-arm and tone-tube. Also co-inventor of 129 Laminated (multi-layered) discs. Phonograph Company in New York Phonograph-Reproducer. Sound Box usable for both vertical & lateral records: projecting a ng Machine Company in New Jersey Method of making record tablets. Various groove configurations seeking for standardizatio aphophone Manufacturing Company Apparatus for pressing up Sound-Records and the like. cial Research Company Process of making styli and products thereof (Tungsten stylus). aphophone Manufacturing Company Method and Apparatus for pressing disc sound records without the aid of heating and coolin Establissements GAUMONT in Paris, France Electrical Reproducer for Phonograph. Previous patent 1384295(1921) originally filed ctric Company, Incorporated. Vibratory System (Electric Recording System; application not limited to phonograph ck-Balke-Collender Company in Delaware Molding Die. [Brunswick Records: in the 1930s, Brunswick sold the control of the record c Acoustical Device (cylinder record cutting & reproducing). Dictaphone started as producer ctric Company, Incorporated. Sound Recording Method (extended play time, no mention of specific 33.33rpm. He in Means for recording sounds. Heated cutting stylus for cutting harder material than soft wax Phonograph System (Recording chain including transmitter=microphone capable of picking Device for the transmission of vibratory energy (Basic technology for electric recordin Damped Phonograph Apparatus (Piezo-electric element and vibration-damping material) ration of America (RCA) in Delaware Electric Phonograph Circuit (Phonographs in connection with radio receiving circuits) Also eeler Electric Manufacturing Company Slow Speed Synchronous Motor (Direct Drive Motor for 78rpm) Reproducing and Recording of Sound [Electric Phonograph] Also 1743251 Means for reco lephone and Telegraph Company Phonograph Recording and Reproducing (Application filed Nov. 15, 1919). The methods o ireless Telegraph Company, England Gramophone-Record-Cutting Device and the like. 1974895 (Reproducer) was assigned to R ng Machine Company in New Jersey Talking Machine-Record. Apparatus for transferring sound from cylinder record to disc rec Phonograph Needle (small and light weight stylus tip made by electroplating method: thin c Manufacturing Company Electromagnetic Pick-up MC Cartridge e Electric & Manufacturing Company Reproducing Device (Simple Mechanism: diaphragm in sound box is changed to electric tr Reproducer (Balanced Armature Type). Also 1614133 In 1925 E.dward W. Kellog and C ctric Company, of Rachine Translating Device (Balanced Armature Type) Also 1846871(arm) & 1934857 (pick-up) Electromagnetic Instrument (esp. pick-up for vertical-cut of the finely grooved type ) Also 1 Sound Recording Apparatus. Also 1944258 about Sound Reproducing Instrument Sound Reproducer (for playing soft wax records). Jones invented 1746730, 1812634, 1918 Shellac Composition (Shellac31.5% Induline base 1.5% Filler67%) Electromagnetic Device. "a four-pole magnetic structure and coil are sealed in an oil filled Production of Phonograph Styli (lapping machine for making diamond stylus of small ration of America (RCA) in Delaware Magnet System for converting electrical into mechanical energy or inversely [pole pieces c acturing Company in New Jersey Phonograph Turntable (center-driven by induction motor with worm gear and governor: pla Magnetic Pickup. Also 1830800, 1830801 & 1835072 etc. He is more famous for his book Plural-Member stylus or the like. Stock material (tungsten rod) is inserted and fused togethe Phonograph Recorder and Reproducer Arm (consideration on lateral/vertical inertia and an Mounting of Electric Pick-ups for Gramophones [Forerunner of Linear Tracking Arm] ng Machine Company in New Jersey Means and Method for pressing talking machine record [mold]. ng Machine Company in New Jersey Electromagnetic Acoustic Device. Owing to the Crash of 1929, Victor Talking Machine Co Phonograph Reproducer (MC type) Electrical Sound Reproducing Apparatus. Pick-up applicable without any adjustment for ei aphophone Company in UK Electric Sound Recorder. In 1931 Gramophone Company and Columbia Graphophone Com later called as "VINYLITE" Record (composition: copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate etc). In 1920 Unio Pick-up Device (Auto-offsetting tracking arm) Reproducer for hill-and-dale records. Also 1784845 about needle Phonograph reproducers for Vertical Recordings (esp. wax so that light vertical pressure le Reproducing Arm (Auto-offsetting device by pulley) Sound Reproducer for hill-and-dale records. Light tracking force 10g. Analysis of effective Vibration Translating Device (Recording device using moving coil and damping plate and Electroplating upon metallized surface Recorder Stylus (suitable for use of hill and dale type) Also 1918271: Sound Recording and aphophone Company in UK Moving Coil Electromechanical Device (sound recording and reproducing). Sound Reproducing System: L/V two channels from single groove Vibration Translating Device (reproducer with double moving coils). Also 2027169 & 213 Vibration Translating Device (MC type reproducer for hill-and-dale records). Analysis on m Phonograph reproducer (MC) for Lateral and Vertical Recordings Vibration Translating Device (single moving coil) for hill-and-dale-recording. Also 199054 Phonograph reproducer (MC) for Lateral and Vertical Recordings ic and Musical Industries in UK Sound Transmission including Stereophonic/Electric Recording & Reproducing Syste Sound Recording & Reproducing System (45/45 degrees stereophonic groove and equ Feed Mechanism for disk recording machines. Later patents 2200866 & RE22183, 221393 Sound Recording and Reproducing System [Idea of equalization with pre-emphasis on reco Sound Reproducing & Recording Apparatus Phonograph Pickup (Improvement of response at low frequencies) Vibratory System (Recording System: driving coil and feedback coil incorporated into v ng Corporation in New York Recording Head and Process of Recording. Recording on film with stylus. Also 2173050. R Arm balanced by spring tension. Also 2254844 about turntable mechanism with variable sp Aluminum Record Blank coated with Ricinoleic Acid [for embossing] Recording Stylus. Translating Device (for recording & reproducing on record cylinder). Also 2110092 Comm Device to convert electrical into mechanical energy or inversely (Moving-conductor type p "Beam-Of-Light Pickup" Photoelectric Phonograph. Also 2316113, 2359808 & 2399585 by Thompson and 2348660 Reproducer (MC type) Phonograph (Floating System by Coil Springs) Presto Recorder Automatic Equalising System for Recording on Disk Records. Bi-radial stylus tip. Also John Reid invented universal reproducing stylus (2584922-1952) Product of Vinyl Record Phonograph Records (made of Vinyl resin). Also 2206636(1940) & 2217170(1940) etc Sound Recording. Improvement of vertical cut records: forerunner of tracing simulator. Als evelopment Company Phonograph Recorder (Piezoelectric Cutter Head using Bi-morph Rochelle Salt Element). A pre-emphasis=orthacoustic recording Sound Translating System. Also 2379707: Audio-Frequency Compensator Circuit in consid Fairchild Sound Recording and Reproducing Mechanism. Moving Coil System. Also 2792456 Sound Record and Reproducing System. He proposed exponential curved V groove suitabl Stylus for Reproducers. Also 2160793, RE22371,2261616, 2313324 & 2348526 about crys Signal Recording and Reproducing System: compensating the loss of high frequencies due Translating Device (Piezoelectric Element=Torsion Bar Form) Also 2381861, 2455913 & Sound Recording Apparatus Signal Translating Apparatus [piezoelectric pickup] Tracer Mechanism for Investigating Surface Irregularities Vibration Translating Device for hill and dale or lateral type of recordings Sound Recording Apparatus (The feed screw of Recording Head is driven by the centre of Sound Recording & Reproducing Apparatus [esp. for Home Recording] Sound recording & reproducing Apparatus. Patents 2077388, 2094201, 2107050 etc by Be Electromechanical Conversion-Device (Improved Reproducer). Also 2239717etc. Frederic Transducer (Phonograph pickup for lateral-cut records) and Television Corporation Phonograph Pickup (MC type similar to cutter head) with peculiar suspension suitable for l mpany, Inc., in Massachusetts Phonograph Pick-up. Previous patent 1915804(1933) Cutting, Grinding or Polishing Machine for Diamonds or other stones and the like (showing and Television Corporation Phonograph Pick-up Device (MC type) Audograph Sound Recording and Reproducing Machine. AUDOGRAPH is recording with constant gro Method of and System for Recording Audio Frequency Waves. Also 2475200 about signal Electric Pickup (MC type). Faus also invented 2415681(VR type) for GE. Hum-less Electrodynamic Pickup (lateral MC pickup) Also 2542457. Newspaper "The Tec Pickup with reed of magnetic material. Also RE23327(1951) Damper-less type (suspension Electrostatic Pickup. Also 2465288(capacity type pickup), 2388578(Record Reproducing Electric Phonograph Pickup of the Capacity Type. In 1944 Snepvangers moved to CBS Lab Tone Arm Mounting Magnetic Translating Device. Previous patent 2356810 Dictabelt Stylus Construction and Method (Embossing sound track). Related patent 2534735 &25883 Type C/D Electromagnetic Pickup (T-shaped stylus assembly) =GB615421-615424. Another GB5869 Phonograph pickup with mechanical filter. Also 2531689: Electrical Translating Means and dcasting Corp. in Ohio Electrodynamic Phonograph Pickup (one turn of coil=ribbon type?) In 1945, the Crosley in ompany in New Jersey Phonograph Pickups (Piezoelectric). VR(variable reluctance) Cartridge Magnetic Phonograph Pickup. Also 2444336, 2456388, 2508753, 2547441 etc. Lionel B. C Variable Resistance Phonograph Pickup. Also 2415403 & 2511664 (idea similar to anc Reproducer for hill-and-dale and lateral cut phonograph records. Also 2516919(1950): Ele Phonograph Pickup having permanent magnet armature [MM type pickup in SP era] Phonograph Pickup having permanent magnet armature [MM type pickup in SP era] Why h Pickup Mounting. Also 2498210 about piezoelecttric pickup.. The Aviation Corporation la GE monaural cartridges Magnetic Phonograph Pickup. In 1947 Bachman was invited to Columbia Broadcasti Lever-Type Cartridges (around 1946) Transducer having a pair of Levers coupling the driving member to the translating element Feedback Control System for Recording Cutter and the like Auto-offsetting pantograph arm similar to Garrard Zero series. See also later patent b evelopment Company Phonograph Pickups (Piezoelectric). Related Patent 2519185. The Brush Development Com Universal Tone Arm for Multispeed Record Player. Lloyd J. ANDREAS invented various s esented by The Secretary of Navy Recording Equipment having an adjustable advance ball ps & CO. Inc. in New York Recording Stylus (detailed function of burnishing facet angles) Earlier patent 2187512-19 Westrex Cutter Head Model 2A/B Electrodynamic Phonograph Pickup (Lateral cutter head with feedback coil). In 2746130 Electrodynamic Pickup having U-shaped Coil Holder Seeburg/Pickering Blackhead Magnetic Sound Reproducer having removable stylus assembly. Also 2538164 cartridge, 2 Phonograph Pickup. This patent tells the problems and difficulty of tracing on new "microg dcasting Corp. in Ohio Dynamic Balanced Arm with two spring coils. Also 2587529 RPX-050 etc Dual Stylus Phonograph Pickup for Multispeed Record Players. Also 2554208 about impro Magnetic Phonograph Pickup Head with two pairs of pole pieces. Also 2388116 Phonograph Pickup and Mechanical Motion Converting System Therefor. Also 2567105 (C rens S.A. in Sainte-Croix, Switzerland Talking Machine with Record Changer. Also 2592323, 2574071 etc Phonograph Stylus of small effective tip radius Universal Reproducing Stylus. Analysis of differences of records between the past and pres Ortofon Type A/B/C and AD Moving-Coil Phonograph Pickup. Coil is wound vertically on elongated core which is supp ecord Company, Limited, London Electrodynamic Phonograph Pickup Spiral and Eccentric Groove Cutter for Phonograph Records and the like. evelopment Company Ceramic Electromechanical Transducer (elongated hollow or tubular piezoelectric element Moving-Coil Sound Recording Head. Arnold Robinson Sugden started "Connoisseur" bran Sound recorder with Sound-Controlled-Stylus Feed (Variable Pitch) Electrodynamic Recording Device. Gramophone Record (Record Composition) Induction Heating of Recording Styli. Related patent 2628104 by Shardlow assigned to RC Phonograph Needle (ball bearing needle - mere fancy at the time, but now it can be embodi Phonograph Record with raised rim for groove protection Double-Twist Phonograph Stylus Assembly Phonograph Pickup Mounting (proposing Inclined Arm Mounting for anti-skating: "Since t Method of assembling phonograph translating devices Phonograph Pickup Device and the like (Improvement on Masterson's patent 2560358 assig P "Vertical Drive"Cartridges (around 1949) honograph Apparatus (Piezoelectric pickup with protective tusk for stylus: low tracking fo Arm Assembly (proposing viscous damping theory). His another patent 3622163(1971) Lin Phonograph Pickup with styli alternatively used for LP and SP (Turnover type cartridge) Electrodynamic Pickup Phonograph Pickup: Piezoelectric type TD 124 Driving Device for a Grammophone Turntable. [wheel rubber driven by intermediate whee Record Cutting Stylus Suspension (Advance Ball Damping Suspension to insure the cutting Disc Design for Compatible Center Holes: For playing on larger hole, the hub portion may Sound Recording Apparatus (Automatic Variable Pitch Recording) Stylus Removable Cartridges (plural styli on one cantilever) Automatic Molding Apparatus. Also 2853737 These have good reference to previous paten Phonograph attachment for eliminating static electricity from records Mechanical Coupling Device (Pickup Cartridge using bimorph piezoelectric plates) Also 27 Click mounting of stylus holder on piezoelectric cartridges W-202 Variable capacity pickup. Also 2507188(1950) Phonograph Stylus (universal tip applicable for both coarse & fine grooves) Similar idea w Stereophonic Record Making (Monaural Two Faces synchronised). Daniel P. Doncaster inv Phonograph Tone Arm Model 120/160 with detachable headshell PA-20 Transducer (using ceramic element) Also 2771513 Fairchild Vibration Translating Device (Monaural Cutter driven by moving coil) Tone Arm Construction for Phonograph (arm shape itself is amplifying sound mechanically Recording Method using translating head and stylus (Recording on plastic belt) Phonograph Pickups (Piezoelectric) Also 2717929 Automatic Variable Pitch Control Apparatus for Disc Recorders Universal Phonograph Pick-up Cartridge (stylus turn-over type for LP/SP use=universal) A Pickup Heads (moving-conductor type called also as ribbon type). This idea is not new (for Stereophonic Record using monophonic double faces (Also 2950116) Wide range dynamic phonograph pickup Universal Pickup Head (Vertical/Lateral/Stereo by changing connection) Binaural Phonograph Pickup (L/V stereophonic type since this patent was applied in 19 Phonograph Pickups (Monophonic Piezoelectric Cartridge). Also 2881005 by Michalko an Moving Armature Phonograph (MC type) Pickups. Also 3043920 (Permanent Magnetized Improvement of Monophonic MI Cartridges Sonotone 9T etc Piezoelectric Stereo Pickups (various construction) Also 2849239, 2955170, 2955216, 317 gham Sound Reproducers Ltd) Auto-changing mechanism. Also 3049354 for auto-return and re-set mechanism Stylus turnover=two needles cartridge Ceramic Binaural Phonograph Pickup. Related patent 3377439 for Erie Technological Prod Cutter (esp. Depth) Control Means for cutting recording grooves (Scully Automatic Recodi Playback system for stereophonic records with mechanical rumble filter Method of manufacturing phonograph styli (special shape of shank base suitable for bondin elefunken-Decca Schallplatten GmbH Method and apparatus for dual sound track recording (Cutting head for L/V two channels) Apparatus for Sound Recording (Variable Pitch) Also 2977424 & 2792454 s Musicales et Electrique Pathe Marconi, Paris Gramophone Pick-ups [about resilient stylus arm suspension] c and Musical Industries in UK Moving Coil Electro-Mechanical Transducers Phonograph Reproducer (silicone oil Damped Arm suitable for the use on a movable vehic Gramophone Records Cleaning Machine Telefunken Studio 220 Automatic Phonograph including size selecting mechanism to set arm to the first groove of M12 & M16 Transcription Tone Arm: Incorporating Dynamic Damping Theory developed by B.B. Ba GMC5 (turnover-type MC) Moving Coil Pick-ups for phonographs and the like Decca London cartridges Gramophone Pickup (Stereophonic L/V matrix to comply with 45/45 system). Bayliff "EverClean"Records Antistatic Record Disks Pickering Unipoise 194 Phonograph Pick-up Arm with one-point bearing. Also design patent D183546-1958 Method of "Sonosheet" was appended to books or magazines. producing PVC thin film records Off-Center Indicator [to check the concentricity of phonograph records and metal phonogra Tone Arm Assembly [crystal tone arm = link for piezoelectric stereo cartridge] Stereophonic Signal Transducing Systems. Reproducing circuit for L/V type variable capac Stereophonic Recording: various ideas about amplitude&velocity limiter or expander Dual Sound Track Transducer Head (Stereo cutting head) Phonograph Pickup Cartridge: Sample of Moving Magnet (Monophonic) Electromagnetic Engraving Apparatus. J.B. Minter invented also 3067292: Stereophonic So Method of manufacturing phonograph records ("microfusion" method using pulverised resi Stromberg-Carlson RA-498 Tone Arm Suspension and Balancing System. RA-498 by Stromberg-Carlson utilized visco MC cartridges (Stereophonic & Monophonic). Vertical coil assembly in his another patent Cartridge for Phonograph pickup (Electro-Mechanical Element=Piezoelectric?) Gramophone Pickups (Arm very similar to later patent 3167317 by Percy Wilson). John W T shape cutter head Device for the recording or reproduction of sound tracks. Phonograph Record Cutter (Stereophonic) M1/M2 MM cartridge (originally monophonic cartridge) with offset around 18degrees at cantilever Stereophonic Mechanical Transducer (=Piezoelectric) Similar patent 3523690 by Vanderko Phonograph Fairchild SM-2? (clamping block with two screws) Pickup Cartridge: Stereophonic Moving Magnet type cartridge with unique sus Phonograph Pickup Cartridge and Replacement Stylus Therefor. Also 2937243, 3015703, 3 Various Stereophonic MI Cartridges c and Musical Industries Limited in UK Method of making grooved records (Variable Pitch and Depth Control). Stereophonic MM. ELAC engineers in Kiel applied for German patent No. 1105628 w M3D Stereophonic pickup cartridge "Shigacut" Piezo-electric Stereo Transducer. Bimorph type piezoelectric transducer by pasting tw Fairchild 500 arm with cartridge SM-2 Inside force cancelling device Phonograph Turntable [air floated and air driven turntable] Method and apparatus for eliminating overloading in modulating systems having pre-empha Multi-groove Stereophonic Sound Recording and Reproducing System Inside force cancelling device(spring) for arm Electro-Mechanical Transducer with negative feedback for the recording and reproduction WESTREX stereo cartridges Phonograph Reproducer (Twin moving coils). Westrex Corp was a wholly-owned sub Magnetic Cartridge with compensating pole piece (MM type). Type EPU 100 Gramophone Pick-ups (Variable Reluctance Type) Tone Arm. Percy Wilson as the technical editor of the Gramophone wrote "Needle-Track A Recording Stylus (special curved V form similar once proposed by Alberheim in 2310049- Stereophonic Electrostatic Pick-up [virtually belonging to IM/MI type pickup] wyn-Mayer Inc. [MGM] Machine for making Disk Phonograph Records Apparatus for forming phonograph record masters, mothers and stampers Record cleaning device for mounting on a record changer tone arm Stereophonic Transducer with adjustable feedback coils Drive Yoke for Phonograph Pickups (Yoke for piezoelectric elements). Hammond invented c Gesellschaft (ELAC) Phonograph pickup for grooved records Electrodynamic Transducer (Ideas for stereophonic cutters or pickups) Compliant Phonograph Stylus Mounting (two styli on cantilever=stylus turnover for piezoe orporation, Puerto Rico Phonograph Cartridge (Rotary lever exchanging cantilevers each with stylus for LP or SP). Stereophonic Piezoelectric Pickup Cartridge Recording Needle and Method for making the same (bonded tip forming is shown in detail) oelectrische Industrie, Amsterdam "Ronette" type Piezoelectric Stereo Pickup. Also 3022384, 3136554, 3136555, 3178520 Dyna-lift Tone Arm Lift by Magnetic force. Similar type was already invented by Kellog of RCA 232 Sound Signal Transforming System. Compressing or expanding in accordance with loudnes Dynagroove Recording System for compensating expected distortions on playback. Related patent 2960 "Parostatik" Disc Preener Record Clening Device Transducer(Cutter/Pickup etc) Stanton Unipoise #200 Arm with one-point bearing pin: VTF adjustable by sliding the weight on the arm wand. Hi Optical Sound Recording & Reproduction. [using optical fibers] SX-45? or SX-68? Stereophonic Electrodynamic Transducer (45/45 type cutter head) See also 3194896 (Stere Record Changing Mechanism Phonograph pickup with resiliently loaded stylus beam (piezoelectric element is inherently Tone Arm (Tangential straight arm extending from side) mith Laboratories, Inc. in Ohio Stereophonic Photoelectric Transducer (Semi-conductor Photoelectric Cell: germanium tra TD 224 Automatic Record Changer [feeding a record one by one from separate stack of records wit International Magnetic Anti-skating Mechanism (claim priority, application GB July 1962) Elliptical stylus making from cone by cutting front and back faces Point4 IM cartridge having removable stylus Magnetic Stereophonic Phonograph Pickup (New Construction of MM type). Press Machine for Molding Records SP1/2/6/7/8/9/10/12/14 etc MMC(=Moving Micro Cross=Moving Iron) & MC with low moving mass. SP7/9 were Phonograph Record Reproducing Apparatus (Inclined arm base & cartridge suspension) DUAL 1019 etc Antiskating Device (Spring and lever). Actual device applied on 1019 looks much refined/m SP.25mkII & LAB 80 etc Inside force cancelling device (thrust bar and L-shape weight). Edmund Walter MORTIME Skate-o-meter Apparatus for measuring antiskating force in pick-ups c and Musical Industries Apparatus for Automatic Production of Gramophone Records. Also 3264386 Euphonics CK-15-P Piezoresistive Transducer. Also 3501732: Semiconductive Piezoresistive Transducer. En Stereophonic Magnetic Phonograph Pickup . MM cartridges Also 3349194 about off cente Stereophonic Ribbon Cartridge c Gesellschaft (ELAC) Electromagnetic pickup with exchangeable stylus assembly for phonograph records Toshiba-Nagaoka "Ultra-C" Method of preparing stylus from corundum (sapphire or ruby crystal). Crystalline orientatio PUA-237 and PUA-286 etc. Pickup Arm. Anti-skating mechanism by cam and lever with spring. Also 3492006 about th Recording Device (cutting stylus in consideration of VMA/VTA) Two-Speed Phonograph Drive for "juke boxes". Also 3131800(1964) by Osborne for Coin Satin cartridges Dynamic Mechanism having a damper. Also 3142786(patented 1964, applied 1960) about Automatic Record Player Apparatus ("juke box" or "music box") Method of making grooved records with compensation for reproduction errors. Tracing Sim Disc Recording & Reproducing System Selective Frequency Band Compression for Modulated Groove Sound Recording 1000ZE/X etc MI Cartridges Phonograph Pickup with de-coupling of the stylus mass (showing electrically equivalent cir Trade Mark "Royal Sound Stereo" Recording Method and Apparatus for compensating third order distortions. Tracing Simula Variable Reluctance Cartridges Tangential Arm/Turntable floating bearing with pneumatic power from turntable mo A-2 & BE (elliptic stylus), BT/R &BR Stereophonic Cartridge (Piezoelectric type, the compliance of which is adjustable at user's e PTS(=Pinchless Tracing Simulator) Disc Recording System with precompensation by successive differentiation. Tracing compe Lenco Clean Record Cleaning Device (Arm type: cleaning fluid is made of distilled water and detergent Sound Recording Method and Apparatus describing the method to reduce the difference be PE 2015/3015 & PE 2020/2020L Arm with two coil springs (one for VTF, another for antiskating). Antiskating Force is obta Monaural-Binaural Phonograph with independent spaced styli Auto Players (starting point for electromagnetic control of arm) Also 3689079(1972) e Toshiba C-100P Stereophonic Photoelectric Pickup Device Method and Apparatus for producing Phonograph Records Variable Reluctance Cartridge Also 3515817 m Gesellschaft in Germany Apparatus for the automatic production of Gramophone Records Method and Apparatus for cutting a groove in the surface. Phonograph Pickup Cartridge with selectively settable compliance. Also 3527900 & 34261 Parastat Record Cleaning Device Elliptical Phonograph Stylus 0.7x0.2mil (forerunner to Van den Hul type with constant rad VF-3100/5 & VF-3100/e IM cartridge with magnet located behind armature (unique stylus holder knob was in Individual adjustable magnets for MM Induced Magnetic Moving Iron Stereophonic Phonograph Pickup with replaceable stylus as RABCO Linear Tracking Arm with servo-drive on spring suspension. In 1968 Rabinow formed Many Pickering Cartridges Removable brush attachment on cartridge 200C New armature assembly for MM: disc-shaped magnet of platinum-cobalt alloy. A pipe of m Stereophonic Phonograph Pickup with single pad for piezoelectric element coupling, suppo DL-107 MM Cartridge with E-shaped cores & flat magnet (for ex. thickness 0.5mmx 2mm square/d Quadrasonic Sound System. Matrix 4 channel surround. Also 3746792-1973(Multidire Automatic Record Press Magnetic Phonograph Pickup having plural inducing magnets Steyning, Sussex, EN) Pickup Arms (Design quite different from any SME arms: side thrust is compensated by inc Induced Magnetic Moving Iron Stereophonic Phonograph Pickup with replaceable stylus as Vacorec Phonograph Record Vacuum Cleaner. Also 3005223 & 3150401 yo Seisakusho (brand name "GLANZ") IM Cartridge No embodiment? Light Electric Tone Pickup (modern version of "Beam-Of-Light Pickup"). Also 3534181 in EPC-95SS Semiconductor Stress Transducer (various drawings for armature constructions: some are to MC-4100 & LC-40 (made to order) MC cartridge with V shape core for coils. MC-4100 was forerunner of detachable/rep Phonogram Tone Arm. Guha also invented later for Avnet=B.I.C.turntables and arms. All GRADO cartridges since '70s Flux-Bridging Stereophonic Pickup. Also 3694586(1972) toroidal armature, 3881073(197 SP-10 (1970) Directly Driven Turntable. Later motors since 1971 have been much simplified (without s CD4-1(demodulator) etc Discrete 4 Channel Recording/Reproducing System. Preceding Patent 3401237(1968): SFG-2 Stylus Tracking Force Gauge PL-A20 etc Automatic Record Player (repeat function with sub-motor for arm control) M15 etc IM=VMS(Variable Magnetic Shunt) Cartridge: The armature acts as a variable mag AT-35X V shape magnets=VM (Japan patent application 42/53200 year 1967) Tone Arm Mechanism. Also 4004817(1977). Seisuke Shimoda once invented patents 3388 ms in Lubeck, Germany Pickup or Cutting Device with two moving coils C-401S Capacitive Transducer directly coupled to cantilever (Electret Condenser type cartridge) Garrard zero 100 Magnetic anti-skating Mechanism Electro-static transducers (condenser type pickup) His previous patent 3649775 was assign Magnetic Pick Up with FLUXBRIDGE and Replacement Stylus AT-21(only one model) V shape IM cartridges (Japan patent application. 43/57408 year 1968) Idea for cartridge with magnet armature NSN "SQ" matrix system Stereo-Quadraphonic Records. Also 3745242, 3784744, 3875338 about decoders, 3890466 Linear Tracking Guide with magnetic floating mechanism 4MD-1X(1971) etc Stylus Tip (Shibata type) Suitable for 4 channel reproduction. Its line contact profile (a cu Magnetic Device for Anti-skating (Two Crescent Magnets inside of Arm Pillar) "SQ" decoder Four Channel Decoder with Variable Mixing of the Output Channels. Also 3883692 In 196 "QS" matrix system Quadrasonic Sound System for Two Channel Transmissions. Matrix 4 channel surround. A Pickup needle having a diamond tip soldered by a hard solder to a shaft "QM-4" matrix Quaternary Stereophonic Sound Reproduction Apparatus. Record Presses. Also 4141531 Phonograph Record Player Tone Arm Assembly. Maybe the first model of pivot suspension 780/4DQ MI Cartridge for 4-channel groove reproduction Method of cutting gramophone records: Pitch and Depth control in consideration of reprod Phonograph Stylus (reproducing stylus improved from Shibata type) MT-100/101/202E etc Magnetic Pickup Cartridge (disc-shaped moving magnet pivotally supported on the rear end PS-6750 & PS-8750 etc Tone Arm Wand of Carbon Fibers. XL-35/45 Cantilever made of Carbon fibers. Embodiment in XL-35 and XL-45 was carbon-clad alum Carbon-clad shell (SH-160) Cartridge shell for phonograph pickup. Carbon-clad shell is based on another patent 39572 Record stylus. Stylus substrate having a surface coated with a film of silicon carbide or bor a Aktiebolag (Sweden) [now ALPHA SWEDEN] Arrangement in moulding presses with parted press tools for the production of hot-pressed CD-4 demodulator SH-3380 etc Four-channel stereophonic reproducing system for reproducing discrete CD-4 four-channel s Music and Records Group, Inc. Phonograph record pressing die assembly Record disc recording system with signal amplitude controlled by stylus arm position. Sign Cleaning gramophone records. Also 4449214-1984. FA112 & FA145 Phonograph Turntable Anti-skating Device Phonograph record cleaning composition (see also 3965520 Brush and cleaning compositio Stereo phonograph cartridge (stereo piezo-electric cartridge) Also 4326285-1982 (new desi QDC, 2002-e (built-in microcircuit for phono input) 600LAC &500ID(=inertially damped) Magnetic Cartridge. Damping rod within cantilever pipe, main magnet axial at the end of p Moving coil pickup cartridge with diaphragm coupling Pixall Roller for cleaning phonograph records (adhesive tape peeling off after use). The idea is no Record Composition PS-600 & PS-800 (1977) etc Improvement of cantilever: an aluminum pipe whose periphery carries a porous vacuum va Tone arm for record player (coupling of auto-offsetting & anti-skating mechanism) FR-1MKII? Moving coil-type cartridge (Non-magnetic bobbin) Japanese Patent Application S49-85 Methods and devices for recording, engraving and reproducing modulated information in te Phonograph record detecting arrangement (optical beam and sensor for size select) B-I-C turntables (Model 940/960/980) Cueing control. Dwipendra Nath Guha invented also 3949995(needle control-unique dynam Pickup Cartridge [Piezoelectric ceramics or silicon semiconductors pickups structure with h MM cartridge with single rod magnet located tangential to cantilever. SR-M99 Flat DD Motor: a plurality of magnets provided on the inner surface of the turntable so as t "UD-4" improved from CD-4 Multi-directional sound signal recording and/or reproducing system with crosstalk compens MM Cartridges with two magnets Beogram 4000(1972) Automatic phonographs with linear tracking arms. Using photocell for controlling arm PS-6750, PS-8750 & PS-X7 Turntable Mat. The vibration-damping properties of the mat may be enhanced by providing Milty ZEROSTAT Device for neutralizing the charge on statically-charged surfaces. British Patent GB150049 Electrostatic Transducer SONUS Magnetic Pickup and Removable Stylus Assembly of Low Mass. Pritchard left ADC and st yo Seisakusho (brand name "GLANZ") New type MM cartridge (coils fixed to the end of yoke) looking like mixture of MM, IM an Pivoted arm control arrangements. Magnetic or electro-magnetic counterbalance and VTF s Stereo pick-up with casing serving as common pole piece. Also 4456984(1984) "Jelco" arms Pick-up arm rotary pivot bearing structure ("One Point Cross Suspension System") Record Disc Cutting Stylus (esp. for 4-channel record disc recording system) YM-308II etc IM cartridge with both a rod-shaped armature and a disk-shaped armature (called as tri-pole Apparatus for the manufacture of disc records. Automated record press incorporated SL-1650 Auto changer. See also patent 3827697-1974 (reissue RE29730-1978) invented by Miyosh PX-1(1977) Linear Tracking Arm with optical servo-drive. His other patent 4007939, 4083565, 413920 Linear Tracking Arm with electric coils for sensors. DuaL 1249(1975) Drive Device with Belt and Stepped Pulley. "Vario Pulley" for auto player. Piezoelectric type pickup cartridge for stereo with pressing and intermediate members for c PS-4750 & PS-4350 Turntable mat with rubber sucker discs. Linear bearing for parallel tracking arm. Thin film of magnetic fluid lubricant material betw Cleansing of contaminants from gramophone records. [Arm type record cleaner: brush incli yo Seisakusho (brand name "GLANZ") Pickup cartridge called as "Moving Flux"(see also 4011417). Unique construction having m Assembly of armature in continuation from 3761647: current AT clip-on stylus holder Method of and apparatus for controlling turntable speed: proposing constant linear velocity EPA-100 Pickup arm device dynamically damped (silicon oil+spring incorporated in balance weight: PS-X5/6/7 etc Automatic Player with repeat function (auto-return force is obtained by gear coupled to spin XL-55, XL-44L, XL-88D etc MC Cartridge: coils are wound in such a manner that the electric potentials generated in dia Satin cartridges Moving Coil Cartridge with magnetic means to affix stylus holder (Patent in Japan 15/7/19 HT-840(1977) etc Electric motor (Star-shaped flat driving coils to obtain constant torque=called as "Unitorqu DA-307/8/9 & DA-401 Tone Arm with Dynamic Damping Mechanism (Design Patent D253410 by Sasaki 1979 fo ining & Manufacturing Company Phonograph Pickup Device (Magnetic Control of tone arm with coil and magnet) Pickup Cartridge with Moving Magnet Armature Combination of MM/IM with two magnets Stylus (called as "VITAL") BTW: in 1971Ogura developed 4-channel stylus PM type dif Device for cutting a sound groove on a disc recording medium (a cutting stylus with non sta Fluidically supported and fluidically driven turntable. Programmable phonograph device detecting the bands (maybe first example using LED a Tone Arm with Dynamic Lateral Balancer and Damper Playback stylus for phonograph record stamper. Related patent 4153257 is for a turntable to SMA2, STM4 etc Electric motor (simplified Direct Drive Motor with a stator assembly with a first plurality o Phonograph preamplifier network with infrasonic cutoff response Also 4032885 DV-505 A device for damping vibrations of a tone arm. Eddy current damper and dynamic mechani Beogram 6002/8002 Linear Tracking Player P8E P8ES P7E P6E P6R Sound pickup having plastic enveloped pole plate to pole rod junction. Also 4054758 for ca AT34 etc Two moving coils. Actual embodiment is modified from this patent: first embodiment AT3 Rolling 150 Roller for cleaning phonograph records (Adhesive rubber roller washable after use) PS550s(1977) etc Phonograph turntable control system (for auto player incorporating electronic anti-skating e PX-1(1977) Automatic record player of linear tracking pickup arm type (using optical sensor devices) PS-B80(1978) Electro-magnetic controlled arm. Embodied arm as "BIOTRACER" looks related to MC20 etc MC cartridges with improved damper construction. Also 4220341(Pickup) & 4145582(MC NP-AT, 625E etc Phonograph cartridge replaceable stylus assembly. "The tube is crimped along a circular c HPF (hot pressed ferrite) core? Magnetic type pickup cartridge block shaped pole piece construction High-Fidelity Tone Arm Phono Crosstalk Canceller PCC-1000 Crosstalk compensating circuit DiscTraker (1978) Phonograph tone arm and cartridge damping system Apparatus for cutting audio disks: references to patents by SCULLY with WESTREX/TEL Compact MC Cartridge without magnet pole in front of coils which are driven by coaxial ri Apparatus for recording on tape from a phonograph record (Phonograph-Tape synchro Mec Maybe B790/B791/B795 etc Bearing arrangement: Magnetic control of arm by magnets (and/or coiｌ as shown in next pa MM cartridges Black Widow Tone Arm Design.(Design Patent). Ikeda Makoto designed another arm D257534(1980) wi Orsonic SG-2E Lateral pressure detector for use with a phonograph record player. SME Series III Tone Arms V15 Type IV etc Phonograph pick-up transducer using a one-piece bearing and inertial damper fabricated fro DISCOFILM? Process for removing dust and grease from phonograph records. Similar US Patent No.437 CP-Y(1977) Pickup cartridge with sealing damper (called as "tip damper") to prevent entry of foreign m MM Cartridge with axial located (preferably hollow) coils without any yoke to prevent the MC-1(1977) etc MC cartridges with printed coils. Also 4251695(1981) and 4374433(1983) and 4532620(1 Damping apparatus for damping the resonance of disc record tone arms. Also 4131284 Device for cutting a sound groove on a disc recording medium (anti-static diamond cutting Phonograph cartridge with very hard metal ceramic frame. Also 4344167 about shell and d Garrard MRM101 Noise detector employing plural delay circuits. Garrard Music Recovery Module for sup MI Cartridge Apparatus for removing warps or surface irregularities from polyvinyl phonograph records. RP-7100 & RP-9100 (1981) Automatic (programmable) record player. This idea (nonrecorded section detection sensor Protective compositions for recording. Pardee wrote "Determination of Sliding Friction Be Car Running Record Player Record player for a stationary record disc. Car Running Record Player: toy automobile with TTDD: EPC-205CMK3 etc Damper made of an elastomer comprising a blend polymer of a silicone rubber polymer and FR-7 MC Cartridge (bobbin-less coils & 4 pole magnets) Electrodynamic transducer with longitudinally moving magnet MC200(1981) etc Compact moving-coil pickup of low weight and high quality [square moving coil and ring m MC-7, MC-3, MC-1000, MC-2000 etc MC Cartridge (V/H matrix, H-V matrix). SL-10 Jacket Size Record Player. Design Patent Phonograph pick-up cartridge "Korvet" Tone arm: A viscous dynamic damping subassembly is designed to eliminate the main reso Turn table device for record players (Air Floating Platter for belt drive system) Moerch UP-4 Tone Arm. "The suspension of the tone arm is of the dual-bearing type where the vertical m PL-70LII(1981) Arm pipe for record player tonearms (a composite material consisting of a thermoplastic re EPC-300MC(1977) MC Cartridge with core-less twin-ring coils Lustre GST-801 Pickup Arm with Magnetic Application on Anti-skating & VTF Lever operated stylus guard. This paper contains reference to previous patents, but first two SL-1300MKII & SP-15 etc Speed control circuit for phase-locked loop motor drive systems. Fine adjustment speed co V15 Type IV(1978) etc Stabilizing and static removing attachment for phonograph pickup cartridge. Also De Adaptor shell (SH-80S/SH-90S) T4P mounting device. Adaptor shell for connecting T4P cartridge to arm with SME type co Audio's Rock Reference & Elite Rock Damping of arm/cartridge. Front End Damping Trough EPC-U205C III(1979) etc Method of making boron cantilever (also 4212838, 4382454 and 4433408). Denon also MC-1S & MC-1X(1978) MC cartridges (push-pull mode). Printed (photo-etching) aluminum-film coil on silicon pla Balanced input phonograph preamplifier circuit Stylus positioner tool with pointer for arm pivot Exclusive & PL-50L/70L etc Tone arm damping device. Damping of both horizontal and vertical vibration forces utilizin Dynamic Servo Tracer Arm driving device (horizontal/vertical coils): DP-100M(1981) and DP-57L(1982)=DP-62 MC cartridge with replaceable stylus assembly PL-L1(1978) & PL-L5(PL-L1000) Linear-Tracking Pickup Arm Drive Assembly. Also 4253126, 4356560, 4404671 etc. A lin PX-3(1981) Device for controlling pickup arm movement in linear tracking pickup arm apparatus. Desi Protrac XLM etc Unitary phonograph cartridge and head assembly. Another patent No. 4165078 for Flip-up Geodisc Cartridge alignment system: this variation of Dennessen utilizes a sight line or sight ridge w 2002e 530mp 630mp etc Stereo phonograph cartridge. The elements were made of the piezoelectric material though Precision phonocartridge interface (measuring and tuning adaptor between arm cable and p EPA-250 & EPA-500 arm systems Pickup arm device. Exchangeable arm assy consisting of base system and exchangeable arm AD-093/AE-341 Self-propelled record cleaner (also 4360906) Inventors working in Kyushu HIT AP-D80 AP-D50 Front loading type record player MM Cartridge (V/H matrix, H-V matrix) Also 4597071 by Ito etc assigned to Yamaha Linear tracking tone arm (arm moves on carriage by mechanical gravity balance shift on the EEI Alignment Gauge Lateral Tracking Measuring/Alignment Tool for Arm (claim priority, application GB July 1 Electromagnetic pickup cartridge (low cost magnet without center hole can be applied, inst Final KKC-48 Cartridge Equalizer. Dynamic Lateral Balancer to be equipped additionally on the shell nec Vertical tracking angle meter: Measuring instrument which extracts and directly displays th Passivating and silver removal method [in the processes of making Mother]. The term to "p AT-30E/AT-31E etc MC cartridges with replaceable stylus assembly Stylus for Quadraphonic Reproducers (Also 4416005-1983) P25MD/24 P25MD/35 P15MD Electromagnetic transducers for converting mechanically acoustic events into alternating vo TT-801& QL-A95 Vacuum Turntable System for a Record Player (also 4234195 & 4493072): Optional Suctio Phonograph cartridge alignment. New alignment template. XL-50 & XL-70 MM Cartridge with delta-shaped jointless laminated core Rubber disc for a record player turntable GM-1E MC cartridges with replaceable stylus assembly. Also 4272652 Pickup Cartridge of Movable Magnet Type. Also 4353125 etc PC-5MC,PC-31MC,PC-41MC MC cartridges with replaceable stylus assembly Digital stylus force gauge Electrodynamic pickup cartridge having simplified coil structure Also 4237347 (Two Movi Cantilever and phonograph pickup cartridge. Cantilever pipe of a ceramic material compos Record cleaner/conditioner using pad with container for volatile liquid: this is interesting be Brushless DC Motor: common flat motor with two phase stator windings (4 coils) and BSLT & VZ-V3 system(1981) Both Sides Play Vertical Linear Tracking Player (two tonearms with two MM cartridges, o nt, but the inventors are mainly engineers of JVC) Record disc playing apparatus having the function for correcting rotational irregularities du PL10 (Universal-Einstell-Lehre) Pickup adjusting equipment. The tool was supplied together with cartridge model P25MD s Tone arm. Modified one-point bearing comprising of uni-pivot and ball bearing. A vertical AT666EX Stabilizer for record discs: detachably placed on the turntable of a record player to hold a re PC-50MC PC-70MC PC-41MC MC cartridge: 4magnets and 6 poles (accurate alignment of stylus unit on cartridge body). A V15VxMR &M97xE/Me97HE Stylus protection mechanism: called as "Side guard stylus protection system" TX-1000(1981) Dragon-CT(1983) Method of correcting a position of a disk record on a turntable (Disk Centre Searchin Record cleaning mechanism. This patent quotes interesting references invented by Wilson a PS-X800(1981) Linear tracking arm drive apparatus Linear Tracking System with pneumatic guideway NAD 5120, TESLA NC470 etc Dynamic vibration absorber for a phonograph tone arm. Also US4514838 & 4542494. Jiri RIAA Equalizer circuit. An equalizer circuit is provided which has a high D.C. stability wit Virtual ground preamplifier for magnetic phono cartridge (current amplifying method appli Tubular beryllium phonograph needleshank and method of formation XR-Q7(1981) Record player with vibration cancellation mechanism. Previous Patent 4425638 for Dual T Method and apparatus for cleaning phonograph records（Vacuum Cleaning) DMM (Neumann SX 84) Apparatus and Method for cutting information into a metallic record carrier. Also 4538256 DL-301 & DL-300 MC cartridge (Twin dampers and yoke-less magnet circuit). Further development from earl Tonearm alignment gauge etc "Sound Burger"AT727/Nordmende/SabaMinimum-sized Portable (Battery Operated) Player. Design Patent D279755. There were si Stereo phono pick-up and/or cutter Aluminum-aluminum oxide stylus arm (=cantilever). The patent document is interesting on HA-2, HA-3 Small signal amplifying circuit for a pickup cartridge: first transistor incorporated within sh Stylus (Micro-ridge etc) PS-FL99 Record player with automatic music search function PL-X9 (1982) Bookshelf type player (turntable sliding in and out from case) see also 4450549(1984) Method of and system for cutting a phonograph record with two-channel modulation. A sys ro Design, Inc. (Montreal, CA) Magnetic pickup preamplifier XL-MC5 Moving coil type cartridge mounted on cantilever within central opening of ring magnet abushiki Kaisha in Japan Moving coil type pickup cartridge Well-Tempered Tone Arm having a bifilar flexible ligament suspension for vertical and lateral displacemen PL-88FS(1983) Dual drive system for phono pickup arm (programmed music selection). The prior art refer titute of Technology/Elite Townshed, Ltd. Auto-offsetting apparatus on arm (programmed slot) Air bearing straight line tracking phonograph tonearm Audio signal amplifier for an electromagnetic phono cartridge (PU>Step-down Transforme Talisman "Direct Field Focus" MC with intensified field focus: 1) a rear magnet and a front magnet mounted in an axially Apparatus for the injection moulding of disc records. Two matrices, each bearing modulat Model 1.5 etc Tone Arm Assembly (unique alignment method). His previous patent 4587646(1986）abou Kit for cleaning phonograph records (attachment on homeuse vacuum cleaner) Well-Tempered Low-noise bearing for phonograph turntables and the like ELM series(GP330/331/350/351) Elongated phonograph pick-up head with snap-together construction. Also 4534022. ELM Stylus LT-1 and later products by ELP Laser Turntable. Also 4972344(1990) for Dual Beam Optical Turntable. There were m Magnetic system for a stereo pick-up with a movable coil Disc reproducing system for compensating mechanical imperfections: his previous patent 4 Record optimizer system and method of utilization Display case for phonograph album and record Revival of Edison-type cylinder!!! [Cylinder instead of stylus vibrates as resonator/microph PDX-2000 etc Tone arm (straight arm without offset angle for DJ play). TTX/TTX-1/TT200/TT500 Tone arm assembly with interchangeable tone arm tube. Design Patent No. D433011(2000) STR8-80 & T.80 etc Phonograph turntable with MIDI output Method for reconstruction of phonograph records from physical measurement. Also 733041 Frictionless, non-destructive playback system for cylinder recordings [Laser pickup for cyli Model DPS/2/Reference etc Spring-suspension magnetically stabilized pick-up arm. Model 1& TA-1 have modification Turntable with vertically adjustable platter. VTA between the stylus of the cartridge and the of the University of California Metrological digital audio reconstruction. Audio information stored in the undulations of gr Phantom series Method and apparatus for tone arm magnetic stabilization and damping system: satisfies the Phonograph tone arm mounting, decoupling, vertical tracking angle adjustment system, and Tone arm assembly. It utilizes conventional thread and weight system combined with cam a ear to it by proposing a determinant and find Bernoulli number before Bernoulli. Seki used a regular polygon (131072) and calculated pi to the 11th decim ance that it is hard for them to believe that the world is filled with equally brilliant people. e when one sits in the Patent Office Search Room for a day s on any subject one can possibly conceive." ds on drawing, but patent front page titled "Improvement in Phonograph or Speaking Machines"). His other patents on phonograph: 201760(Speaking Mac Sounds. Disk with spiral groove type "phonogram", but commercial embodied model was wax cylinder type "Graphophone" see 341288 invented by T (1887) for Gramophone (horizontal recording) was cylinder type. Disk type Gramophone was invented by W. Suess: US Patent No.427279(1890) and assi Also 601198 for Gramophone and Actuating Device Therefor. Also 624625, 655556, 814786 & 951127 etc. Johnson was founder of Consolidated Talking x mold]. His patent 682992(1901) is reissued as RE012096. Also 1022100 about re-pressing (recycling) disk sound records ing Sound-Record Cylinders [by Electrodepositing metal on master record]. Also 657956, 666,937 & 750119 about celluloid cylinder. Ademor Napoleon life needle made of hard small diameter rod core surrounded by or embedded in soft material. In 1915 Emerson started Emerson Phonograph Company fo r with pressing the disc in heated condition]. roduced double-sided records. Some early Odeon labels refer to this patent. ateral-cut groove of uniform depth consists of spoon-formed cutting stylus, advance pin (to regulate the depth of groove to be cut) and air-blast nozzle (con records (cylinders). Mixture of metallic soap as stabilizer, carnauba as wax, lampblack as pigment etc. duplication of matrix for lateral-cut disks). Also 785316 about unique duplicating method: recording on inner wall of cylinder and "nurling"=knurling blan ny invented 655195(1900): Gramophone Sound-Box for The National Gramophone Company in New York. In another patent 915936(1909), Cheney pro ear Tracking Arm fed by worm gear so that worm gear must be interchanged in accordance with the pitch width of records] und grooves with lead-in markings [The similar multigrooves were adopted later in some of toy phonographs - see also 3584881 assigned to Mattel etc] r thin flat flexible disc record) Stylus Tip). Hard record material such as Phenoric resin was experimented by Aylsworth so that there was a need for making hard stylus tip. Also 145668 e of fusible Phenol resin etc) tor regulating with eddy current disks) y cylinder type though in patent 1234451 Edison indicated disk type mold. d with new groove configurations (the walls of groove merging smoothly into the surface of the record). Also 1246652 about cutting tool for sound-recordi ting sound box. In 1894 Charles and Émile Pathé built a small phonograph factory in a suburb of Paris and began to record singers as eminent as Mary Gar aking sound-records for talking machines (Molding Die) es received through horns are electrically mixed & recorded on Single Record Blank. -arm and tone-tube. Also co-inventor of 1293489 r both vertical & lateral records: projecting arm linked to stylus arm. Also 1324643:Adjustable Sound Box. Capps invented 570378-1896 (Spring Motor) ove configurations seeking for standardization of lateral recording [the method of reforming any metal master record after recording is indicated: lapping, b records without the aid of heating and cooling mediums. Related patent 1307812(1919) by Errickson: Columbia disclaims patent of Errickson partially. vious patent 1384295(1921) originally filed in France, May 17, 1918 is (one of) the earliest invention of electric pickups. m; application not limited to phonograph) s, Brunswick sold the control of the record company to Warner Brothers] eproducing). Dictaphone started as producer of dictation machine esp. for recording telephone and later produced various machines in timely formats (wax me, no mention of specific 33.33rpm. He indicated 36-40rpm for synchronising motion picture) lus for cutting harder material than soft wax blank so that such recording without electro-plating and pressing can be repeatedly reproducible. g transmitter=microphone capable of picking up 80-8,000Hz, amplifier, loud speaker=monitor and recording head with advance ball for lateral grooves) rgy (Basic technology for electric recording and reproducing) Also 1645139, 1628666 and 1709571 etc. element and vibration-damping material) onnection with radio receiving circuits) Also 1957512 Reproducer with superaudible frequency: Weinberger proposed grooves with high frequency carrier Phonograph] Also 1743251 Means for recording sound, 2113907 pickup, 2621260 Electric Phonograph(Cylinder) etc ication filed Nov. 15, 1919). The methods of reducing noises (by pre-emphasis on recording) or distortions (by compensation with opposite distortion on r ke. 1974895 (Reproducer) was assigned to RCA in USA erring sound from cylinder record to disc record. "It is known that a record upon wax cylinder gives in some respects more faithful reproduction of the reco lus tip made by electroplating method: thin coating of nickel stripped from conical mandrel) hragm in sound box is changed to electric transducer) 614133 In 1925 E.dward W. Kellog and Chester Rice developed coil-driven (dynamic) paper-cone speaker. Later when GE transferred their radio an Also 1846871(arm) & 1934857 (pick-up) ertical-cut of the finely grooved type ) Also 1778043, 1780409, 1804961, 1958386(pick-up for lateral-cut & vertical-cut record), 1980888 & 1992727 etc. out Sound Reproducing Instrument s). Jones invented 1746730, 1812634, 1918972 etc about Reproducer for hill-and-dale records. 1531252(1925) Electric Reproducer assigned to Wired Ra structure and coil are sealed in an oil filled casing by a flexible diaphragm. T-shaped armature supported by the diaphragm vibrate with it as the stylus flex achine for making diamond stylus of small radius). There is description about vertical-cut fine groove (for example 450 threads per radial inch). The mi echanical energy or inversely [pole pieces comprising laminations of different alloy compositions to attain both DC permeability and AC permeability]. A ion motor with worm gear and governor: platter spindle separated from driving spindle so as to be isolated from mechanical and electric noises) 835072 etc. He is more famous for his book "Look to Germany"="Sieh: das Hertz der Europas"(1937) in Hitler era. l (tungsten rod) is inserted and fused together into shank nsideration on lateral/vertical inertia and anti-skating device with spring) es [Forerunner of Linear Tracking Arm] e Crash of 1929, Victor Talking Machine Company merged with Radio Corporation of America to become RCA Victor. -up applicable without any adjustment for either "lateral" or "hill-and-dale"records Company and Columbia Graphophone Company merged and formed Electric and Musical Industries (EMI). oride and vinyl acetate etc). In 1920 Union Carbide established Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corporation. Also refer to 2335986(1943 Vinyl Resin P gs (esp. wax so that light vertical pressure less than 5g is intended). Also 2033284 (attachment to convert hill-and-dale reproducer to lateral reproducer) ght tracking force 10g. Analysis of effective mass and stiffness etc. e using moving coil and damping plate and viscous damping medium between the diaphragms). e type) Also 1918271: Sound Recording and Reproducing System recording and reproducing). els from single groove double moving coils). Also 2027169 & 2133815 for hill and dale or lateral type of recordings, 2031948 Damping Device, 2105916 Sound Reproducing S ucer for hill-and-dale records). Analysis on mechanical and electrical circuits to compensate frequency responses. oil) for hill-and-dale-recording. Also 1990548, 2038216 about the support of recording head by stream of air instead of "advance ball" since "the mechanic /Electric Recording & Reproducing System. More extensive descriptions are presented in GB394325(1933) 5/45 degrees stereophonic groove and equipment) Later patents 2200866 & RE22183, 2213936, 2222342, 2239042, 2240321, 2250242, 2323257, 2354558, 2357033, 2369087, 2369088(Equalising), 2441 ea of equalization with pre-emphasis on recording and de-emphasis on reproduction to obtain flat response] coil and feedback coil incorporated into vertical recording head). Relative patent 2162986(cutter amplifier) by Wiebusch cording on film with stylus. Also 2173050. Related patent 2188687 by Lohn, 2154589 by Vermeulen etc. about turntable mechanism with variable speed, 2192998 about pickup c Acid [for embossing] ng on record cylinder). Also 2110092 Commercial Phonograph, 2057621 Dictating Machine. ergy or inversely (Moving-conductor type pickup to be connected to transformer. cf RCA Inductor Microphones) 9808 & 2399585 by Thompson and 2348660 by Stephan. Similar method was already shown in 1578645(1926) assigned to Western Electric, 1768273(193 niversal reproducing stylus (2584922-1952) for Avco which bought Crosley in 1945. Also 2206636(1940) & 2217170(1940) etc records: forerunner of tracing simulator. Also 2122207(1938) & 2219930(1940) ad using Bi-morph Rochelle Salt Element). Also 2343417 about phonograph pickup: Kornei's reported about elastic contact of spherical tip on the middle io-Frequency Compensator Circuit in consideration of high frequency loss due to groove radius. . Moving Coil System. Also 2792456 oposed exponential curved V groove suitable for lateral recordings to reduce pinch effect. Also 2310048 about vibration translating system 71,2261616, 2313324 & 2348526 about crystal pickups, 2222552&2342457&2346733&2363655 about Tone Arm, 2145389 about Arm and pickup, 2197 mpensating the loss of high frequencies due to groove radius [Inner start & 33.3rpm transcription disk]. Also 2311385 (combination of hill-and-dale opera rsion Bar Form) Also 2381861, 2455913 & 2461475(stylus arm) and 2583289 etc or lateral type of recordings f Recording Head is driven by the centre of turntable) sp. for Home Recording] ents 2077388, 2094201, 2107050 etc by Bender assigned to same company use a strip of film as recording medium. ed Reproducer). Also 2239717etc. Frederick Vinton Hunt (1905-1972), a professor at Harvard University about acoustics, wrote together with his colleag head) with peculiar suspension suitable for lateral & hill-and-dale movements. Also 2386089. 2410329(1946) with powdered iron core by Albright is also amonds or other stones and the like (showing machine tool for making elliptic tip). Also see 671830-1901 & 835964-1906 by Loesser about Machine for S AUDOGRAPH is recording with constant groove speed like CD using soft vinyl disc sandwiched between two wheels. Also related patents 2410607, 25638 equency Waves. Also 2475200 about signal recording apparatus, 2491215 about recording head with advance ball 2415681(VR type) for GE. pickup) Also 2542457. Newspaper "The Tech" dated February 7, 1950 titled "Churchill Repairs English Language"indicating Churchill's misuse of "me" in E23327(1951) Damper-less type (suspension/flexibility is obtained by reed) and 2581551, 2595561, 2622156 etc type pickup), 2388578(Record Reproducing System including electric circuit) etc pe. In 1944 Snepvangers moved to CBS Laboratories for LP project and later in 1958 joined in Fairchild Recording Equipment Corporation. ound track). Related patent 2534735 &2588327(Recording Head). Yerkovich's patents 2318828 & 2371116 assigned to Dictaphone show full details of di mbly) =GB615421-615424. Another GB586900 by O'Brien (American) is also shown on the metallic cover of Type D. o 2531689: Electrical Translating Means and Variable-Inductor Transducer Therefor. Pickup Signal transmitted by antenna and received by radio rec of coil=ribbon type?) In 1945, the Crosley interests were purchased by Aviation Corporation. The radio and appliance manufacturing arm changed its name 2456388, 2508753, 2547441 etc. Lionel B. Cornwell worked as chief engineer for Cinaudagraph Corporation. so 2415403 & 2511664 (idea similar to ancient telephone pickup) onograph records. Also 2516919(1950): Electrodynamic Phonograph Pickup armature [MM type pickup in SP era] armature [MM type pickup in SP era] Why has this patent application same title as above? ecttric pickup.. The Aviation Corporation later changed its name to Avco Manufacturing Corporation, and then in 1959 to Avco Corporation. In 1986 Avc man was invited to Columbia Broadcasting System for LP project. he driving member to the translating element. Also 2486099 Garrard Zero series. See also later patent by Klein 2983517(1961). For information, Garrard (Plessey) arm design was based on GB 1342739 (app atent 2519185. The Brush Development Company in Cleveland was engaged in applying piezoelectric device on underwater acoustics during 2nd World W ayer. Lloyd J. ANDREAS invented various stylus (2326424, 2502242, 2599312, 2771295) and arm (2681228) and needle wear comparator (2740296) etc ng facet angles) Earlier patent 2187512-1940 by Frank L. Capps is almost standardised while this later patent about two step facets is not realised utter head with feedback coil). In 2746130 Davis showed method of securing heating conductor to stylus applicable to Westrex Model 2A. stylus assembly. Also 2538164 cartridge, 2545859 dual styli ems and difficulty of tracing on new "microgroove" records. Record Players. Also 2554208 about improvement of cantilever, 2557752 about cartridge mounting with connector. 2748199, 2776342, 2820853, 30476 airs of pole pieces. Also 2388116 onverting System Therefor. Also 2567105 (Crystal Pickup) erences of records between the past and present or between USA and England. Also 2686679 d vertically on elongated core which is supported with dampers on vertical axis. Coil windings and pivot were modified later by Anneberg etc as per GB7 raph Records and the like. ated hollow or tubular piezoelectric element to protect dielectric element from breakage). Related patents 2484950 Robinson Sugden started "Connoisseur" brand for consumer products. patent 2628104 by Shardlow assigned to RCA fancy at the time, but now it can be embodied?) Related patent 2594759(1952) by Fischer ned Arm Mounting for anti-skating: "Since the tracking instability is greatest for the outmost sound groove, it is advantageous to tilt the axis of rotation in vement on Masterson's patent 2560358 assigned to RCA) ith protective tusk for stylus: low tracking force suitable for LP). Also 2565586 & 2583289(stylus) & 2652260etc. "Vertical" in comparison with previous eory). His another patent 3622163(1971) Linear Tracking Arm and 3301565(1967) Suspended cartridge and Inclined Arm/Turntable Base for anti-skating d for LP and SP (Turnover type cartridge) [wheel rubber driven by intermediate wheel and rotary members are interconnected by a single belt] Also 2684248(record player with an automatic record all Damping Suspension to insure the cutting of grooves of substantially uniform depth) playing on larger hole, the hub portion may be broken away within indentations. These have good reference to previous patents since SP era. Also 3662051(1972) ectricity from records e using bimorph piezoelectric plates) Also 2771514, 3089922. Related patents 2938966 by Spencer and 3067296 by Heinlein about piezoelectric element both coarse & fine grooves) Similar idea was already presented by Graupner and Gullner in Germany (German Patent 885163-1953: Universal-Doppelna Faces synchronised). Daniel P. Doncaster invented practical patents for CBS: 2646283, 2873978, 2951705, 3044783 etc. driven by moving coil) hape itself is amplifying sound mechanically without using diaphragm of sound box) tylus (Recording on plastic belt) s turn-over type for LP/SP use=universal) Also 2601126: Universal Tone Arm lso as ribbon type). This idea is not new (for example 1916162-1933 invented by Parker and assigned to Pacent Electric Company used U-shape copper st e faces (Also 2950116) o by changing connection) ic type since this patent was applied in 1953 before 45/45 stereo era) c Cartridge). Also 2881005 by Michalko and Faillace ups. Also 3043920 (Permanent Magnetized Rotor on pivot) ion) Also 2849239, 2955170, 2955216, 3177300, 3182136 and much later patent 3952171(1976) to Micro-Acoustics uto-return and re-set mechanism patent 3377439 for Erie Technological Products which had been manufacturing resistors & ceramic condensors (in 1980 company was sold to Murata Ma ecording grooves (Scully Automatic Recoding Machine had already variable pitch control) mechanical rumble filter ecial shape of shank base suitable for bonding diamond tips). His another patent 2992007(1961) about titanium shank for bonding a diamond tip with solde ording (Cutting head for L/V two channels) Also 3014992(Cutting head) & 3390888 (Cutting stylus) h) Also 2977424 & 2792454 Arm suitable for the use on a movable vehicle) mechanism to set arm to the first groove of each record size. mic Damping Theory developed by B.B. Bauer rix to comply with 45/45 system). Bayliff invented 4100371(Loudspeaker system with phase difference compensation) for Decca Limited ng. Also design patent D183546-1958 y of phonograph records and metal phonograph stampers]. In producing a stamper, the center hole is obliterated during the plating process: necessary to pu or piezoelectric stereo cartridge] roducing circuit for L/V type variable capacitance cartridge to make applicable to any type of modulations(45/45 & L/V). In monophonic era (1950), P. W t amplitude&velocity limiter or expander for stereophonic recording system ng Magnet (Monophonic) nter invented also 3067292: Stereophonic Sound Transmission & Reproduction (forerunner of CD-4 using FM technology) ("microfusion" method using pulverised resin instead of pre-mixed lump/biscuit/cake). His binaural records with two concentric grooves were produced in RA-498 by Stromberg-Carlson utilized viscous damping material in the trough of arm pivot suspension (forerunner to Decca/Keith Monks). His another pa Vertical coil assembly in his another patent 3018336(1962) resembled to Ortofon Type A(2591996-1952) while this new patent had "cross coils" wound o hanical Element=Piezoelectric?) r patent 3167317 by Percy Wilson). John Walton worked also for The Decca Record Company in England and reported many articles to AES during 1960 e) with offset around 18degrees at cantilever to be coupled with M12/M16 professional arms-see patent 2983516 lectric) Similar patent 3523690 by Vanderkoppel was assigned to Electro-Voice. oving Magnet type cartridge with unique suspension. He invented capacity pickup and assigned many patents (2397888 &2417712& 2426061etc) to RCA t Stylus Therefor. Also 2937243, 3015703, 3047677(Stereophonic pickup), 3118978, 3219764 etc Pitch and Depth Control). applied for German patent No. 1105628 with priority date 30 Nov. 1957 (publication 27 April, 1961) and its US patent 3463889 (filing date Oct. 2 ype piezoelectric transducer by pasting two elements. This type stereo cartridge was produced in 1960 - I feel a Japanese joke in SHIGACUT (di ing in modulating systems having pre-emphasis means nd Reproducing System eedback for the recording and reproduction of sound waves s). Westrex Corp was a wholly-owned subsidiary of Litton Industries since 1956 and the successor to Western Electric's cinema sound business un r of the Gramophone wrote "Needle-Track Alignment" in 1924 and also designed record cleaning machine (based on which Keith Monks and Loricraft etc ar once proposed by Alberheim in 2310049-1943) elonging to IM/MI type pickup] ers, mothers and stampers piezoelectric elements). Hammond invented also 3429580 tone arm mechanism for V-M Corporation onic cutters or pickups) tyli on cantilever=stylus turnover for piezoelectric pickup) g cantilevers each with stylus for LP or SP). same (bonded tip forming is shown in detail) Also 3022384, 3136554, 3136555, 3178520, 3514550, 3525528 etc. Also 2825763(1958) for Monophonic Piezoelectric Pickup was already invented by Kellog of RCA 2324214-1943 ng or expanding in accordance with loudness level. "Sound signal translating system wherein high level sounds may be translated and reproduced at relati distortions on playback. Related patent 2960568 by Leyton assigned to RCA : Tape Reproducing System. e by sliding the weight on the arm wand. His another patent 3309094 for Phonographic Turntable Assembly 5 type cutter head) See also 3194896 (Stereophonic Transducer with adjustable feedback coils) us beam (piezoelectric element is inherently stiff and heavy, hence beam is designed to have reduced mechanical impedance for better performance) Also 3 onductor Photoelectric Cell: germanium transistor) ne by one from separate stack of records without stacking the records on the turntable thus avoiding the height difference at stylus point] Earlier patents: 2 ity, application GB July 1962) ew Construction of MM type). & MC with low moving mass. SP7/9 were plug-ins for B&O arm nclined arm base & cartridge suspension) device applied on 1019 looks much refined/modified from original drawing. -shape weight). Edmund Walter MORTIMER invented stylus pressure gauge Model SPG 2 in US2687643(GB701462). phone Records. Also 3264386 miconductive Piezoresistive Transducer. Engineers (Wood and Grover) of Euphonics Corporation reported in AES Convention (Oct.1965):"In October of MM cartridges Also 3349194 about off center mounting of armature us assembly for phonograph records pphire or ruby crystal). Crystalline orientation with respect to the direction of rubbing between stylus and record for extended life time of corundum tip. nd lever with spring. Also 3492006 about the location of Lateral Balance Weight. Shimoda was working for Toho Machine Co., Ltd which has been engag ". Also 3131800(1964) by Osborne for Coin Controlled Phonograph and 3734512 for Tonearm Assembly for Automatic Phonograph 142786(patented 1964, applied 1960) about round coil of aluminum ribbon wire (10x100microns) for MC cartridges [later models since M6-45 are said to ensation for reproduction errors. Tracing Simulator/Compensator odulated Groove Sound Recording lus mass (showing electrically equivalent circuit for mechanical piezoelectric element and damper) ating third order distortions. Tracing Simulator for 3rd harmonic distortion in addition to previous method (2nd harmonic distortion compensating upon re with pneumatic power from turntable motor air-pressure compliance of which is adjustable at user's end to match with tone arm mass) by successive differentiation. Tracing compensator in recording to reduce pinch effect in reproducing with conventional spherical stylus. uid is made of distilled water and detergent or distilled water and ethyl alcohol=ethanol ) ibing the method to reduce the difference between VMA and VTA by determining springback value and effect. er for antiskating). Antiskating Force is obtained simultaneously with tracking force by means of a synchronized cam. P+E merged into DUAL in 1971. netic control of arm) Also 3689079(1972) etc settable compliance. Also 3527900 & 3426163 unner to Van den Hul type with constant radius of curvature=edge. Included angle 60-65degrees and arcuate chord distance 0.9mil of radius 0.7mil for bott mature (unique stylus holder knob was intended preliminarily for optimum stylus pressure). Also refer to 3908096 invented by Furuya and assign honograph Pickup with replaceable stylus assembly pring suspension. In 1968 Rabinow formed the RABCO company to manufacture straight-line phonographs, and the company was later bought out by Har magnet of platinum-cobalt alloy. A pipe of magnetic conductor is provided to reinforce the coupling between stylus arm and the magnet and at the same tim ad for piezoelectric element coupling, support and damping [Stylus Turnover Piezoelectric Type]. Also 3699268 net (for ex. thickness 0.5mmx 2mm square/diameter). Windings are wound on the centre leg of E-shaped core. Also multi-layered cantilever is shown. el surround. Also 3746792-1973(Multidirectional Sound System) & 3959590-1976(Stereophonic Sound System) & 5857016-1997(Space-mapping soun SME arms: side thrust is compensated by inclination of pivotal axis.) honograph Pickup with replaceable stylus assembly and one common pole piece "Beam-Of-Light Pickup"). Also 3534181 invented by Zimmermann wings for armature constructions: some are too complicated so that the simplest is realized?) C-4100 was forerunner of detachable/replaceable stylus assy for MC system. r for Avnet=B.I.C.turntables and arms. 4586(1972) toroidal armature, 3881073(1975), 4031336(1977) and 4174111(1979) cantilever anchor suspension e 1971 have been much simplified (without skewed stator slot) in order to make winding the stator easy - see US Patent 3860843(1975) System. Preceding Patent 3401237(1968):"Simultaneous Recording of Two Signals per Channel" invented by Kenjiro TAKAYANAGI (famous i sub-motor for arm control) dge: The armature acts as a variable magnetic load conveying stylus movements. Patent reissued in 1977 under RE 29232. Also 3878342: Replace ation 42/53200 year 1967) eisuke Shimoda once invented patents 3388912/3492006 for Sony lever (Electret Condenser type cartridge) up) His previous patent 3649775 was assigned to Sony. n. 43/57408 year 1968) 3784744, 3875338 about decoders, 3890466 about encoders nel reproduction. Its line contact profile (a curve of large radius of curvature in its parts in contact with a record groove in a vertical section) is easy to be o nt Magnets inside of Arm Pillar) f the Output Channels. Also 3883692 In 1968 Sony started a joint company CBS-Sony Record Company in Japan. ransmissions. Matrix 4 channel surround. Also RE29171(3777076), 3783192, 3825684, 3836715, 3887770, 3892918, 3934086, 3952157, 3982069, 4021 y a hard solder to a shaft y. Maybe the first model of pivot suspension using flexible cords. nd Depth control in consideration of reproducing stylus profile g magnet pivotally supported on the rear end of needle holder: one-point pivot and receptacle both made of hard jewel in order to have definitive fulcrum) t in XL-35 and XL-45 was carbon-clad aluminum cantilever. Related patents for XL-35/45: 3987255 about generating system and 3992017 about cone typ -clad shell is based on another patent 3957272 invented by Yasuda and assigned to Sony: "the carbonaceous fibers bonded together by a synthetic resin an e coated with a film of silicon carbide or boron carbide thereon. ress tools for the production of hot-pressed plastic material products, especially grammophone records for reproducing discrete CD-4 four-channel stereo disc (esp. automatic muting circuit) tude controlled by stylus arm position. Signal amplitude limiting toward inner (softer operation than tracing simulators). also 3965520 Brush and cleaning composition for phonograph records) tric cartridge) Also 4326285-1982 (new design of damper) ever pipe, main magnet axial at the end of poles, other two magnets for flux balancing at side. Unique double dampers [forerunner of Shure's "selective da ve tape peeling off after use). The idea is not new: in 1959 Joseph NOGUERAinvented similar product for MILTY in GB891740. whose periphery carries a porous vacuum vapor deposited beryllium layer ffsetting & anti-skating mechanism) obbin) Japanese Patent Application S49-85387(Publication S51-014002) and reproducing modulated information in tetraphony: 2separate grooves 4 channels. His other patents 2437997,2458346,2488763&2506441about cinema cal beam and sensor for size select) d also 3949995(needle control-unique dynamic arm with two springs for side and down forces) & 4004816(programmer for record player) for Avnet, Inc i con semiconductors pickups structure with higher separation and usable for discrete 4 channels] angential to cantilever. d on the inner surface of the turntable so as to be disposed in a state alternately opposite in polarity and a plurality of coils provided on a stationary substrat reproducing system with crosstalk compensation means. Also 3985978. Improved discrete 4 channel system named as UM system=UMX:"UNIVERSAL g arms. Using photocell for controlling arms. es of the mat may be enhanced by providing solid particles which float in the viscous liquid. Also 4079946 -charged surfaces. British Patent GB1500492-1978(first filed 9 March 1974) carries following amendment note: "By a direction given under Section 17(1) bly of Low Mass. Pritchard left ADC and started Sonic Research Corp. around 1975. Also 4067582 about stylus suspension of yoke) looking like mixture of MM, IM and MC electro-magnetic counterbalance and VTF system. This patent is also registered in Japan (S51-23702 in 1976) by Strathearn. pole piece. Also 4456984(1984) ne Point Cross Suspension System") record disc recording system) nd a disk-shaped armature (called as tri-pole armature): patented in Japan, Canada, GB, Germany and USA. ds. Automated record press incorporated with trimming the flash around the edge of the disc. This contains good reference to previous patents in eissue RE29730-1978) invented by Miyoshi about record player operating "six cycles by rotating the index wheel until the number "6" appears on the view His other patent 4007939, 4083565, 4139200 etc. ario Pulley" for auto player. ith pressing and intermediate members for coupling ilm of magnetic fluid lubricant material between the bearing surfaces ecords. [Arm type record cleaner: brush inclined 35degrees from record plane enabling scouring liquid to pass down into the groove at least partially towar lso 4011417). Unique construction having merit of MM/IM/MC. Also see Design patent D266504(1982) assigned to The Astatic Corporation (cartridge m 3761647: current AT clip-on stylus holders for VM stylus assembly ble speed: proposing constant linear velocity of turntable as later CD player. n oil+spring incorporated in balance weight: its damping character is adjusted by turning the control knob with magnet) urn force is obtained by gear coupled to spindle motor). Also 4098512 & 4106775 by Takizawa assigned to Sony er that the electric potentials generated in diametrically opposite coils are added together. Also related patent No. 4410975(1983) about improved damper affix stylus holder (Patent in Japan 15/7/1975: 50-86422) Also 4179589 about cantilever suspension obtain constant torque=called as "Unitorque motor") Also 4109170 & 4260920 etc (Design Patent D253410 by Sasaki 1979 for DA-307). of tone arm with coil and magnet) gura developed 4-channel stylus PM type different from Shibata(JVC). ording medium (a cutting stylus with non static electricity structure to avoid sticking the chip cuts to groove) Also 4212471(1980) e bands (maybe first example using LED and photodetectors along cartridge), Also 4119844 for sensor built-in cartridge . Related patent 4153257 is for a turntable to enable playback of record matrices and stampers. The turntable rotates in the direction opposite that of a con with a stator assembly with a first plurality of pairs of primary pole pieces each pair constituted by a first metal part for the energization by an in-phase cur nic cutoff response Also 4032885 Eddy current damper and dynamic mechanical damper are applied on the main arm of DV-505 while additional eddy current damper for sub arm as indica ate to pole rod junction. Also 4054758 for cartridge damper [AKG-TS-system: TS stands for Transversal Suspension] fied from this patent: first embodiment AT34 with 180degrees reverse location of coils while later models have V shape bobbins connected to the end of c ive rubber roller washable after use) player incorporating electronic anti-skating etc). Also 4158459 for the arm weight device to provide a low profile pick-up arm. Also 4266783:Control mec up arm type (using optical sensor devices) d arm as "BIOTRACER" looks related to later patents 4184688, 4214756, 4214757, 4240641, 4241926 etc. ion. Also 4220341(Pickup) & 4145582(MC cartridge with square magnetic armature) Nakatsuka visited Ortofon around 1975 and assisted in developmen bly. "The tube is crimped along a circular crimp line engaging the damper intermediate the forward and rear edges with the portions of the damper that do ole piece construction patents by SCULLY with WESTREX/TELDEC with NEUMANN etc. front of coils which are driven by coaxial ring magnet. Any yoke for producing parallel magnetic field as in the prior art is not required and the pickup can raph record (Phonograph-Tape synchro Mechanism) similar to patent by Sony 3906169(1975). Synchro function was popular in '80s. by magnets (and/or coiｌ as shown in next patent 4170362) oto designed another arm D257534(1980) with new counter weight system nograph record player. ce bearing and inertial damper fabricated from different materials. Allen R. Groh presented an article entitled "The Dynamic Vibration Absorber Principle nograph records. Similar US Patent No.4378597/4455636 were invented by Lion Corporation and embodied in Nagaoka/Jeweltone "RECOPACK". "tip damper") to prevent entry of foreign matters such as moisture or dust into the cartridge casing. Electret condenser-type cartridge CP-Y is shown in Fi ollow) coils without any yoke to prevent the generation of magnetic distortion by a yoke. 5(1981) and 4374433(1983) and 4532620(1985) of disc record tone arms. Also 4131284 ording medium (anti-static diamond cutting stylus prevents cut chip from adhering to stylus and groove) Also 4105213(1978) by Owaki etc of JVC. amic frame. Also 4344167 about shell and damping therefor ts. Garrard Music Recovery Module for suppressing scratch noise upon playing records. Similar method was also presented in US patent 4208634-1980 in ularities from polyvinyl phonograph records. "The apparatus includes a plurality of plate-like members which are used to engage with the lead-in lips and/o idea (nonrecorded section detection sensor =LED+optical sensor mounted on arm head) might be developed from earlier US Patent 4226425: Nonrecorde wrote "Determination of Sliding Friction Between Stylus and Record Groove" in JAES December 1981 and "Comments on -Determination of Sliding Fric Running Record Player: toy automobile with stylus for tracing and playing back sound from disk. Also 4284279 nd polymer of a silicone rubber polymer and polyisobutylene. TTDD=Technics Temperature Defense Damper d high quality [square moving coil and ring magnet]. Also 4310917 about damping device consisting of a disc shaped inertia body clamped between two ru embly is designed to eliminate the main resonance frequency of the tone arm and includes a hollow casing rigidly affixed to the lever. "Korvet"arm by A. L ng Platter for belt drive system) of the dual-bearing type where the vertical movement of the arm takes place around two bearings, characterized in that the mid-point between said bearing site material consisting of a thermoplastic resin and graphite powder). Also 4269416: Head shell for record player tonearms (a composite material consistin ns reference to previous patents, but first two references are Design patents assigned to Shure in 1975 (not 1875)! tor drive systems. Fine adjustment speed control circuit for Quartz-locked motor. or phonograph pickup cartridge. Also Design Patent D252628 by Wellwood and Deschamps cting T4P cartridge to arm with SME type connector is shown. Also see 4571717(1986) assigned to Audio-Technica about T4P mounting adaptor for shell 12838, 4382454 and 4433408). Denon also made boron cantilever for DL-305 etc by chemical vapor deposition: Japanese Patent JP1109750 propo o-etching) aluminum-film coil on silicon plate. orizontal and vertical vibration forces utilizing a single damping mechanism around arm pivot assembly. DP-100M(1981) and DP-57L(1982)=DP-62L? DP-59L(1984) etc. Also 4253126, 4356560, 4404671 etc. A linear motor direct-drive arm on two guide bars. Its unique jog dial "REMOTE OPERATION/CONTROL KNO n linear tracking pickup arm apparatus. Design Patent D268028(1983) for PX-2(1979) is also adopted on PX-3(1981) with small modifications ly. Another patent No. 4165078 for Flip-up stylus protector with magnifying lens on it. Also 4340957 ennessen utilizes a sight line or sight ridge which is aimed at the pivot point for the tone arm instead of pointer. e made of the piezoelectric material though quoted as electrets in commercial documents - maybe it is reasonable since its electrical equivalent circuit is si and tuning adaptor between arm cable and phonoamp) In 1972, at a meeting in Europe, eight people representing companies in the USA, UK, France, Swi nsisting of base system and exchangeable arm unit with counter weight. Inventors working in Kyushu HITACHI Maxell so that various models were supplied from Lo-D(HITACHI) and Maxell(Battery brand of HITA 4597071 by Ito etc assigned to Yamaha ge by mechanical gravity balance shift on the uneven parallel bars) r Arm (claim priority, application GB July 1979) gnet without center hole can be applied, instead special magnet holder is used) to be equipped additionally on the shell neck - funniest patent I ever see. It is based on the theory presented by Iyeta: US Patent 4113265: Tone pickup ar ment which extracts and directly displays the vertical tracking angle of a phonograph pickup during playback of a known test record signal, and which also processes of making Mother]. The term to "passivate" means to treat a metal surface so that a metallic coating can be applied to the treated surface and sub chanically acoustic events into alternating voltages. [MI/IM cartridge using ring magnet similar to Ortofon VMS] Also 4512009 new damper developed fu (also 4234195 & 4493072): Optional Suction Pump Unit="Turbo-Disk-Stabiliser"This idea itself is not new (see 4065135-1977 by Doughty, 3608909-19 fied coil structure Also 4237347 (Two Moving Magnets) antilever pipe of a ceramic material composed mainly of aluminum oxide ainer for volatile liquid: this is interesting because of criticism on prior arts. Also 416626 & D259911 th two phase stator windings (4 coils) and 2 hall elements and 8 poles rotor magnet Also 4135120(1979)&4220879(1980) invented by Hosimi and a er (two tonearms with two MM cartridges, one on each side of the record to allow the continuous playback of both sides). ion for correcting rotational irregularities due to record disc eccentricity. Angular velocity is controlled electrically in accordance with the eccentric ratio. lied together with cartridge model P25MD series. ing of uni-pivot and ball bearing. A vertical pivot attached to one of the bases and cooperating with a spherical thrust bearing in the other base, and a ball m n the turntable of a record player to hold a record disc placed thereon by attraction (by vacuum pump). alignment of stylus unit on cartridge body). Also 4327433 & 4519063 e guard stylus protection system" ord on a turntable (Disk Centre Searching Mechanism). Earlier patent 3481609 invented by Lukens is more illustrative about the eccentricity of record s interesting references invented by Wilson and Meyers for Metrosound Audio Products Ltd in UK. Also 3945647 [cleaning machine using endless belt dr one arm. Also US4514838 & 4542494. Jiri JANDA invented FLAT TONE ARM, for which patent was applied worldwide though never patented. provided which has a high D.C. stability without degrading the equalization characteristic. o cartridge (current amplifying method applied on magnetic cartridges) d method of formation anism. Previous Patent 4425638 for Dual Turntable for cancellation.! records（Vacuum Cleaning) into a metallic record carrier. Also 4538256, 4248438 & 4531207, 4748612(diamond stylus) gnet circuit). Further development from earlier patent 4455639 by Aoki and 4161631by Matsuda etc. ayer. Design Patent D279755. There were similar products from Sony: battery operated "Flamingo"PS-F9 with Dynamic Balanced Linear Tracking Arm & ever). The patent document is interesting only for other references in the past. tridge: first transistor incorporated within shell as "Satellite" for head amplifier. out from case) see also 4450549(1984) h record with two-channel modulation. A system for controlling the mean depth and spacing of V-grooves ver within central opening of ring magnet spension for vertical and lateral displacement ammed music selection). The prior art reference No. 4230324 is incorrect. Correct number should be 4230323-1980 (SHARP). Optical music selection id phono cartridge (PU>Step-down Transformer>Current-voltage conversion stage) et and a front magnet mounted in an axially juxtaposed manner within a support sleeve so as to define therewith a magnetic field chamber 2) higher output ecords. Two matrices, each bearing modulation to form a microgroove disc record, are fixed to half-moulds by means of sleeves, having first and second d). His previous patent 4587646(1986）about same uni-pivot arm nt on homeuse vacuum cleaner) together construction. Also 4534022. ELM (Extra Light Mass 3g) series cartridges appeared around 1984 al Beam Optical Turntable. There were many attempts before Stoddard - see US Patent 3,325,603(1963) by Rabinow etc: "Stereo Record Player Using chanical imperfections: his previous patent 4918678 contains many related references (full history of vain attempts to reduce distortions caused by warp etc stead of stylus vibrates as resonator/microphone] arm tube. Design Patent No. D433011(2000). See also straight non-offset arm D494158(2004) for disc jockey turntable D491915(2004) ds from physical measurement. Also 7330414(2008) or cylinder recordings [Laser pickup for cylinder or a 33, 45 or 78 RPM record] -up arm. Model 1& TA-1 have modification around suspension of arm (two strings & flat magnets) A between the stylus of the cartridge and the record can be easily adjusted without tweaking or touching the tone arm o information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph record may be reconstructed, with little or no contact, by measuring abilization and damping system: satisfies the need for achieving neutral balance and stabilization for unipivot tone arm assemblies including antiskating m ertical tracking angle adjustment system, and vertical guide system ead and weight system combined with cam as an anti-skate mechanism and claims that "the anti-skate force applied to the stylus is uneven resulting in app 131072) and calculated pi to the 11th decimal place. her patents on phonograph: 201760(Speaking Machine), 227679(Phonograph), 386974(Mechanical improvement with motor), 393967, 400650 (Collapsib der type "Graphophone" see 341288 invented by Tainter. Also 341212,341287(magnetic disk recording), 374133(paper cylinder), 375579, 380535, 38588 by W. Suess: US Patent No.427279(1890) and assigned to Emile Berliner though Berliner in 382790(1888) already proposed solid resisting material (wax) etc. Johnson was founder of Consolidated Talking Machine Company in 1900 which became Victor Talking Machine Company in 1901. Victor Talking M 50119 about celluloid cylinder. Ademor Napoleon Petit worked also for Edison. Emerson started Emerson Phonograph Company for producing his label "Emerson Record". depth of groove to be cut) and air-blast nozzle (contrary to modern suction nozzle). Basic recording method is almost established in this mechanical (sound inner wall of cylinder and "nurling"=knurling blank cylinder by rolling reversal matrix. Also 1107502 York. In another patent 915936(1909), Cheney proposed unique groove and forked stylus to trace two V grooves at once (sound is recorded at land). aphs - see also 3584881 assigned to Mattel etc] was a need for making hard stylus tip. Also 1456687 Stylus Mounting Also 1246652 about cutting tool for sound-recording machines. nd began to record singers as eminent as Mary Garden. ox. Capps invented 570378-1896 (Spring Motor) for The National Phonograph Company, 727921-1903(Automatic Sound Recorder) & 783420 for Amer master record after recording is indicated: lapping, brushing, polishing, burnishing the surface of master or reforming the sharp corner of groove by spinning olumbia disclaims patent of Errickson partially. n of electric pickups. produced various machines in timely formats (wax cylinder/plastic belt/magnetic tape etc). essing can be repeatedly reproducible. ding head with advance ball for lateral grooves) erger proposed grooves with high frequency carrier of AM for broadcasting phonograph playback sound directly. ons (by compensation with opposite distortion on recording or reproducing) are indicated. Also 1661793 & 1685913 ome respects more faithful reproduction of the recorded sounds than a record cut upon a disc, and the proposal has been made..to transfer...from the cylind speaker. Later when GE transferred their radio and allied work to RCA, Dr. Kellog also went to RCA. ut & vertical-cut record), 1980888 & 1992727 etc. 1992727 was assigned to ATT. His early patents: 1595978(1926) & 1745776(1930) about pickup switc 2(1925) Electric Reproducer assigned to Wired Radio Inc. d by the diaphragm vibrate with it as the stylus flexes the diaphragm about its diameter". (for example 450 threads per radial inch). The minute record groove was first experimented around 1930 for vertical-cut records. ain both DC permeability and AC permeability]. Another patent 2108275(1938) by Roelof Vermeulen and Arend Thomas was assigned to Philips in Nethe ed from mechanical and electric noises) ration. Also refer to 2335986(1943 Vinyl Resin Phonograph Record). 1956837(1934) by Schmidt indicated application of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Aldehyde t hill-and-dale reproducer to lateral reproducer) Damping Device, 2105916 Sound Reproducing System. of air instead of "advance ball" since "the mechanical disturbances caused by the advance ball as it slides over the wax is now audible in finished records a 58, 2357033, 2369087, 2369088(Equalising), 2441651(Recording Head) & 2464064 etc were assigned to the Sound Scriber Corporation. Early patent 163 mplifier) by Wiebusch 5(1926) assigned to Western Electric, 1768273(1930) assigned to Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1793403(1931), 2063225, 2088960, 2191026 etc. about elastic contact of spherical tip on the middle of V groove in J.S.M.P.E vol.37 (Dec.1941) 8 about vibration translating system t Tone Arm, 2145389 about Arm and pickup, 2197967 about Sound Reproducing Apparatus (Arm coupled with pickup and amplifier circuit), 2379282&2 Also 2311385 (combination of hill-and-dale operation and lateral operation is made possible by switching connection on transformer), 2280763 (phonogra ity about acoustics, wrote together with his colleague J.A. Pierce: "On Distortion in Sound Reproduction from Phonograph Records" J.A.S.A 1938, a monu 1946) with powdered iron core by Albright is also related to this pickup. 1 & 835964-1906 by Loesser about Machine for Sawing Diamonds n two wheels. Also related patents 2410607, 2563860, 2628842& 2740633 etc. Language"indicating Churchill's misuse of "me" instead of "I" reports that Winston Churchill dictates his memoirs on the dictating machine of the Sound d Recording Equipment Corporation. 116 assigned to Dictaphone show full details of dictating machine using a loop of acetate film. ansmitted by antenna and received by radio receiver - there was such trend since Philco also obtained similar patent 2441464(1948) from Albrigh and appliance manufacturing arm changed its name to Avco, but the broadcast operations continued to operate under the Crosley name, until they adopted nd then in 1959 to Avco Corporation. In 1986 Avco was purchased by Textron. sey) arm design was based on GB 1342739 (applied 1971, publication 1974 - but had not been "patented" officially). evice on underwater acoustics during 2nd World War. German-born Semi Joseph Begun invented piezoelectric pickup (2363497etc) & magnetic recorder 81228) and needle wear comparator (2740296) etc. for PERMO. later patent about two step facets is not realised. lus applicable to Westrex Model 2A. th connector. 2748199, 2776342, 2820853, 3047676 & 3088000 by Dally. 2572712 by Fisher. Slide-in type 2820854 by Woodworth. t were modified later by Anneberg etc as per GB700155(1953) & DE873757. There was rare stereo modification model: the cantilever has been fixed at ve, it is advantageous to tilt the axis of rotation in a direction lateral of the arm in the position in which the arm engages the maximum diameter sound groo 652260etc. "Vertical" in comparison with previous lateral bearing arrangement such as 2381861etc. and Inclined Arm/Turntable Base for anti-skating so 2684248(record player with an automatic record changer). 3067296 by Heinlein about piezoelectric element for stereophonic cartridge. German Patent 885163-1953: Universal-Doppelnadeln fuer normale und Microrillen-Schallplatten) Pacent Electric Company used U-shape copper strip as armature). ndensors (in 1980 company was sold to Murata Manufacturing Company in Japan). tanium shank for bonding a diamond tip with solder bond of granulated nickel. ence compensation) for Decca Limited iterated during the plating process: necessary to punch a center hole in each stamper anew. ons(45/45 & L/V). In monophonic era (1950), P. Weathers invented electrostatic pickup (US Patent 2507188). rds with two concentric grooves were produced in 1951- but similar was already invented by Dolittle of RCA (1817177 & 2126370) etc. forerunner to Decca/Keith Monks). His another patent No. 3025066 for Turntable PR-499 2) while this new patent had "cross coils" wound on a plastic cubic bobbin (magnetic? plug inside). nd and reported many articles to AES during 1960s about "stylus mass and elliptical points" etc. Also 3444335: "Phonograph Pick-up with de-coupling of atents (2397888 &2417712& 2426061etc) to RCA. He worked also for CBS 1944-1957. 61) and its US patent 3463889 (filing date Oct. 21, 1958 - publication in 1969) was assigned to Shure. This USP3077521 filing dated Nov. 6, 1958 in 1960 - I feel a Japanese joke in SHIGACUT (directional cut of crystal element by the idea of inventor Shiga) and cartridge shape looking like CIG to Western Electric's cinema sound business unit. ne (based on which Keith Monks and Loricraft etc made commercial models). Also 4070028 etc. honic Piezoelectric Pickup sounds may be translated and reproduced at relatively low levels and yet to maintain the same illusion of perspective and tonal balance as the original sou chanical impedance for better performance) Also 3102171 height difference at stylus point] Earlier patents: 2831693(record changer) by Zaner and 3129006(automatic record changer) by Zahner and Thevenaz and ted in AES Convention (Oct.1965):"In October of 1964 Euphonics Corporation announced the development of a new phonograph transducer utilizing ... S d record for extended life time of corundum tip. g for Toho Machine Co., Ltd which has been engaged in precision machining since 1947. y for Automatic Phonograph C cartridges [later models since M6-45 are said to have triangle coils] hod (2nd harmonic distortion compensating upon recording). th conventional spherical stylus. hronized cam. P+E merged into DUAL in 1971. uate chord distance 0.9mil of radius 0.7mil for bottom in this patent) refer to 3908096 invented by Furuya and assigned to Micro Lab (=Micro Seiki in Itabashi, Tokyo).. aphs, and the company was later bought out by Harman-Kardon Corporation. His other patents 2915315(1959), 3129946, 3249361, 3249362, 3356372, 3 ween stylus arm and the magnet and at the same time to increase equivalently the length of magnet and increase the magnetic moment of the magnet under d core. Also multi-layered cantilever is shown. nd System) & 5857016-1997(Space-mapping sound system) etc - see US Patent 3860843(1975) invented by Kenjiro TAKAYANAGI (famous inventor of TV in Japan) and assigned to JVC. Additional patent 3883699(1975) for system and 40 n 1977 under RE 29232. Also 3878342: Replaceable Stylus record groove in a vertical section) is easy to be obtained: two planes cut off from cone. 770, 3892918, 3934086, 3952157, 3982069, 4021612 etc. e of hard jewel in order to have definitive fulcrum) out generating system and 3992017 about cone type damper. eous fibers bonded together by a synthetic resin and secured to a metal cover plate by a suitable adhesive or by a heat-press". ouble dampers [forerunner of Shure's "selective damper"/inertial damper]: cantilever suspension and inner rod working as inertia damper for high frequenc for MILTY in GB891740. 437997,2458346,2488763&2506441about cinematograph and condensor. 1904408(1933) about Needle Securing Device for Talking Machine 16(programmer for record player) for Avnet, Inc in New York.. AVNET, the owner of importer "British Industries Corp." (B-I-C) needed their own produ plurality of coils provided on a stationary substrate disposed to face said turntable to have an increased driving torque - see Fig.10 ystem named as UM system=UMX:"UNIVERSAL MATRIX"system compatible to CD-4, RM and SQ/QS and regular stereophonic disks for reproducing ent note: "By a direction given under Section 17(1) of the Patents Act 1949 this application proceeded in the name of ZEROSTAT INSTRUMENTS LIMI n 1976) by Strathearn. is contains good reference to previous patents in LP era. Also 4141538 for disc record press dex wheel until the number "6" appears on the viewing window". o pass down into the groove at least partially towards the base of the groove] 2) assigned to The Astatic Corporation (cartridge model MF200). Also 4123067 about unique stylus pivot suspension (embodied in model G-7 cartridge) atent No. 4410975(1983) about improved damper with grooves for better separation between channels. oove) Also 4212471(1980) table rotates in the direction opposite that of a conventional turntable and is provided with a tone arm carrying a stylus designed to ride the ridges of the st t metal part for the energization by an in-phase current and a second plurality of pairs of primary pole pieces each pair constituted by a second metal part fo dditional eddy current damper for sub arm as indicated in Fig. 9 & 10 is omitted from actual models. Dr. Tominari (deceased in 2002) was professor in Tok ls have V shape bobbins connected to the end of cantilever similar to their VM type. w profile pick-up arm. Also 4266783:Control mechanisms for pick-up arms of record players d Ortofon around 1975 and assisted in development of MC20 etc. In 1976 Nakatsuka joined to Namiki Precision Jewel and in 1986 started ZYX (meaning d rear edges with the portions of the damper that do not engage the crimp also being free of the tube". as in the prior art is not required and the pickup can be constructed quite compactly in the cantilever support member. function was popular in '80s. ntitled "The Dynamic Vibration Absorber Principle Applied to a High-Quality Phonograph Pickup" in Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, June 1977 odied in Nagaoka/Jeweltone "RECOPACK". ctret condenser-type cartridge CP-Y is shown in Fig.1 though document refers to CP-X Condenser Pickup Cartridge (1970). Also 4105213(1978) by Owaki etc of JVC. d was also presented in US patent 4208634-1980 invented in Netherlands and assigned to Philips. which are used to engage with the lead-in lips and/or label regions on one or more records and to apply appropriate forces. The effectiveness of the method oped from earlier US Patent 4226425: Nonrecorded section detection in an automatic record. US Design Patent D265196-1982 shows RP-7100 with smal and "Comments on -Determination of Sliding Friction Between Stylus and Record Groove- and Author's Reply" in JAES December 1982. a disc shaped inertia body clamped between two rubber pads - named by Ortofon as WRD (Wide Range Damping) system. Idea about "selective damping" g rigidly affixed to the lever. "Korvet"arm by A. Likhnitsky is related to this patent. cterized in that the mid-point between said bearings is placed eccentrically with respect to the center of gravity of the said separate element/s and which be ord player tonearms (a composite material consisting of a thermoplastic resin and graphite powder)Also 4341838 & 4366205 etc about graphite comosite a io-Technica about T4P mounting adaptor for shell. r deposition: Japanese Patent JP1109750 proposed additional process CVD on PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition). og dial "REMOTE OPERATION/CONTROL KNOB" was based on previous patents such as 4118039/4147365. Linear motor drive was shown also in S n PX-3(1981) with small modifications easonable since its electrical equivalent circuit is similar to capacitance load. Also 4320492:Variable weight phonograph cartridge resenting companies in the USA, UK, France, Switzerland and Germany formed a HiFi company soon to be known as NAD (New Acoustic Dimension). o-D(HITACHI) and Maxell(Battery brand of HITACHI) nted by Iyeta: US Patent 4113265: Tone pickup arm device keeping excellent dynamic lateral balance and damping effect. yback of a known test record signal, and which also has the capability of measuring and directly displaying tracing distortion ating can be applied to the treated surface and subsequently be removed therefrom. It is believed that the passivating aqueous solution of the present inven on VMS] Also 4512009 new damper developed further from 4054758 though actual embodiment looks much simplified without second elastic element. new (see 4065135-1977 by Doughty, 3608909-1971 by Rabinow) 1979)&4220879(1980) invented by Hosimi and assigned to Sony electrically in accordance with the eccentric ratio. herical thrust bearing in the other base, and a ball making contact with one of the bases and cooperating with a guiding element in the other base. is more illustrative about the eccentricity of record grooves. Also see old patent by Lathrop (USP2863668 in 1958): Apparatus for establishing concentric o 3945647 [cleaning machine using endless belt driven by rotation of the record] applied worldwide though never patented. F9 with Dynamic Balanced Linear Tracking Arm & FM transmitter, mini-compo "Heli Player"PS-Q7&9 with FM transmitter around 1982. 230323-1980 (SHARP). Optical music selection idea was invented in 60s: for example 3368080-1968(CITIZEN). Seemingly this application originated fro erewith a magnetic field chamber 2) higher output is achieved without increasing the number of windings and thereby adversely affecting the moving mass oulds by means of sleeves, having first and second fixing flanges which extend into the gap between the matrices. See also 3619449-1971(injection materia 63) by Rabinow etc: "Stereo Record Player Using Optical Means Separate from The Tone Arm" and US Patent 3,992,593(1976) & RE30,723(1981) by H n attempts to reduce distortions caused by warp etc). Also 4755979(1988) ockey turntable D491915(2004) onstructed, with little or no contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision metrology methods coupled with digital image processing and numeric pivot tone arm assemblies including antiskating mechanism using pulley belt tension. rce applied to the stylus is uneven resulting in appropriate and uniform anti-skating properties throughout the radial travel of the stylus from the outer edge provement with motor), 393967, 400650 (Collapsible Blank), 414761(Wax Blank), 430278(cutting edge and reproducing stylus), 430277, 437425, 437497 , 374133(paper cylinder), 375579, 380535, 385886, 385887(Graphophonic Tablet), 421450, 428646, 506348. 88) already proposed solid resisting material (wax) coated on plate or cylinder. Also 548623, 564586, 637196, 637197, 689349 etc king Machine Company in 1901. Victor Talking Machine Company was created by merger and reorganization of two existing companies: Emile Berliner' hod is almost established in this mechanical (sound-box) recording era. grooves at once (sound is recorded at land). 3(Automatic Sound Recorder) & 783420 for American Graphophone Company, 1836153-1931(Stylus Holder) for Columbia Phonograph Company, 21875 or reforming the sharp corner of groove by spinning stylus in order to reduce pinch effect]. Also 1580567. oposal has been made..to transfer...from the cylinder to a disc...From the wax disc a matrix is made in the usual or any suitable way and from the matrix a n 95978(1926) & 1745776(1930) about pickup switchable between mechanical diaphragm (Sound Box) & electrical pickup, 1598895 & 1630642 about elec 30 for vertical-cut records. nd Arend Thomas was assigned to Philips in Netherlands dicated application of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Aldehyde Condensation on record. 1997489(1935) by Hermann etc in Germany indicated various examples of po s over the wax is now audible in finished records and often predominant in original recordings". to the Sound Scriber Corporation. Early patent 1637165(1927) was assigned to The Bristol Company. 3(1931), 2063225, 2088960, 2191026 etc. led with pickup and amplifier circuit), 2379282&2412718 Recorder. Roy DALLY worked for Webster Electric, Electrovox & GE and was awarded Emile ng connection on transformer), 2280763 (phonograph apparatus, piezoelectric pickup with cantilever+stylus made from tungsten wire) n from Phonograph Records" J.A.S.A 1938, a monument paper simulating various phonograph distortions. W. D. Lewis and F. V. Hunt, "A Theory of Trac is memoirs on the dictating machine of the Sound Scriber. ned similar patent 2441464(1948) from Albright. perate under the Crosley name, until they adopted the Avco name in 1968. electric pickup (2363497etc) & magnetic recorders (2048487&2048488) etc for this company. type 2820854 by Woodworth. dification model: the cantilever has been fixed at a cube for special Cardanic transmission 'cross- coupler' which converts stylus deflection to channel-se he arm engages the maximum diameter sound groove for which the phonograph is designed.") RCA (1817177 & 2126370) etc. 444335: "Phonograph Pick-up with de-coupling of the stylus mass" re. This USP3077521 filing dated Nov. 6, 1958 in USA is corresponding to Elac's German patent No. 1175007 with priority date 6 March, 1958 (p ntor Shiga) and cartridge shape looking like CIGAR-CUT. It is said that this is the first stereo cartridge using bimorph type piezoelectric device w of perspective and tonal balance as the original sound." Also 3293364 matic record changer) by Zahner and Thevenaz and 3129945(new umbrella type spindle) by Thevenaz. ment of a new phonograph transducer utilizing ... Since the development of this silicon fiber by Endevco Corporation, several years of rigorous testing and (1959), 3129946, 3249361, 3249362, 3356372, 3390886, 3675932 etc. ncrease the magnetic moment of the magnet under vibration. ditional patent 3883699(1975) for system and 4033592(1977) for special cutting stylus and 4211978(1980) for cross-talk component cancellation ci e or by a heat-press". er rod working as inertia damper for high frequency range suitable for quadraphonic application. e Securing Device for Talking Machine h Industries Corp." (B-I-C) needed their own products since Plessey of England (parent company of Garrard in this era) set up their own distribution of Ga driving torque - see Fig.10 QS and regular stereophonic disks for reproducing 4 channels. n the name of ZEROSTAT INSTRUMENTS LIMITED". ot suspension (embodied in model G-7 cartridge) arrying a stylus designed to ride the ridges of the stamper. Also 4113267 invented by Wittenberg and assigned to Pickering eces each pair constituted by a second metal part for energization by an out of phase current ) Also 4024473 about stroboscopic device. Tominari (deceased in 2002) was professor in Tokyo Metropolitan University [servo technology], established Dynavector in 1977, also developing fuel in Precision Jewel and in 1986 started ZYX (meaning three axes in audio=time/amplitude/frequency) for producing MC cartridges based on his ideas and pate ournal of the Audio Engineering Society, June 1977. "additional selective suppression of unwanted vibrations at the resonant frequencies of the moving sys ppropriate forces. The effectiveness of the method and apparatus is enhanced by the application of moderate heat from an external source". n Patent D265196-1982 shows RP-7100 with small modification. s Reply" in JAES December 1982. e Damping) system. Idea about "selective damping" was proposed by Allen R. Groh (Shure 15VI). gravity of the said separate element/s and which bearings are attached on one side to the said element/s, and between said two bearings a vertical pin, which 4341838 & 4366205 etc about graphite comosite applied on shell, arm and diaphragm. 4147365. Linear motor drive was shown also in Sony patent 4322840 and Plessey patent 4185836 etc. ight phonograph cartridge o be known as NAD (New Acoustic Dimension). e passivating aqueous solution of the present invention passivates a nickel surface by forming a conductive oxide layer on the surface. much simplified without second elastic element. with a guiding element in the other base. 668 in 1958): Apparatus for establishing concentric operation of phonograph sound grooves. 9 with FM transmitter around 1982. ITIZEN). Seemingly this application originated from printing machine. gs and thereby adversely affecting the moving mass of the stylus assembly. IMO: Sumiko high output MC cartridges such as Blue Point etc adopt conventi matrices. See also 3619449-1971(injection material: polyvinyl aceto-chloride) S Patent 3,992,593(1976) & RE30,723(1981) by Heine: "Disc phonograph record playback by laser generated diffraction pattern" etc. coupled with digital image processing and numerical analysis. ut the radial travel of the stylus from the outer edge to the disk's label area". It reminds me of Sony model PUA-237/286 arms (USP3388912) using cam an e and reproducing stylus), 430277, 437425, 437497, 453741, 454941, 484583(Cutting-Tool), 499879, 500208(Magnetic damping of cantilever), 513095, 6 37196, 637197, 689349 etc ization of two existing companies: Emile Berliner's Berliner Gramophone Company, which produced disc records, and Johnson's Consolidated Talking M Holder) for Columbia Phonograph Company, 2187512-1940 (cutting stylus) etc. Almost 50 years engaged in recording industry from the beginning. e usual or any suitable way and from the matrix a number of records can be pressed." & electrical pickup, 1598895 & 1630642 about electric reproducer, 1625918 about Electric Phonograph, 1656712 phonograph connected to telephone rece n etc in Germany indicated various examples of polymerized vinyl alcohols. Electric, Electrovox & GE and was awarded Emile Berliner from AES in 1961. ylus made from tungsten wire) ns. W. D. Lewis and F. V. Hunt, "A Theory of Tracing Distortion from Phonograph Records," J.A.S.A. 1941. These researches led to the development of c pler' which converts stylus deflection to channel-separated rotary motion (patents GB859606 ＝ DE1076385). No. 1175007 with priority date 6 March, 1958 (publication in 1964). Filing date/priority date is most important in case of patent dispute & in coun tridge using bimorph type piezoelectric device while most representative piezoelectric stereo pickup (see 3218399 etc) is using two separate eleme Corporation, several years of rigorous testing and use in the ..." Later (1976) cartridge SDT-10 by Win Laboratories follows similar system. 8(1980) for cross-talk component cancellation circuit etc. rard in this era) set up their own distribution of Garrard products in USA. Related patent 3973778 for belt-drive turntable assigned to Avnet. 473 about stroboscopic device. lished Dynavector in 1977, also developing fuel injection for MIKUNI (carburetor maker) in Japan. oducing MC cartridges based on his ideas and patents. ations at the resonant frequencies of the moving system is desirable". Also influencing Ortofon "selective damping system"=WRD. erate heat from an external source". and between said two bearings a vertical pin, which is also attached to said elements, is positioned and in combination being surrounded by damping fluid ive oxide layer on the surface. C cartridges such as Blue Point etc adopt conventional design (one magnet and two yokes) while original patented design was yoke-less=direct. erated diffraction pattern" etc. el PUA-237/286 arms (USP3388912) using cam and spring. Also Audio Technica AT-1500IIIseries arms have the similar turnover point of bias force at gr 00208(Magnetic damping of cantilever), 513095, 605667, 652457, 655480 etc. sc records, and Johnson's Consolidated Talking Machine Company, which produced machines for playing disc records. d in recording industry from the beginning. , 1656712 phonograph connected to telephone receiver. 2031865-1936 (System and apparatus for recording and reproducing sound) was assigned to RCA 1941. These researches led to the development of criteria that eventually made possible the long-playing record. ost important in case of patent dispute & in counting its valid period (usually 20 years from priority date). up (see 3218399 etc) is using two separate elements. Laboratories follows similar system. lt-drive turntable assigned to Avnet. e damping system"=WRD. n combination being surrounded by damping fluid in a well that is positioned in the non moveable part of the tone arm in the said cavity, surrounded by the al patented design was yoke-less=direct. s have the similar turnover point of bias force at groove radius 8.5cm. I wonder what's new - recently I cannot find any innovative idea about analog equip ding and reproducing sound) was assigned to RCA. f the tone arm in the said cavity, surrounded by the element/s, and on their other side the above two bearings are attached to bearings or just one bearing co cannot find any innovative idea about analog equipment. ings are attached to bearings or just one bearing comprising the horizontal movement of the tone arm".
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