FISHERY DEVFLOPEIENT PERSPECTIVES Sub-Region I: W E S P ASIA and EBST AFRICA The Seoretariat The paper reviews trends in the produotion, trade and oonsumption of f i s h i n oountriee bordering the Western Indian Ocean and associated waters. Perepeotives of the l i k e l y demand f o r f i s h i n t h e sub-region over the next 10 t o 15 yeax8 a r e a l s o presented, together with an assessment of t h e area's potent id resources of marine and freshwater fieh. The etudy conoludes t h a t demand f o r food f i s h in the sub-region w m double by 1985, mainly as a r e s u l t of f u r t h a r rapid population growth, and t h a t satisfacrtion of these needs is unlikely t o be hmpered by reeource limitations; t h e marine resources available appear t o be oapable of yielding up t o s i x million t o m annually and inland waters perhaps an additional 700,000 tone. The principal oonstraints t o f u r t h e r development m e , apart from a laok of market opportunities, t h e seriaue def ioienoies throughout muoh of t h e eub-region i n prooess- ing, etoraga and d i s t r i b u t i o n fsloilities. One of a s e r i e s of five sub-regional studies of f i s h e r i e s development p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n the Indo-Pacific region, t h i s paper reviews trends i n the production, trade a d consump t i o n of f i s h i n countries bordering the Western Indian Ocean and associated waters, The countries included i n t h i s study of the West ~sia/East Africa s u b r e g i o n are, i n geogmphi location f r o m e a s t t o wes the United Arab Emirates u; Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia; Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, a Muscat a d ban, People1s Democratic Republic of the Yemen, Yemen Arab Republio, Sudan,Ethiopia, Somali Republic, Kenya, Tanzania Mozambique, Malagas Republic; and Reunion, Blauritius, Comoro Islands and the Seychel l a s d. The study also presents perspectives of the l i k e l y future demand f o r f i s h i n the suk region over the next t e n t o f i f t e e n years, together with an aasassment of its potential resources of marine and freshwater f i s h , as part of the bmkground f o r the discussion of problem of formulating r a t i o n a l policies f o r the fwrther development of the f i s h i n g in- dustries of the Indian Ocean and Indo-Pacific region. The national marine f i s h e r i e s of the East Africa/TiJest Asia sub-region am very hetex geneous i n character and perhaps t h e i r sole common feature i s t h a t i n general the fisherie a r e t r a d i t i o n a l small scale operations confined f o r the most p a r t t o immediate inshore waters. With f e w exceptions, the f i s h e r i e s i n the Western Indian Ocean and i t s associate( gulfs are, compared with most other regions of the world, l i t t l e developed. Modern, in- d u s t r i a l f i s h e r i e s i n the sub-region are by and large r e s t r i c t e d t o the specialized explo: - t i o n of two groups of highly valued species shrimp and turn; furthermore, i n the l a t t e r case, operations a r e c a r r i e d out almost e n t i r e l y by distant-water vessels from other coun- tries, I n a number of countries within the sub-region, f i s h from inland waters account f o r the g r e a t e r p a r t of t h e t o t a l national catch, and f o r the sub-region as a whole, inland waters represent about a t h i r d of the aggregate output of fish. The general shortage of storage and preserving f a c i l i t i e s i n the s u b r e g i o n and the often inadequate processing f a c i l i t i e s l i m i t the radius of d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i s h , Thus co sunption tends t o be high i n the coastal areas, moderate i n the large urban centres and a most non-efistent elsewhere. Thus i n the island countries of the region and those where t greatest part of the population l i v e s within easy reach of the coast (or a lake), per cap consumption is often extremely high but since the s u b r e g i o n includes a number of populou countries with long d i s t r i b u t i o n channels and limited mcess t o the sea, average per capu consumption i n the region a s a whole i s rather low and well below the world average of 11 2-1 m i n e Waters Notwithstanding the r e l a t i v e l y small scale, generally unsophisticated nature of mar of the fisherinr,, the t o t a l catch of marine f i s h i n the East A f r i c a h e s t Asia s u b r e g i o n has considerably increased i n the course of the l a s t t e n t o twelve yeam; the catch i n 1: exceeded 600,000 tons 3/, double the average annual output aahieved during the period 1959/61. 'Ailst the g r e a t e r part of t h i s increase i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a marked expansion i n t'.e catch of s a r d i n e l l a i n the Gulf of Aden by the People's Democratic Republic of the Yemen and t o the growth of the Pakistan trml f i s h e r i e s , the marine catch by most countrj i n the sub-region has r i s e n s t e a d i l y over the last decade (see Table I). For t h e purposes of s t a t i s t i c a l analysis, these four countries have been grouped intc one e n t i t y , the llGulf Statesw. Agxin, f o r s t a t i s t i c a l purposes, these four are grouped as llOceanio Islands1*. For s o m countries i n the subregion, accurate s t a t i s t i c s of catch are not available the estimate f o r Nuscat and Oman, f o r example, i s at best no more than an order of magnitude, The data used f o r I r a q is based upon sample surveys of s a l e s at major centres r a t h e r than "Offici slncatch estimates; similarly, evidence from consumer COI sumption surveys i n I r a n suggests t h a t the actual catch m a y be r a t h e r higher than t h S m d l pelagic species make the greatest contribution t o t h e sub-region's varied outpul of fish. However, although i t s catch i s l e s s than t e n percent of the t o t a l , shrimp i s by far the most valuable species exploited. The majority of the l i t t o r a l countries of East Africa and West Asia f i s h , t o a l e s s e r or greater degree, local stoclcs of crustaceans but the major subregional centres of output are the coastal waters of Pakistan (about 20,000 tons per annum) and the Gulf between 1ra6 and the Arabian peninsula where Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Iran i n particular have important trawl f i s h e r i e s f o r shrimp. In Pakistan, the number of trawlers and other mechanized c r a f t and the extent of shore-based freezing, pro- cessing and storage f a c i l i t i e s rapidly increased during the last decade i n response t o credit schemes, export incentives and assistance channelled through the Karachi cooperative i n recent years, however, output of shrimp has been maintained only at the cost of g r e a t l y increased e f f o r t . Dsclining returns per unit of e f f o r t have a l s o l e d t o the need f o r diversion of operations by the Kuwait shrimp f l e e t t o more d i s t a n t grounds made possible through the n e s t i a t i o n of special concessional agreements with other countries. The greater part of the fishing carried out along the extensive East African coastline and the Red Sea i s basically of a subsistence, e s s e n t i a l l y inshore type, and the t o t a l catch from these waters i n 1972 w s l e s s than 100,000 tons. The species exploited include a sardinella, seerfishes, sharks and a variety of demersal and pelagic fishes. Bottom trawl- ing has met with l i t t l e success, mainly as a r e s u l t of the extensive coral outcroppings i n t h i s ama and the narrowness of the continental shelf. I n addition t o the l i t t o r a l countries reviewed i n t h i s study, c e r t a i n other nations exploit the resources of the Western Indian Ocean. Tuna i s sought by distant-water vessels rm f o Japan, the Republic of Korea and Taiwan Province, China, and since the mid-1 960' s there has been a substantial expansion i n the catch by USSR f l e e t s exploiting a variety of specie mostly demersal percomorphs. These l a t t e r a c t i v i t i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r have l e d t o a rapid increase i n the Hestern Indian Ocean catch by 'tother" countries, which over 1970/72 average 240,000 tons annually and have c l e a r l y been an important influence i n r a i s i n g the catch fro; . the marine waters of the aub-region from 350,000 tons i n 1960* t o some 800,000 tons i n the early seventies Inland Waters About a half of the countries examined i n t h i s subree;ional study have inland water f i s h e r i e s and i n f i v e instances production from such sources accounts f o r the greater part of national f i s h supplies. I n t o t a l , the sub-regional output of inland water f i s h is now of the order of 300,000 tons per mm double t h a t achieved over 1959/61 (see Table I . u , ) About a half of the present subregional freshwater catch is a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the extensive inland water f i s h e r i e s of Tanaania, whose production has increased perhaps three- fold i n the course of the last decade. I n addition t o the major f i s h e r i e s on Lake Victoria primarily f o r t i l a p i a and c a t f i s h , and on Lake Tanganyika where a large number of small , c r a f t using l i g h t a t t r a c t ion techniques exploit tfdaaQ;a18( a small sardine-like f i s h ) there me notable f i s h e r i e s on other lakes, seasonal flood waters, r i v e r s , ponds and swamps. Highly productive and steadily expanding lake f i s h e r i e s are also c a r r i e d out by neighbourin ICenya. Almost the e n t i r e catch of f i s h by Sudan and the greater part of f i s h supplies available i n the Nala(rasy Republic a r i s e from inland water a c t i v i t i e s . In t h e former, although a promising start has been made t o commercial f i s h e r i e s on Lake Nubia, the activi- t i e s are e s s e n t i a l l y extensive, t r a d i t i o n a l and of low productivity; on the island of EAadagascar, f i s h culture i n r i c e f i e l d s has become a significant source of production, supplementing the catch from over half a million hectares of r i v e r s , streams, lakes, lwoons and marshes. Inland water production i n the West Asian part of the s u b r e g i o n i s much more r e s t r i c being confined principally t o generally subsistence-type f i s h e r i e s on d e l t a i c waters, river and reservoirs in the Sind and Punjab provinces of Palcistan and t o both commercial and sub- sistence a c t i v i t i e s by Iraq on the Euphrates and T i p i s r i v e r s and the complex associated network of lakes, marshes and ponds, much of whose water surface i s temporary and seasonal. I n Iran, the resources of the Caspian- Sea, the world's largest- inland salt-water lake, are .. . - -- t- .- - . Table I Ikrine, Inland and Total Catch by Count ly '000 t o Marine Xaters Inland I ? t e r s Total Catch Pakistan Iru: Irw Saudi Arabia Gulf States Ihvscat a.nd Oman Yemen, P.D.R. Yemen Arab Rep. Sudan Ethiopia Somali Rep. Kenya Tanzania Nozambique Malagasy Rep. Oceanic Islands Tot a1 310 398 564 153 211 301 463 609 861 Principal Source: FA0 Yearbooks of Fishery S t a t i s t i c s 3 . TRADE The sub-region's trado i n f i s h and fishery products i s f a i r l y extensive (see Tablc A l l the countries included i n t h i s study a m , t o some degree o r other, exporters of fisl produce and, i n aggregate, almost a quarter of the t o t a l sub-regional catch is exported annual food f i s h exports presently amount t o over 140,000 tons and f i s h meal t o some 70 tons (both i n liveweight terms). Exports have nearly doubled i n the course of the last t o twelve years and, with imports growing at a much slower r a t e , the sub-region has an increasingly favourable net trade balance. By far the most important fishery product exported i s shrimp, sold principally t o Japan and other developed markets by Pakistan, the s t a t e s bordering the Gulf between Ir, and the Arabian peninsula and, incmasingly, by Xo~ambiqueand the Xalagasy Republic. ' t o t a l value of sub-regional exports of crmstaceans has r i s e n rapidly and presently i s o the order of U S $35/40 million per annm. Also of very considerable value i s I r a n ' s e x trade i n cavias. less valuable monetarily but much greater i n quantity, the sub-region's fishery e. of secondary importance is dried and s a l t e d f i s h , i n p a r t i c u l a r small pelagic species c, by tho People ' s Democratic Republic of Yemen and by Nuscat and Oman but a l s o notabl by Pakistan and Tanmnia ( i n both instances traded chiefly with neighbowing countries 3. Pakistan i s i n addition an important exporter of f i s h e a l , especially t o the Federal Republi of Germany. I n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r t o t a l domestic catches, exports by the Somali Republic, . principally of canned tuna, and by Ethiopia (mostly dried f i s h and some fishmeal) a;re of some importance Imports of fishery products i n t o the s u b r e g i o n are on a much smaller scale and consis mainly of cured f i s h and canned products. Uozambique is by f a r the major importer, princi- pally (and on an increasing scale) of frozen, canned and cured items from Portugal. import^ of canned f i s h (mostly pelagic species) are also r i s i n g i n a number of other sub-regional countries, notably the Oceanic Islands and the Gulf States, Japan being the major supplier. Comprehensive data upon trade i n fisheqy products i s lacking f o r some countries re- viewed i n t h i s study and there i s l i t t l e evidence available upon which t o assess the exact extent of s u b r e g i o n a l intra-trade, which appears t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o a c e r t a i n amount of trade, mainly i n cured f i s h , between East African countries and between s t a t e s of the Arabian peninsula and the Gulf. Table I1 Catch, Trade and Consumption of Food F i sh Aver- 1971" Total Popul- Consumption Less non Imports ~ x p o r t s Catch food uses supply ation Per ~ a p u t '000 tons liveweight millions kg/lve .wt . Paki st an Iran Iraq Saudi Arabia Gulf States mn Nuscat and O a .. Yemen, P. DR Yemen Arab Rep. Sudan Ethiopia Somali Rep. Kenya Tanzania 4 1 0zambique Nalagasy Rep. Oceanic Islands TO^ d. 864.7 193.7 62.8 144.0 589.8 206.71 2.9 Principal Source: FA0 Yearbooks of F i ~ h e r yS t a t i s t i c s , Volwnes 34 and 35. Althowh the t o t a l production of f i s h i n the sub-region increased by some 85 perceni between 196W and 1971*, t h e expanding export trade i n fishery products, the m l a t i v e l y slow growth i n imports and the increased use of f i s h f o r meal o r other non-food uses have all combined t o r e s t r i c t the r a t e of growth i n the supplies of f i s h available f o r d i r e c t hwnan consumption. A t the same time, the populations of dl1 the countries reviewed i n t M study have increased significantly, there being over 50 million more people t o feed i n the sub-region i n 1971+ compared with 1960*, an increase of over a third. Consequently, not- withstanding the notable increase i n the sub-regional catch, average per caput consumptior has remained at a w r y low l e v e l ( a l i t t l e under 3 per annwn i n 4971s compared with s l i g h t l y over 2 kg i n 1960*). Table I1 s e t s out comodity balances indicating, nationally, recent (1971*) l e v e l s c net supplies of food f i s h and average per caput consumption. Data deficiencies, especial1 i n respect of trade, do not permit more than a rough estimate t o be made of consumption l e v e l s i n the Gulf S t a t e s and i n Muscat and Oman but the limited evidence available clear1 indicates t h a t consumption i n these countries, and i n the People's Democratic Republic of the Yemen, i s considerably greater than the average f o r the sub-region. Per caput supplie are also f a i r l y substantial i n the Oceanic &lands, especially Reunion (about 19 kg) and t Seychelles (about 37 kg), and i n Tanzania. The p o w t h i n per caput consumption i n Tanzani has also been pasticularly marked - i n the majority o f the r e s t of the sub-region the in- crease i n per caput supplies has been f a i r l y limited (see Table 111). 1 Table. I 1 Trends i n Per Caput Fish Consum~tion kg per atmum 1 9 6 ~ 1965* 1971* Pakistan Iran Irw Saudi Arabia Gulf S t a t e s Ihscat and Oman Yemen, P.D.R. Yemen Arab Rep. Sudan Ethiopia Somali Rep. Kenya. Tanzania Hozambique Ndagasy Rep. Oceanic Islands m %b-Regi onal A rage 2.1 2.7 2-3 It should be noted t h a t expressing f i s h consumption i n terms of n a t i o n a l a v e r a s o f t e masks considerable v a r i a t i o n s i n consumption l e v e l s between d i f f e r e n t geographical areas and d i f f e m n t s o c i a l s e c t o r s within a country. Throughout t h e e n t i r e sub-region, wherever f i s h is eaten, t h e r e i s a s t r o n g consumer preference f o r f r e s h f i s h . Therefore, as t h e r e a r e serious and widespread d e f i c i e n c i e s i n storage, d i s t r i b u t i o n a ; marketing f a c i l i t i e s , con- n sumption tends t o be concentrated i n areas close t o places of production; t h e consumption of - marine f i s h e s , f o r example, i s wi-th t h e exception of a few major urban c e n t r e s - generally concentrated i n c o a s t a l areas. The preservation of f i s h with i c e o r by f r e e z i n g is very rare and t r a d i t i o n a l methods of s a l t i n g o r sun-drying ( o f t e n rudimentary and wasteful) a r e normally t h e s o l e means of preserving both marine and freshwater f i s h f o r t r a n s p o r t t o markets d i s t a n t from t h e a r e a of capture. Tiloreover, i n some areas, e s p e c i a l l y i n East Africa, t r i b a l taboos and s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s favour meat r a t h e r than f i s h . Fish consumption i n the s u b r e g i o n thua presents a very com- plex pattern, varying g r e a t l y between countries and within countries. I n c e r t a i n areas o r social s e c t o r s , f i s h is an important, s t a p l e food; i n many o t h e r s , f i s h e i t h e r i s r a r e l y , i f ever, available o r i s of no p o s i t i v e significance i n l o c a l d i e t s . A notable f e a t u r e of f i s h u t i l i z a t i o n i n the sub-region i s t h e very considerable in- crease i n the amount of f i s h used f o r purposes other than d i r e c t human consumption; i n 1972 well over 200,000 tons (liveweight equivalent) appears t o have been s o u t i l i z e d , a threefold increase compared with the e a r l y nineteensixties. Two main f a c t o r s have contributed t o t h i s development - t h e rapid expansion of Pakistan's fishmeal industry, whose products are almost e n t i r e l y exported, and t h e problems encountered i n marketing t h e very subst ant ial catches from the fast growing f i s h e r i e s f o r small pelagic species by t h e People's Democratic Republi of the Yemen and by Nuscat and Oman. These f i s h e r i e s a r e not only seasonal but t r a n s p o r t a r processing d e f i c i e n c i e s compel a very large proporti,on of t h e c a t c h t o be sold, a f t e r rudi- mentary drying, as f e r t i l i s e r o r crude animal feed. 5. IEblAND PERSPECTIVES 5.1 Food Fish Perspectives of possible f u t u r e l e v e l s of demand f o r food f i s h i n t h e s u b r e g i o n are slet out i n Table IV. The methods used t o derive t h e estimates a r e those described i n the Hethodological Appendix t o t h i s s e r i e s of sub-regional studies. The minimum values presented indicate the amount of f i s h which w i l l have t o be made available i n 1975 1380 and 1985 simply t o maintain per caput consumption i n each country at current (19'j'1*j l e v e l s , i.e. they r e f l e c t t h e e f f e c t of population growth alone upon f u t m demand f o r f i s h . The population of t h e sub-region i s i n f a c t l i k e l y t o increase by about 50 percent during t h e perioh under review, r e s u l t i n g i n an a d d i t i o n a l need of f i s h f o r food - i f per caput supplies are merely t o be maintained - o f some 335,000 tons (live- weight) by 1985. The pressure of population upon demand i s l i k e l y t o be g r e a t e s t i n t h e Gulf S t a t e s and Muscat and Oman whose combined populace i s expected t o double i n t h e course of t h e next 15 years, and i n I r a q whose population by 1985 could well be two-thirds gPnater than at present. The demand f o r f i s h i s a l s o l i k e l y t o be a f f e c t e d by changes i n per caput income. Data on past t r e n d s and therefore projected income growth are unfortunately not available f o r a l l countries included i n t h i s study. However, such evidence as i s a v a i l a b l e suggests t h a t , with t h e p r i n c i p a l exception of the oil-producing countrie s, f u r t h e r impetus t o demand f o r food f i s h as a r e s u l t of higher incomes i s l i k e l y t o be r e l a t i v e l y modest. For the s u b r e g i o n as a whole, and on t h e assumption of a continuation of present t r e n d s i n income growth and of no change i n r e l a t i v e prices, t o t a l demand might r i s e t o about 1.14 million tons liveweight i n 1985, i.e. some 550,000 tons more t h a n at present. Table I V Perspectives of Demand f o r Food F i s h '000 t Projected Demand C onswnp- tion 1975 I 980 1985 1971* min. ma. min. max. min. ma Pakistan 65 72 ('77) 82 (105) 35 (14 Iran 20 23 (34) 27 (48) 31 (6 f rw 44 51 (62) 61 (65) 74 (13 Saudi Arabia 31 35 37 41 45 48 5 Gulf S t a t e s and l h s c a t and h a n 57 69 75 90 109 118 15 Yemen, P.D.R. 29 32 32 38 37 4.4 4 Yemen Arab Rep. 7 3 9 10 10 12 I Sudan Ethiopia Somali Rep. 3 3 3 3 4 4 Kenya Tanzania EIalagasy Republic 45 50 50 58 58 62 6 Oceanic I s l a n d s 20 22 22 25 27 25 3 Tot a1 50.9 G 66 7 2.3 7 83 922 925 117 Per caput supply (kg liveweight) 2.9 2.9 3s 1 2.9 3 4 2.9 3.i The g r e a t e r p a r t of t h i s increase w i l l a r i s e as a r e s u l t o f s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher 1 of demand, both i n t o t a l and per caput, i n Tanzania, Pakistan, t h e Gulf S t a t e s and loiusca and Oman. O f tho r e s t of t h e sub-regional countries, only i n Kenya and perhaps Mozambiq does per caput consumption i n 1985 seem l i k e l y t o be notably h i g h e r than at present. Fo t h e s u b r e g i o n as a whole, per caput consumption i s l i k e l y t o remain below 4 kg p e r annu The e x t e n t t o rrhich demand f o r food f i s h , n a t i o n a l l y and sub-regionally, i n f a c t eventually approximates t h e l e v e l s indicated i n Table I V u i l l probably be highly influen by trends i n r e l a t i v e p r i c e s as well as by t h e p o l i c i e s adopted by national governments. Tl~eformer influence is affected as much by supply f a c t o r s as demand; the p o s s i b i l i t i e s increased supplies of f i s h i n the sub-region are discussed i n a following s e c t i o n 5.2 Fish Meal e t c, The demand f o r f i s h f o r fishmeal i n t h e sub-region is at present l a r g e l y confined t h e export-oriented reduction i n d u s t r i e s of Pakistan and, t o a much smaller degree, of Ethiopia. The domestic m e e t use of fishrneal f o r livestock and poultry r a i s i n g is very limited. l f i i l o t some countries i n the sub-rogion, f o r example Iran, plan important expa s i o n s of n a t i o n a l poultry-raising programmes, any f u r t h e r inorease i n t h e u3e of fish f c purposes o t h e r than d i r e c t human consumption appear l i k e l y t o r e s u l t p r i n c i p a l l y from marketing problems associated with u t i l i z i n g large catches of f i s h f o r which there is limited localized demand as food, f o r example the f i s h e r i e s f o r small pelagic species off the c o w t of the Arabian peninsula and the Laks Victoria stocks of Haplochromis. 6.1 Marine Fisheries The stocks of f i s h i n the Western Indian Ocean and its associated g u l f s are, i n general, only l i g h t l y exploited a t present. TJhilst some countries i n the region have tciken the f i r s t steps towa.rds the establishment of modern i n d u s t r i a l f i s h e r i e s , the g r e a t e r part of the fishing c a r r i e d out from the coasts of East Africa and Western Asia i s generally of low capital i n t e n s i t y and confined t o immediate inshore waters. The major exceptions t o t h i s general s i t u a t i o n of under-exploitation are two groups of highly valued species - shrimp and tuna. Important commercial f i s h e r i e s f o r shrimp have, as discussed e s l i a r i n t h i s paper, been developed i n waters off I r a n and off K u w a i t , Qatar and other Arabian States zlld along the Karachi and Sind coasts of Pakistan. IJhilst i n general there are no signs of the shrimp stocks becoming depleted, f i s h i n g of several of the stocks has mached a l e v e l of exploitation where additional e f f o r t w i l l not add signi- ficantly t o the yield. For several stocks, management measures have already been introduce( involving minimum mesh sizes, protection of nursery grounds and closed seasons. Certain countries have also s e t l i m i t s t o the number of vessels permitted t o engage i n shrimp fisheries. Given an extension of such conservation measures t o a l l the major shrimp stocks in the sub-region, an aver= annual y i e l d of perhaps 55,000 tons might be maintainable. The sub-region's stocks of those tuna which a;ra taken by l o n e l i n e f i s h e r i e s ryle similarly f u l l y exploited but a f a i r l y appreciable increase i n t h e catch of skipjack seems possible. Significant f i s h e r i e s f o r tuna, which involve a high degree of technical e f f i c i e i and experience, have not been developed by the coastal countries of the sub-region and the catch of the four major tuna species i n the open waters of t h e Indian Ocean is presently primarily a t t r i b u t a b l e t o long-distance operat ions by Japan, Korea, Taiwan Province, China, m d the USSR. A system of closed areas has been u n i l a t e r a l l y adopted by Japanese fishermen t o conserve the stocks of southern bluefin tuna. So f a r as the sub-region's major demersal and small pelagic resources are concerned, although few areas have been comprehensively sumeyed, there i c l i t t l e doubt t h a t catches could be expandod several-fold. Whilst Pakistan's inshore resources, except f o r demersal stocks along the Nekran coast, are almost c e r t a i n l y already f u l l y exploited, exploratory fishing further offshore has indicated the presence of important stocks of both demerssl and pelagic species i n deeper waters. Similarly, whilst trawl f i s h resources i n the Gulf between Iran and the Arabian peninsular are probably already f a i r l y heavily fished, the international waters of the Gulf appear t o be quite r i c h i n pelagic stocks, especially between I r a n and the I?*ucial States; i n the Sea of (>man substant id, largely untapped stock of sardinella and other pelagic species are believed t o be present. In the Western Arabian Sea, notable resources of small shoaling p e l w i c species - already the subject of coastal f i s h e r i e s by Muscat and Oman and of d i s t a n t water f i s h e r i e s by an international f l e e t of trawlers significant increase i n exploitation. - are probably capable of withstanding a f u r t h e r A narrow, sharply dropping shelf, intensely seasonal winds and current systems and variable thermoclines together create unusual and d i f f i c u l t conditions i n the Gulf of Aden. However, primary productivity i n these waters coinpsl.es favourably with other major upwell- ing areas and the resources are believed t o be capable of y i e l d i n g i n excess of 500,000 tons of f i s h annually. About a half of the stocks a l i k e l y t o 'be small pelagic species, m especially sardinella, anchovy and mackerel but demersal species such as red snapper and bream also appear t o be abundant. I n the Red Sea, the imgu1a.r and frequently ooraline f nature of the bottom hampers demersa3 trawling, but there a r e p o ~ s i b i l i t i e s o r some increase i n sustainable catch, particulasly i n the southernmoat area. The waters off the lengthy Somali coastline a m evidently of high productivity and a m d s n t i n resources, especially the areas north of 5'~. C r u d e estimates suggest a t o t potential y i e l d perhaps exceeding 400,000 tons of bmersal species alone; substantial re* sources of shark, tuna and other oceanic species are a l s o believed t o be present. The r e s t of the coast of East Africa south t o the Zambesi appears t o be f a i r l y un- productive; the shelf is narrow, the currents strong and the steepness and roughness of bottom makes fishing, at l e a s t with nets, d i f f i c u l t . The waters around the island of lbdagascar are believed t o be r e l a t i v e l y r i c h i n marine resources and,.rassuming t h a t the density of t h e stocks on the shelf region i s similar t o t h a t off the African coast, the available potential might exceed 500,000 tons per annun. However, on the e a s t coast and at t h e southern and northern extremities of the island, the weather conditions and curre are often inhospitable and bottom conditions d i f f i c u l t . Bny s i g n i f i c a n t development of marine f i s h e r i e s i n t h i s area would necessitate substantial investment and t r a i n i n g i n n types of vessels and gears. Around the Oceanic Islands and banks, resources of litsger bottom f i s h m d sharlcs h been estimated a t n t o t a l (standing stock) of about 0.5 million tons, capable of y i e l d i n say 250,000 tons annually. Although abundant both i n number and species throughout most of the coastal waters the Indian Ocean, cephalopods have received l i t t l e attention and there is l i t t l e statist: o r other information about t h e extent of such resources ( ~ o s s ,1973). A s a rough indica i t has been suggested t h a t production i n areas of upwelling w i l l include a substantial q. t i t y of squid, possibly at l e a s t several hundreds of thousands of tons. The t o t a l i t y of the potential marine resources i n the sub-region can be crudely qu t i f i e d from the estimates presented by Gulland (1971) f o r the Western Indian Ocean area defined i n PAO1s Yearbooks of Fishery s t a t i s t i c s ) . That area d i f f e r s i n two major respei from the area covered by t h i s sub-regional study, the waters off South Afriua and off thc Vest Indian coast and around Sri La,nka (included i n FAO1s %tandard1I Western Indian Oceaj area) being excluded from t h i s study. Adjusting the Western Indian Ocean estimates by Gulland (1971) f o r these differoncc it is possible t o suggest, as broad orders of mae;nitude, t h a t t h e marine resources of thc East Africa-Nest A s i a sub-region might be capable of yielding annually about 3 million t( of demersal species, 2 7 t o 3.0 million tons of pelagic f i s h e s (including tunas and s k i p . , 'ack) a l i t t l e w e r 50,000 tons of crustaceans and a substantial quantity of cephalopod~ iperhaps of t h e order of hwndreds of thousands of tons) i.e. a t o t a l of same 6 million t o r more, compared with the recent annual catch l e v e l s of about 800,000 tons. c These figures must, of course, be treated with a high degree of caution, but they I show with f a i r c e r t a i n t y t h a t present t o t a l catches i n the s u b r e g i o n could be g r e a t l y i i creased. These estimates together with a broad analysis of the composition of present catches and a statement of the l i k e l y future demand from the coastal countries i a given i i . Table V Inland Waters rm I n a number of countries within the sub-region, f i s h fo inland waters account fo; the greater part of t h e t o t a l national catch of f i s h ar~d, f o r t h e sub-region as a whole, inland waters are the source of about a t h i r d of the aggregate output of fish. A s pre- viously noted, the production of inland f i s h has increased rapidly i n the course of the l a s t 10 t o 15 years and, without doubt, these resources could make an even g r e a t e r contr: bution t o future supplies of fish. The inland water f i s h e r i e s of Pakistan, which presently a r e principally of a sub- sistence, seasonal o r part-time nature, appear capable of signif i c m t increases i n yields, given the introduction of improved techniques and appropriate methods of management. n s h oulture operations might p l a ~ ran important r o l e i n such developnents; i n the Pmjab provinc for example, a five-yeas plan has been launched t o e s t a b l i s h f i s h nurseries i n each d i s t r i c and t o r a i s e the efficiency of v i l l a g e ponds. In Iran, f i s h culture a c t i v i t i e s could similarly be an important f a c t o r i n promoting the production of f r e s h water fish, whilst there i s also some evidence t o suggest t h a t the output of k i l k a and other v a r i e t i e s of the trout family f'rom tho Caspian Sea could be expanded. Tho rel&ively low y i e l d s obtained from the extensive network of inland waters i n Iraq appear t o be due t o depleted stocks r a t h e r than t o poor potential. The indigenow species are r a t h e r susceptible t o overfishing and the lack of appropriate management measur has severely affected recruitment. The closing off of migratory streams by barrages and other water regulators oporated by the i r r i g a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s has also intorfered with t h e normal feeding and spawning habits of the f i s h stocks. Given appropriate measures t o con- s e m the resources and closer cooperation between the i r r i g a t i o n and f i s h e m authoritiec, a considerable increwe i n I r a q ' s catch of inland water f i s h should be possible. Fish culture again a l s o appears t o o f f e r notable potential. Because of the inadequacies of present gems and boats, Sudan's f i s h e r i e s on the Wile are linrited basically t o c e r t a i n calm, shallow waters, hardly my fishing being done i n the main stmam of the river; considerably greater catches could be obtained given more effi- cient vessels, methods and equipment, The upper reaches of the Nile and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s constitute a vast area of l i t e r a l l y virgin water which, i f properly developed, could make a major contribution t o the country's f i s h supplies. The f u r t h e r expansion of f i s h culture a c t i v i t i e s and the embryonic f i s h e r i e s on Lake Nubia are a l s o l i k e l y t o play an important role i n i n c m w i n g tho national catch. I n t o t a l , the potential y i e l d from Sudan's inland waters has been t e n t a t i v e l y estimated a t a minimum of 35 t o 45,000 tons per annm. Ethiopi possesses a number of large lakes and rivera whose substantial stocks of coarse f i s h are at present hardly e-qloited; a potential catch from those resources of between 20 t o 35,000 tons per annwn has been suggested (FAO, 1972). The great r i v e r and lake system of Central East Africa i s tho basis f o r over a half of the sub-region's t o t a l output of fresh water f i s h and has capacity f o r significant fur*- t h e r increases i n catch. Lake Rudolf, f o r example, i n the remotenorth of Ksnya, i s con- sidsred t o be one of the more f e r t i l e of African lakes with a p o t e n t i a l y i e l d estimated t o be at l e a s t 50,000 tons per annum. In the case of Lake Victoria, already the location of , important f i s h e r i e s by Kenya and Tanzania (and ~ g a n d a ) the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r greater catches are largely dependent upon continued diversification of fishing e f f o r t away from such heavily exploited species as Tilapia and toward such species as Haplochromis, importan stocks of which have been i d e n t i f i e d i n h e p e r waters. The marketing of large additional supplies of t h i s species might present problems, but the stocks are believed t o be suf- f i c i e n t l y abundant t o form the basis of a small f i s h meal industry, optimally through joint i n i t i a t i w s under the auspices of the East African C o m i t y . Including f i s h e r i e s i n other lakes, r i v e r s , swamps and ponds, the potential production of f i s h from inland waters by Kenya and Tanzania could be a s high as 90,000 and 300,000 tons respectively. In the filalagasy Republic, physical conditions e x i s t f o r a conniderable increase i n production from fresh and braokish waters. Over 700,000 hectares of well watered r i c e f i e l d s are believed t o be suitable f o r r i c e - c m f i s h culture, whereas at present not more than 25,000 hectares of t h i s r i c e land are produciw fish. I b g r o v e miamps are a l s o an important Gource of potential production of such species a s milk f i s h , mullet, shrimps and eels. Given the necessary technical inputs and appropriate resource management regimes, the inland and brackish waters of the s u b r e g i o n appear capable i n aggregate of yielding perhap as many as 700,000 tons per annm. Table V Catch 1971*, Resource Potential and Perspective Demand 1985 Estimated Species Composition of 1971s Catch Approximate Resource Potent m s h i ? dne Fresh Maxine Hater Tot $later Pelg. Crust. Other Total Dem. Pelg. Crust. Other T - -- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - 99 36 23 158 185 akistan ran 27 6 6 7 3 4 0.0 - - 17 23 75 50 41 5 46 == ' I 3udi Arabia ulf States - - 2 5 9 13 14 12 5 - - 30 26 30 28 100 - - uscat, Oman smen, P.D.R. - - 5 5 95 109 - 5 - 0.0 100 119 100 119 - - men Arab iiep. - 2 6 - - - 8 8 - adan 21 1 - I 22 30 thiopia 1 4 15 1 0.0 20 21 20 mali Rep. - 2 3 0.0 - 5 5 - w= 25 4 4 0.0 0.0 8 33 90 mzania 151 14 11 1 1 27 178 xambique Wwsy Rep. 37 - 3 6 0.0 4 2 4 0.0 1 9 11 48 9 300 60 - :eanic Is. - 4 5 1 0.0 10 10 - CONCLUSIONS The foregoing cleasly indicates t h a t the f u r t h e r development of t h e s u b r e g i o n a l f i a e r i e s i s unlikely t o be seriously hampered by limitations imposed by the natural re- sources available. The marine resources appear t o be capable of yielding as much as 6 million tons of f i s h annually and inland and brackish waters perhaps an additional 700,000 tons. On the other hand, notwithstanding the s u b s t a n t i d M h e r growth anticipated i n the sub-region's population, domestic demand f o r food f i s h may well not exceed some 1.15 million tons by 1985, per caput conswnption l e v e l s remaining on average r e l a t i v e l y low. There wwld thus seem t o be every p o s s i b i l i t y of s a t i s f y i n g h t u r e domestic demand for f i s h , without significant increases i n r e l a t i v e prices and of opportunities f o r the further expansion of the sub-region's export trade i n f i s h and f i s h products. The only major exception appears t o be Tanzania, where the upper l i m i t of perspective demand i s very close t o l i k e l y maximum potential y i e l d of i t s accessible resources. Whilst increased production w i l l not be possible without considerable investment i n improved vessels, more e f f e c t i v e gears and f i s h i n g methods, i n resource assessment and identification, i n t r a i n i n g and i n extension services, the principal constraints t o further development and t o the s a t i ~ f a c t i o n higher l e v e l s of consumption remain the of serious deficiencies which e x i s t throughout much of the sub-region i n processing, storage and distribution f a c i l i t i e s . Thus, whatever the prospects are f o r greater catohes, even the attainment of relative: modest increases i n per caput consumption of f i s h w i l l be d i f f i c u l t without considerable attention t o improved communications i n general and t o b e t t e r methods o f f i s h processing, preservation, storage and d i s t r i b u t i o n i n particular. Furthermore, much of the potential f o r increased catches l i e s i n species currently l i t t l e favoured o r which present serious marketing d i f f i c u l t i e s . Unless uolutions are found t o these problems, very considerable quantities of f i s h may well have t o be u t i l i z e d f o r low value, non-food purposes, t o the Clatriment of the fishemen and potential consumers alike. 1/ Support has been expressed by the United Arab k i r a t e s , Saudi Arabia, Kuwait Qatar, , Iraq and l ~ ~ s c ?or the establishment of a regional f i s h e r i e s t r a i n i n g centre at Kuwait at FA0 Yb.Fish.Statist. Fishery oomodities, v 17, 25, 31, 33, pag~vas. . 196572 FA0 Yb.Fish.Statist. Catches and landings, v~ 16, 30, 32, p g v ; . a.sr 1964-72 A brief review of the current status of the inland fisheries of Africa. paper presented at t h d Committee for Inland Fisheries of Africa, 9 1st session, Fort-Lamy, Chad, 29 Nov.4 Dec. 1972. 1 p. (cIFA/~~/~). ..E. Gulland, JA(~) The fish resources of the ocean. Surrey, Fishing News (~ooks). 255 p. 1971 Voss, GL .. Cephalopod resources of the world. FA0 Fish.Circ., 19:5 (4)7 p~ 1973 Welcome, RL .. The inland waters of Africa. Les eaux int6rieurea dtAfriqus. 1972 CIFA Tech.Pap., (I) t117 p .
Pages to are hidden for
"01"Please download to view full document