TJ Mammalogist by HC12030702736

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									                                European Commission

                                       PROJECT
on the Establishment Pamir-Alai transboundary Conservation Area between Tajikistan and
                                      Kyrgyzstan
                          (Europe Aid/122639/C/SER/Multi)




                                      REPORT


        the survey of Mammals Pamir-Alai transboundary conservation area
                                        By
                              Abdusattor Saidov, Ph.D




                             Dushanbe, September 2007
                                      2
                                CONTENT
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………. 3
The review of existing information sources on Park’s mammals ………………………………4
The brief review of mammals of the Park ………………………………………………………5
The review of large mammals …………………………………………………………………..5
The review of other mammals ………………………………………………………………….8
Trophy hunting and existing problems in conservation of Marco Polo sheep
in territory of the Park ………………………………………………………………………… 8
The main threats for mammals of Park ………………………………………………………...10
Key sites of the Park for strengthening protection of mammals ……………………………….11
Existing problems for conservation of wild mammals of the Park …………………………….13
Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………...…13
References …………………………………………………………………………………...…15
Annexes 1-14 …………………………………………………………………………//………16
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           The survey of Mammals Pamir-Alai transboundary conservation area
                                    Abdusattor Saidov, Ph.D

                                        INTRODUCTION
        The Pamiro-Alai transboundary conservation area, which will be organized between
Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan is an important step forward to interstate cooperation on protection of
one of the unique corners of the wild nature of the Central Asia. The proposed territory from
Tajikistan’s side for inclusion in structure of this park makes approximately up 1.5 million
hectares. This territory mainly includes the core area of the existing Tajik National Park (ТNP)
and make up 57.7 % of its territory. The creation of this Park would have to promote the joint
efforts to keep a biodiversity and natural ecosystems of Pamiro-Alai.
     The uniqueness of planned Park territory for the conservation of biodiversity consists as
follow:
          The presence of untouched reference landscapes and natural ecosystems;
          The presence of a significant amount endemic and subendemic species of animals;
          The territory of the Park is of great importance for conservation of Marсo Polo sheep
            and Snow Leopard population, which conservation represents the international
            interest;
          The presence of the objects which possess historical and cultural value as well as
            interest for tourism.

        The Tajik National Park, based on which creation of Pamiro-Alai transboundary
Conservation Area is planned, is the largest nature protection reserve of the Central Asia. This
Park occupies 2 million 600 thousand hectare in total, which makes 22% of all territory of
Tajikistan.
        The Tajik National Park organized according to the decision of Ministerial Council of the
Republic of Tajikistan, № 267 from July 20, 1992, originally on the area of 1.6 million hectare.
In 2001, by the Governmental order of the Republic of Tajikistan, the area of the Park has had
been extended to 2611674 hectares. In 2005, by the decree of State Office for natural protected
area, № 147, from November 09, 2005, Tajik National Park had been allocated core zone within
the territory, which forbidden practically all of the form of human activities. The significant
territory of the Tajik National Park is located on East Pamir.
        The primary goal of the Tajik National Park is conservation of valuable landscape
complexes, rare and vanishing species of flora and fauna, nature monuments, cultures and
histories, development and regulation of tourism, and as well as sustainable use of natural
resources. Inside the territory of the Tajik National Park there are located well-known glaciers
Fedchenko, Medvedjii, Аbdukagor and Grum-Grdjimailo as well as the highest mountains
Somoni (7495) and Lenin Peak (7134) that are potential objects of tourism.
        The eastern Pamirian part of the Tajik National Park habituates the well known by its big
and beautiful horns over the world Marco Polo sheep.
        The Tajik National Park has unique opportunities for development of tourism. The rich
fauna and the flora of the Park, unique landscapes and the highest mountain peaks recently are
attracting more tourists.
        The protection of fauna in the Tajik National Park connected with the certain difficulties.
The Park is at a stage of formation. Due to the financial constrains and an absence of the
infrastructure, it is difficult to control extensive territory of the Park.
        The Tajik National Park borders with the Alai valley of Kyrgyzstan. The biodiversity and
natural ecosystem of the Park have much in common with the border Alai valley of Kyrgyzstan.
In addition, populations living within these two territories have the common cultural values and
traditions.
        This report written based on the materials collected during our field visit to territory of
the planned the Park during June 22-28 and July 25-August 7, of 2007. In addition, have been
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reviewed and analyzed all existing literatures, references and reports concerning wild mammals
of the Park and their conservation.
        According to the technical assignments, the main attention has been paid to the solution
of following tasks:
     Analyze of the existing information on mammals;
     Field data collection, with particular attention to big mammals;
     Collection of data on mammals population density;
     Assessment of anthropogenic impacts on selected mammals’ population through
        conduction of survey among local communities;
     Development of recommendations on improving conservation of the rare and vanishing
        mammals and Management Plan of the Park.

                   The review of existing information sources on Park’s mammals 1

         The literature on Park’s mammals are very few and related only to certain species. In the
past years’ literature, the most important information on geographic distribution and population
of Marco Polo sheep in Pamir includes in the research work of Sapozhnikov G.N. (1976). The
gathered data on Park’s fauna by various researchers have been summarized in «Fauna of
Tajikistan» (Rodents – Davidov, 1974, 1988; Artiodactyls – Sokov, 1992; Insectivores - Isakov,
2006).
       For the last years, from the side of International nature conservation organizations, there
has been shown certain interest on wild animals of the Tajik National Park and within the several
projects have been conducted research and survey of mammals. The reports they published
mainly contain data on a biodiversity and socio-economic situation of Pamirian people living
within the Park. The remained parts of the Tajik National Park have not practically been studied
for last years. Below are given the resumes from those survey reports.
         1. Project WWF: Sustainable development of Pamir. Report: Potential management and
            use of wildlife game species inhabiting Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast
            (GBAO) of the Republic of Tajikistan (2002). In this report is given the analysis of
            dynamics of population, feature of distribution and the basic forms of influence on a
            population of some wild species of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast animals.
            The report contains data on rare and vanishing species, hunting species of animals,
            protected area of GBAO, international hunting, and payment system for using of wild
            animals. Under the collaborative project between the Ministry of Nature Protection of
            Tajikistan and its divisions has been carried out research on rare and valuable species
            population number of Pamir wild animals with special focus on Marco Polo sheep
            (Ovis ammon polii) and Ibex (Capra sibirica).
         2. Wildlife Conservation and participatory Monitoring for Pamir High Mountains
            Integrated Project. Report on Mission to Murghab District July 15 - July 28 2003.
            Submitted to: ACTED, Murghab. The report prepared by international expert Rodney
            Jackson, and contains data on certain species of Pamir wild mammals. The main focus
            is given to Marco Polo sheep. In the report are given some data on number of Marco
            Polo sheep in Pamirian parts of the Tajik National Park, developed proposals for the
            improvement of protection of the wildlife of the Tajik National Park, developed Pamir
            wildlife monitoring system for the staffs of Murgab Regional Committee for Nature
            Protection.
         3. Project: Wildlife Conservation Society and National Geographic Society. Report: The
            Conservation Status of Marco Polo Sheep in Tajikistan (By George B. Schaller,
            September 2003). This report is written on the basis of Wildlife Conservation Society

1
    The name of Park means Pamiro-Alai transboundary conservation area
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         (WCS), Institute of Zoology and Parasitology of Tajikistan Academy of Sciences and
         Khudjand State National University joint expedition results. The report contains data on
         distribution and density of Marco Polo sheep population in East Pamir, highlights on
         socio-economic statuses of Murgab district human population, analyses of positive and
         negative consequences of hunting program, and finally comes up with the idea of
         creation of trans-frontier reserves (Peace park) for conservation of Marco Polo sheep
         across borders of Tajikistan, China, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
     4. Тhe population status of Snow Leopard in Tajik National Park of Tajikistan (Report to
        The Snow Leopard Trust and Wildlife Conservation Society, 2006). Prepared by
        Institute of Zoology and Parasitology of Tajikistan Academy of Sciences and Regional
        office of the Tajik National Park on Pamir and based on the research on Snow leopard
        population in Pamir and Badakhshan parts of the Tajik National Park. Key sites of
        Snow leopard habitats and the basic threats for its population are revealed. Has been
        given the list of the animals, which Snow leopard normally feeds on in Pamir.

                          The brief review of mammals of the Park
       The fauna of mammals of planned Park is quite rich, includes 33 species that makes up
39.3 % of the common species of mammals of Tajikistan. There can be met all six
representatives of Tajikistan mammals species. The species diversity of mammals are
accordingly separated as follows: Artiodactula - 3 species, Carnivora - 11 species, Lagomorpha -
3 species, Rodentia - 11 species, Сhiroptera - 3 species, Insectivora - 2 species.
       From the mammals, there is quite big number of the endemic and subendemic forms in
Park. To endemic endemic species and subspecies level belongs Sorex buchariensis, Microtus
juldashi, Lepus tolai pamirensis, Ovis ammon polii, Ursus arctos pamirensis. From the point of
conservation view significant important are Marco Polo sheep (Ovis ammon polii), snow leopard
(Uncia uncia), brown bear (Ursus arctos), lynx (Felis lynx). In the Red Data Book of Tajikistan
included 12 species of mammals of the Park. A snow leopard (Uncia uncia), Lutra lutra and
Dryomys nitedula are listed in the Red List IUCN.

                                 The review of large mammals
                               Marco Polo sheep (Ovis ammon polii)
        Marco Polo sheep is the well known over the world inhabitant of Pamir. It is a symbol of
the wild nature of Pamir. The mighty and beautiful horns of this wild sheep over 700 years ago
had struck Venetian traveler Marco Polo. The international interest to Marco Polo sheep as the
object of a trophy and tourism appears to the present days. All these are the basis to include
conservation of Marco Polo sheep to number of priority problems of the Park. There is a
significant disagreement concerning number of Marco Polo sheep in Pamir. According to
G.N.Sapozhnikov (1976) in the beginning 60th years of the last century the number of Marco
Polo sheep in all territory of Pamir were 70 000 individuals. At that time, many experts
considered it as the heavily overestimated. According to the Red Book of Tajikistan (1988) in
the beginning of 80th years of the last century, the total number of Marco Polo sheep on Pamir
has not exceeded 15 thousand individuals. In 2002 within the framework of the WWF Project,
the Ministry of Nature Protection of the Republic of Tajikistan has been conducted count of
Marco Polo sheep number on its 70 % distribution area. Extrapolating obtained data on all
territory of Pamir, the total number of Marco Polo sheep is estimated by experts within the
number of 10 800-12 000 individuals. From this, about 3 000 individuals have been detected
within the territory of planned Park (a vicinity Karakul lake, Kokuibel valley and a watershed of
the rivers Balandkiik and Zulmart). It is difficult to estimate the number Marco Polo sheep in the
vast territory of Pamir in connection with complexity of a relief and inaccessibility of the
localities of this species. Besides this, Marco Polo sheep migrates across borders of Tajikistan,
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China, Afghanistan and Pakistan (George Schaller, 2003) and depending on the season of year
its population varies for the each site. Nevertheless, majority of experts are sure that in Tajikistan
the total number of Marсo Polo sheep does not exceed 7000-8000 individuals. This comparison
of existing data and trend over the last 50 years warns about catastrophic reduction of Marco
Polo sheep number in Pamir.
        The key habitats of Marco Polo sheep in territory of Park are located in Balandkiik area.
Because of inaccessibility, absence of population and grazing here disturbance factors for
animals are very low. Exception is made only with trophy hunting, which is organized by
Badakhan hunting firm. In this area Marco Polo sheep forms tight clump during run and
lambing. According to director of Badakhshan hunting firm number of Marco Polo sheep in
Balandikiik area and territories adjoining to them makes 3000-3500 individuals.
        The seasonal migration of Marco Polo sheep during the autumn period occurs from
October, 20th till November, 20th, and spring from March, 10th till April, 10th, in separate years
proceeds prior to the beginning of May. Marco Polo sheep in territory of the Park migrates
normally to 3 basic directions: in a southern direction, through the pass of Kokujbel, aside the
valleys of the rivers of Kokujbel and Bozbaital, to some herds reaches places of the northern
borders of Sarez Lake; in a east direction migration takes place through the same pass of
Kokujbel, aside Karakul Lake and its vicinities, including Muzkol valley; in a northeast direction
through the pass of Zulumart move to wide Dankai valley (Karadjilga river). For natural
migration of Marco Polo sheep inside the territory of the Park a serious obstacle is the boundary
and engineering constructions between Tajikistan and China. In 70th years of the last century
between the border of Tajikistan and China, in area of Akbajtal pass for migration of Marсo Polo
sheep the special corridor has been allocated. In this area on distance, about 4 km, there are no
boundary engineering constructions. It is a unique corridor for migration of Marсo Polo sheep
over all east border of Park. This corridor does not provide normal moving animals within the
limits of its natural area. In our opinion for maintenance of optimum migration of Marсo Polo,
except for an existing corridor on pass Akbajtal, it is necessary to organize 2 more migratory
corridors on northeast direction in area Markansu River and on a southeast direction in area of
Aksolimazor valley.

                                    Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia)
        The territory of the Park is considered a key area of Snow leopard. The total number of a
Snow leopard in Tajikistan is estimated roughly 200-220 individuals, in territory of the Park
lives about 140 individuals that makes 64 % of its total population in Tajikistan. In the Red Data
Book of Tajikistan (1988) Snow leopard is given the status: the rare and vanishing species (Rare-
VU, IUCN Red List Categories, 1994). At the time of the edition of the Red Data Book of
Tajikistan, the number of Snow leopard was estimated in 250-350 individuals and its hunt for
any purpose was forbidden.
        Carried out researches on population number of Artiodactula in Pamir, in 80th years of
the last century, have shown that the ratio of Ibex number to number of Snow leopard is 60-70:1.
During the full helicopter population survey of Marсo Polo sheep on Pamir in 1991, casually, 3
individuals of Snow leopard were registered in zones of Ibex distribution. During the civil war
(1992-1997 years), majority of local population had a firearm; relatively there were registered
significant numbers of poaching on wildlife mammals. Due to this influence along the shortage
of food products, the total number of Ibex especially in the zones near to settlements was
strongly declined. Because of significant reduction in Ibex number, which is the basic source of
food for Snow leopard, have increased the cases of leopard attack on livestock. The local
populations living in Pamir, using traps and rifles illegally catch a leopard for the sake of its
attractive leisure. As a whole, across Tajikistan, the number of a Snow leopard has noticeably
decreased and despite of existing law on protecting this species, listed in the Red Data Book, this
tendency is continuing and exist until now.
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       The Institute of Zoology and Parasitology Tajikistan Academy of Sciences at support
Willife Conservation Society (WCS) and International Snow Leopard Trust (ISLT) organized
expedition during July, 1 - July, 20 of 2006 to the territory of the Park to study a Snow leopard
by detecting of possible traces of its life in the selected transects.
       The 32 transects have been put with total length of 22126 m within the area of Snow
leopard habitation, where the probability of that the animals visit and mark this are was high. In
the area of Karakul Lake have been put 8 transects with the total length of 6070 m. The most
number of traces (88) have been detected in the Zulmart mountains ridge (N 39°06.007' E
073°05.493', h=4661 м). In the eastern part of Pamir the main treat for Snow leopard is
poaching. Mainly local people for its attractive leather hunt it.

                                        Ibex (Capra sibirica)
        The total number Ibex (Capra sibirica) across all Tajikistan is roughly estimated 17000
individuals. From this, more than 50% is concentrated in the territory of Park. In eastern-
pamirian part of the Park Ibex is less dense than Marco Polo sheep as it prefers sharp slopes, and
the smooth slopes mountains preferred by Marco Polo sheep, are not characteristic habitation for
Ibex. The main localities of Ibex are located in western-pamirian part of the Park. Nevertheless,
these two species in East Pamir can be met in the same valleys if there is a suitable landscape for
grazing in the same Alpine meadows.

                                     Brown bear (Ursus arctos)
        The Brown bear in easter-pamirian part of the Park meets rarely. We registered the hole
of a red marmot dug by Brown bear in east-pamirian part of the Park in the Zulmart ridge. The
Вrown bear in the territory of the Park is registered in the alpine, subalpine zones and mountain
forests belt of Vanch, Peter I and Academy of Sciences ridges. The excrements (droppings) of
Brown bear during the field research have been detected in the area of «Bear» and «Abdukagor»
glaciers as well as in the Valley of Muk River. Some experts suggest that Brown bear in territory
of East Pamir belongs to subspecies Ursus arctos pamirensis, and in other areas of Tajikistan -
subspecies Ursus arctos isabellinus.

                                        Lynx (Felis lynx)
        Lynx in Tajikistan is considered as rare species. The results of questionnaire received
from local community confirm the uniform distribution of a Lynx in the territory of the Park.
Still the overall number of Lynx in the Park is low. We registered the excrement of this animal
only once in Vanch ridge near the glacier of Abdukagor.

                                          Wolf (Canis lupus)
         Wolf within the territory of the Park has a uniform distribution. According to literature,
East and the Western Pamir are considered as areas of high number of the wolf. Here the wolf
habitats on the area about 50, 000 sq. km and its total number are estimated at 1300 individuals.
According to results of questionnaire, the number of the wolf for the last years in the territories
of Park increased. The local communities living in a vicinity of Karakul Lake in conversation
with us have confirmed that wolfs often attacks livestock and brings significant damage. The
attack of the wolf on livestock often occurs in the winter and autumn. The Badakhshan hunting
concession conducts regularly shooting wolves around Karakul Lake. According to director of
this hunting concession - Nafasbekov Davlatkadam during November 2006 and March 2007, 6
wolves were shot by his stuffs. Shooting of wolves is carried out also by other hunting firms and
this is considered as the part of their plan as an action for preservation of Marco Polo sheep. For
this reason, each hunting concessions expend certain amount of money annually from their
budgets. During our research in the territory of the Park on the 11 transects with 27 km length 7
excrements of the wolf was registered. Influences of the wolf on Marco Polo sheep population as
well as the sizes of damage caused by it on livestock need further investigation and study.
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                                        Wild boar (Sus scrofa)
        The Wild boar within the territory of the Park has the limited distribution as most of
Park’s territories are not suitable for surviving. The top limit of wild boar distribution in the Park
covers a mountain forest belt of ridges of Peter I and the Academy of sciences. According to the
interview of local population, the number of wild boar for the last years tends to increase.

                                   The review of other mammals
        In the Park the mammals, which have relatively high population number are Red marmot
(Marmota саudata) and Pamir vole (Microtus juldashi). In addition to being dominant species of
the high-mountainous ecosystems of Pamir, these two species have a high functional value. The
total number of Red marmot in Pamir is significant and varies according to each author
(Davidov, 1974; Odinashoev, 1978; Bibikov, 1989) between 70,000 and 20,0000 individuals.
More than 30 % of this population number is concentrated within the territory of the Park,
particularly in its eastern-pamirian part. Till 90th years of the last century in Pamir annual trade
on marmots was conducted. For the last 15 years annual trade on Red marmot in Pamir was not
carried out at all. Our research revealed that Red marmot is the part of food ration of 5 predators:
wolf (Canis lupus), fox (Vulpes vulpes), lynx (Felis lynx), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), brown
bear (Ursus arctos).
        Among other rodents species in the Park, which is dominant includes Pamir vole
(Microtus juldashi). This specie usually forms dense settlements in wet grounds near the rivers
and lakes, wetlands, sedge-meadows and other marshy sites of mountains. Population density of
these rodent colonies in typical localities to it makes up to 3 %.
        From Lagomorpha in the Park most widespread and dominant inhabitant is tolai hare
(Lepus tolai). Based on excrements we found and the cases we met accidentally this animals in
eastern-pamirian part of the Park, tolai hare is relatively abundant in vicinities of Karakul Lake
and the valleys of Kokoi-Belsu River. The number of tolai hare in high-mountainous deserts of
Pamir depends on climatic factors. The mass death of hares is observed in winters with high
snow falls, which make hares to starve. Last time in territory of East Pamir a significant
redaction in hare’s population was registered during 2003-2004 years. In 2006-2007, the
numbers of a hares stabilized. From Ochotona in territory of the Park the most typical is royle’s
pika (Ochotona roylei). During field research in territory of the Park we observed this specie in
vicinity of Karakul Lake as well as in Zulumart ridge. Royle’s pika is a the typical inhabitant of
stony mounds. Population number of this specie in territory of the Park is observed not as high.
        From small and rare predatory mammals in territory of the Park meets weasel (Mustela
nivalis) and mountain weasel (Mustela altaica).

                   Trophy hunting and existing problems in conservation of
                            Marco Polo sheep in territory of the Park
        There have been organized 5 trophy hunting firm in the territory of the Park. As it is
known, trophy hunting within the territories of national parks is not approved internationally. It
is also contradiction to existing legislative acts on Protected Areas of the Republic of Tajikistan.
Currently, inside the territory of the Park trophy hunting is carried out only by hunting
concession of "Badakhshan" (director of company Nafasbekov Davlatkadam). This company has
been established in 1991, year before the organization of the Tajik National Park (1992). The
territory, which this hunting concession is responsible, makes 474 thousand in hectares. The firm
presently employs 12 persons, from among whom 6 are gamekeepers. The firm invites clients for
hunting on Marko Polo and Ibex sheep from different countries of the world, mostly from US.
        The season of trophy hunting begins in September, 1, and lasts till the end of March.
From December, 15th till February, 1st the season of hunting is closed. In 2006 the firm has
received 7 licenses for hunting on Marco Polo sheep. From these 5 have been used, and 2
licenses were not demanded. The firm has a head office and 2 camps. The head office of the
company is located in a southwest part of Karakul Lake, right at the shore of this lake. The
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firm’s office is two floors building, well heated, and has a good condition to attract foreign
hunters. During the hunting season firm can simultaneously accept up to 10 clients. The first
camp of the firm is located in Tokhtakuruma area, and the second - in Balandkiika area, where
Marco Polo sheep has a relatively high density.
       According to assessment of experts, males of Marco Polo sheep populating in territory of
Park differ by their big horns, which is a big interest for trophy hunting. According to director of
hunting firm "Badakhshan", Nafasbekova D., the biggest trophy in territory of Park has been
recorded in December, 1996. The sizes of the sheep’s horns were 172 cm (69 inches) in length.
Later in 2002, another shot sheep had a 170 cm (67 inches) in length horns. So far, these two
cases are considered as the biggest trophies of the last 20 years.

        Trophy hunting can bring benefit and is considered approved if profits received from it
will be directed in two purposes: for the conservation of trophy object; and for improvement of
well-being of local population. Trophy hunting inside the territories of Tajik National Park does
meet these objectives and has following disadvantages:
        1. Marco Polo sheep is listed in Red Data Book of Tajikistan (1988, 1997) and has the
            protection status of “rare specie” (Rare, according to categorization of Red list IUCN,
            1994). According to Regulations about Red Book (1988) and to the law “About
            protection of fauna of Tajikistan” (1993) withdrawal of Red Book listed species from
            nature is allowed exclusively for the scientific purposes. Nevertheless, licenses for
            hunting on Marco Polo sheep in Tajikistan still is being issued since 1988. Such
            contradictions have to be eliminated.
        2. Every year the Ministry of Agriculture and Nature Protection of Tajikistan determines
            a quota on shooting Marco Polo sheep and based on this the hunting firms receive
            licenses for the organization of trophy hunting. As it is know, the quota should
            always be determined on the basis of reliable data on number, age and sexual
            structure of a population, percentage of males and etc. There is no reliable data on
            number, age and sexual structure of Marco Polo sheep for the last years. As it has
            already been noted, last population survey of Marco Polo sheep in Pamir was done in
            2002. Therefore, sustainable management of Marco Polo population in the further
            have to lean on obtaining reliable data on the basis of regular monitoring. For
            carrying out of the Marco Polo population survey and assessment of its age and
            sexual structure, it is necessary to involve competent experts.
        3. The number of shot animals not always coincides with the number of issued licenses.
            Although the hunting firms receive the limited number of licenses (for instance,
            “Badakhshan” concession had only 7 licenses in 2006), in fact they shoot more
            number of sheep. Part of trophies is taken out of country through Kyrgyzstan without
            any controls and counting.
        4. The Local population is not involved in trophy hunting and practically has no any
            benefit from this activity. Some representatives of local communities demonstrating
            their discontentment to trophy hunting said the hunting firms making big profits on
            trophy hunting, but we, the local communities living in territory of Park with a low
            level of socio-economic condition receive practically no any benefits. This led to
            widely poaching among local population.
        5. Sustainable management of Marko Polo population can be carried out on the basis of
            reliable scientific knowledge. The program of scientific monitoring of Marco Polo
            sheep should addresses the following questions: 1) an estimation of its population
            number and dynamics; 2) an estimation of sexual and age structure of a population; 3)
            studying of its seasonal migration; 4) studying of the severe climatic conditions
            influences on its population; 5) influences of natural enemies; 6) studying of its
            diseases and cases of death of animals from diseases.
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       6. Conservation of Marco Polo sheep in territory of Park is not at appropriate level. The
          present potential of the Tajik National Park is not in the position to control all
          territory of the Park. Conservation of Marco Polo sheep in territory of park can be
          strengthened by the organization of some antipoaching groups for protection of the
          wildlife. These groups should include at least 4-5 personnel interested in protection of
          the wildlife. The groups should be provided with good salary, the car and other
          necessary equipments. The local population has to be involved in these groups and
          should have to make the basis of groups.

                             The main threats for mammals of Park
        According to official statistical data, the population of Murgab district is about 17
thousand. Inside the territory of Park live about 3 000 people. The Kyrgyz families living in the
eastern-pamirian part of the Park have a very low income. Obtained data from questioning the
local population observed that the main source of income for these people is a livestock trade.
The total income of these families in a year from livestock and its products varies between 800-
5000 Somoni ($1=3,4 somoni), with an average of 2450 somoni per family, i.e. $720,6. As a
whole, the economic income of families is quite low. The Park has good potential to raise
economy of the region by developing tourism. However, local population living in the territory
of the Park receives almost no any profit from tourism.
        The main problems the local population facing are: lack of energy sources, difficulty with
delivering of products of the first necessity, high cost of the foods, absence of schools in some
places and absence of veterinary service. This low social and economic situation of the
population living inside the Park is a main source of anthropogenic impacts on wildlife.
According to questioned peoples during the last 10 years the number of many wild animals
(Marko Polo, Ibex, Snow leopard, etc.) significantly reduced.

   The main forms of the negative human impacts on Park’ mammals are as follow:
   1. Poaching. An orgy of poaching in territory of Park took place during the civil war (1992-
      1997) when majority of local population had a fire-arm. During this period there was a
      sharp reduction in the number of many rare and vanishing animals’ species. Our obtained
      data confirmed that in eastern-pamirian part of the Park poaching is continuing to remain
      the main problem. The local population hunts on Marco Polo and Ibex, and put traps for a
      Snow leopard and Wolf.
   2. Overgrazing. There are more than 50 summer and winter cattle-breeding settlements
      presently located in territory of the Park (Jailovy). For the last years the number of
      private livestock in East Pamir markedly increased. Such overgrazing reduces
      productivity of the pastures, and directly effects the ungulate mammals’ populations,
      particularly Marko Polo and Ibex sheep, overriding them from their traditional localities.
   3. Deforestation. Cutting down of the natural shrub covers in the Park have been registered
      in the mountainous forest belts of the Peter I and the Academy of Sciences ridges and is
      connected with a shortage of energy source for local population. Deforestation of the
      catchments further strengthens erosion processes. As a consequence, due to massive
      cutting down of the trees and shrubs many animals lose their ecological niches. This
      negative impact of this factor within the territory of the Park leads to degradation of the
      localities of a brown bear (Ursus arctos), forest dormouse (Dryomus nitedula), a badger
      (Meles meles), a stone marten (Martes foina), etc.
   4. Grubbing of the teresken (Ceratoides). This factor has a strong negative influence on
      high-mountainous steppe ecosystems of East Pamir. The main reason of this problem in
      eastern-pamirian part of the Tajik National Park is the lack of alternative sources of
      energy. Therefore, local peoples grub and harvest teresken (Ceratoides) as firewood.
      Over the last 15 years the area of the teresken, particularly, in the most populated valleys
      has strongly been shrunk. As an example, the peoples living in the center of Murgab
                                               11
        district now have to overcome the long 70-80 km distance way to harvest the teresken.
        This factor has became the main reason of deterioration of high-mountainous steppe
        ecosystems and directly influencing populations of herbivorous mammals such as Marko
        Polo (Ovis ammon polii), Ibex (Capra sibirica), Red marmot (Marmota caudatа) and hare
        (Lepus tolai), etc.
        .
                 Key sites of the Park for strengthening protection of mammals
         Conservation of mammals in territory of the Park can be considerably improved if
special control within the several sites would be taken against poaching. With this purpose we
allocate the following key sites: 1. Karakul; 2. Kudara and Pasor; 3. Poymazor; 4. Altinmazar.
Below briefly are described these areas and their existing problems.

     1. Karakul Site
     Coordinates of the site:    N 38º 54.866'
                                 E 073º 16.951'
        This area covers east part of the Park and belongs to Murgabskogo district of GBAO. The
area is of great importance for conservation for Marco Polo sheep, Ibex and Snow leopard. The
main forms of influence on wild mammal in this area are poaching, trophy hunting, cattle
grazing and grubbing of teresken (Ceratoides) as firewood. As it is already mentioned above, this
area is in the sphere of influence of hunting concession of “Badakhshan”. To the firm belongs
474 thousand hа of the Park’s territories, but in fact, the firm conduct trophy hunting over the
whole area Marco Polo sheep is possibly distributed. In same time, employees of this firm
control this territory from poachers. According to Nafasbekov Davlatkadam, (director of the
hunting firm), there was registered one case of poaching in 2005, no poaching in 2006 and 4
poaching in 2007. Poaching in the given area is of great concerns. Local peoples hunt on Marko
Polo and Ibex sheep. High number of poaching is registered especially during the autumn and
winter period when the mammals come down to valleys. Poachers penetrate into this site through
Saritash from the side of Kyrgyzstan. The local population near the Karakul Lake is not provided
with other sources of energy and harvest the teresken (Ceratoides) as firewood, which further
worsens the conditions of wild mammals’ winter pastures. Within the territory of this site, 3000
cattle and more than 10 thousand of sheep are being pastured. Murgab office of the Tajik
National Park currently has only 3 workers, one of whom is responsible for control the area of
near the Karakul Lake. Obviously, to control such vast territory of the eastern-pamirian parts of
the Park by one staff are not practically possible.

      Proposes on improving of protection:
      а) To organize regional office of the Park.
      б) To organize counter-poaching group to detect and respond immediately to poaching;
      б) To bind trophy hunting in the area Balandkiik with the purpose of the organization
ecotourism on Marco Polo sheep;
      в) To find alternative sources of energy for local population to reduce the pressure on
teresken (Ceratoides);
      г) To regulate tourism, and actively involve local population in it.

       2. Kudara and Pasor Site
          Coordinates of the site: N 38º 24.237'
                                    E 072º 36.021'
      This site is located in western-pamirian part of the Park in the upstream of Bartang River,
and belongs to the Rushan district of GBAO. The site is connected to east part of the Park by the
heavy road crossing the Akdjar Pereval. This road also serves as a passes for the livestock
farmers. The main problem in this site is to fight against poaching. The ravines and canyons
near the vicinity of Pasor, Bopasor and Kudara villages serves as a habitat of a Snow leopard and
                                                 12
Ibex sheep. The forest belt located along the Tanimas River (upper part of Kudara) habitats
Brown bear. According to villager of Pasor Kishlak, during the last years this area was
experienced an orgy of poaching. Recently the situation has improved and the cases of poaching
significantly reduced. The area has a high tourist value. Tourists usually through the Pasor and
Hafrez canyon visit Grum-Grjimailo glacier.

      Proposes for improving of protection:
      а) To organize regional office of Park;
      б) To involve local population in participation of counter-poaching activities;
      в) To regulate tourism.

       3. Poymazor Site
          Coordinates of the site: N 38º 39.141'
                                   E 071º 58.207'
      This area represents the big interest for the alpinism, since at the distance of 10-15 km,
upward of Poymazor village along Vanj River there are located “Russian Geographical Society”,
“Bear”, “Abdukahor”, and further well-known “Fedchenko” glaciers. High-mountainous
ecosystems of this site are considered as best habitats for Snow leopard (Uncia uncia), Ibex
(Capra sibirica), and Alpine meadows for Brown bear (Ursus arctos). The village of Poymazor is
considered a key site for controlling of poaching and regulation of tourism.

      Proposes for improving of protection:
      а) To organize regional office of Park;
      б) To involve local population in participation of counter-poaching activities;
      в) To involve and attract local population in development of tourism.

       1.    Muk Site
           Coordinates of the site: N 39º 07.540'
                                    E 071º 38.492'
        This site represents big interest for tourism, since through it passes a tourist route to the
direction of Polyany Moskvina, located at the floor of peaks of Сомони (7495 м) and
Korzhenevskaya (6785 м). From here also goes a tourist route to Fedchenko glacier. Here in the
territory of the Park are located 3 villages (Muk, Depshar, Kandop) making a total population of
810 capita. The site controlled by 3 gamekeepers of Jirgatal branch of the Tajik National Park.
The territory is not separated between the gamekeepers and considered as a common effort.
There have been registered the cases of poaching and cutting down of the tree-shrubs belt. In the
natural ecosystem areas significant from the point of conservation view of mammal are a brown
bear (Ursus arctos), snow leopard (Uncia uncia) and Ibex sheep (Capra sibirica).

      Proposes for improving of protection:
      а) To organize regional office of Park;
      б) To distribute the territory between the gamekeepers for strengthening of protection;
      б) To involve local population in participation of counter-poaching activities;
      в) To involve and attract local population in development of tourism.

        1. Altynmazor Site
      This site has a boundary position between Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. The status of
Altynmazor so far remains unclear and the question of which country the area belongs to still is
not solved. Altynmazor and its adjoining southern territories belong to Tajik National Park, and
at present time are not controlled by park’s staffs. In Jirgital regional office of Tajik National
Park currently are working 7 persons. Protection of this territory is the responsibility of 3
gamekeepers. The site is not distributed between them and considered as a common effort.
                                                13
During our expedition to the valley of Muksu (in beginning of August) the intergovernmental
commission (according to director of Jirgatol Regional Office of the TNP, Mahmarasulova
Muvofika) has came to work on solving this problem.
       According to one of Jirgatol district inhabitants Musoev Nasriddin (skillful hunter and
gamekeeper of hunting firm “Badakhshan”), who is well familiar with the territory of the Park,
the regional office of TNP has no capability to properly control the territory of the vicinity of
Altynmazor. Therefore, poachers from the side of Kyrgyzstan can easily penetrate into the
territory of Tajik National Park. According to him every year particularly during the months of
September and December through the site of Altynmazor more than 50 poachers penetrates into
the territory of TNP and freely hunt on Ibex, Snow leopard and Lynx. Illegal tourism to glacier
of Fedchenko has also been reported.

      Proposes for improving of protection:
      б) To develop the mechanism of mutual cooperation between Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan
for the conservation of wildlife;
      в) To regulate tourism through the interstate cooperation on mutually advantageous bases.

                   Existing problems for conservation of wild mammals of the Park
        Conservation of biodiversity and protection of fauna in the territory of planned park are
associated with certain difficulties. The park covers vast mountainous territory of Tajikistan, and
requires great deal and efforts to take full control and protection over its unique biodiversity and
natural ecosystems. At the moment, the Park has practically no any infrastructure. With the
present Park’s potential and infrastructure it is practically not possible to have full control over
such large-scale territory.
        Poaching within the territory of the Park refer to one of the main threats number having
strong impact on population of large wildlife mammals. The orgy of poaching inside the Park
during the political instability in Tajikistan was the main cause of sharp reduction in population
of Marco Polo sheep, Snow leopard and Ibex. An added poverty and food insecurity in the
region, especially in eastern-pamirain part of the Park, due to remoteness of the region do not
allow change a situation with poaching to better direction. Moreover, inside the territory of the
Park is organized an international hunting on Marco Polo sheep and Ibex, which contradicts the
accepted legislative on protection of wildlife, especially, within Protected Area of Tajikistan
(1993, 2002). Above all, hunting is conducted without any scientific approaches. Allocated
means for supporting local communities are insufficient to improve their well-being. Inside the
territory of the Park there is no monitoring for biodiversity. The staffs of the Park need to be
trained. The reliable data on biodiversity of the Park can be received only after carrying out of
monitoring and researches by experienced experts and scientists.
       The Park has unique opportunities for the development of tourism. However, these
opportunities are used not sufficiently. The local population is not practically involved in tourism
and cooperation between the administrations of the Park and tourist firms are not well
coordinated. From the wildlife as an ecotourism objects can be listed Marco Polo sheep (Ovis
ammon polii), Snow leopard (Uncia uncia), Ibex (Capra sibirica), Indian mountain goose (Anser
indica), Brown-headed gull (Larus brunocephallus), etc. In Murgab area, only NGO of Murgab
ecotourism association implements the program of ecotourism. In the eastern part of the Tajik
National Park are organized tourist camps. Nevertheless, the local population is poorly involved
in realization of ecotourism program and receives very small profit from tourism.

                                      Recommendations
   1. Presently the poaching is one of the main problems of the Park. With the existing
      capacity, it is not practically possible to control poaching inside of such vast Park’s
      territory. For strengthening of conservation of wild mammals (particular Marco Polo
      sheep, Snow leopard, Brown bear and Ibex) in the territory of the Park, it is necessary to
                                              14
     organize at least four antypoaching groups. These groups should be organized within the
     territory of the following key zones: 1) Karakul (Murgab district); 2) Kudara and Pasor
     (Rushan district); 3) Poimazor (Vanch district); and 4) Muk (Dzhirgital district). Each
     antipoaching group should consist of 4-5 peoples, particularly, from among the local
     communities who are interested in protection of the wildlife. For the support of these
     groups the administration of the Park should allocate financial assets in the form of
     competitive salary, pack animals (horse, donkey), field equipments (binoculars, GPS, a
     video and photo cameras) and special clothing.
2.   For prevention of poaching and regulation of tourism it is necessary to take the control as
     quick as possible over Altynmazar zone. This control can be joint efforts of Tajikistan
     and Kyrgyzstan. This zone could be declared a zone of free cooperation on tourism.
     Tourist and recreational potentials of this zone have to be used by both Tajikistan and
     Kyrgyzstan on mutually advantageous bases.
3.   Trophy hunting conducted within the territory of the Tajik National Park by hunting firm
     of “Badakhshan” contradicts laws “On protection of wildlife of Tajikistan”, “On
     Protected Area of Tajikistan” as well as all international rules. Such activities in the Park
     have to be binded in the future. The existing capacity of the firm and its staffs should in
     the further be encouraged against poaching.
4.   Marco Polo sheep is considered potential object of ecotourism. The great value for the
     organization of ecotourism represents Balandkiik area. Here are located best and almost
     untouched habitats of Marco Polo sheep. Therefore, during the zoning of the territory of
     the Park it is necessary to allocate ecotourism zone in area of Balandkiik. To reduce
     disturbance factor of ecotourism on wildlife, especially, on Marco Polo sheep, is
     necessary to organize special trails, instead of noisy helicopter.
5.   For the effective maintenance and strengthening wildlife conservation of the Park is
     necessary to announce every year an auction of maximum of 5 trophies on Marco Polo
     sheep. The financial assets received from this trophy auction should be directed first of
     all to the support of antipoaching groups and carrying out of scientific researches. Trophy
     hunting should be organized exclusively in a vicinity of Karakul Lake (Dankai and
     Jangijir valleys) but not in area of Balandkiik where can be used for ecotourism.
6.   For estimation of the state of mammals’ population is necessary to develop pilot research
     projects. Realization of these projects has to be conducted in collaboration with experts
     and scientists of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan with the active support of international
     conservation organizations (Wild Life Conservation Society, Snow Leopard Trust, Fauna
     and Flora International, World Wildlife Foundation). The survey of sate population of
     ungulate and predatory mammals and other rare, vanishing species of the Park have to be
     a high priority scientific research direction.
7.   Conservation and management of the Park’s wildlife needs constant and regular
     monitoring. The present skill and knowledge of the Park staffs do not allow conduct
     monitoring at appropriate level. Professional skill of the Park’s staff can be improved by
     organizing short-courses and trainings as well as exchange of experiences activities
     between experts of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.
                                           15


                                      REFERENCES
Bibikov D.I. Marmots. Agropromizdat Publ. House, Moscow, 1989. 225 p. (in Russian).
Davidov G.S. Fauna Tajik SSR. Mammals (Lagomorpha, суслики, Marmotinae), Vol. 20,
Part 2, Donish Publ. House, Dushanbe, 1974. 258 p. (in Russian)
Davidov G.S. Fauna Tajik SSR. Mammals (Rodentia), Vol. 20, Part 3, Donish Publ. House,
Dushanbe, 1988. 315 p. (in Russian)
Isakov S.I. Fauna of Tajikistan. Mammalia - Insectivora, Vol. 20, Part 4. Donish Publ. House,
Dushanbe, 2005. 232 p. (in Russian)
Muratov R.Sh. The state of population Snow Leopard in Tajikistan // in the book Fauna and
Ecology animals of Tajikistan. Dushanbe, 2004. P. 228-230. (in Russian)
Red Book of Tajikistan. Donish Publ. House, Dushanbe, 1988. 336 p. (in Russian)
Odinashoev A. Lagomorpha and Rodents of Pamir. Donish Publ. House, Dushanbe, 1987.
172 с. (in Russian).
Саидов А.С. Modern forms of influence of anthropogenesis factors on fauna of Tajikistan
 // News Academy of Scienses of Tajikistan, Depat. of biological and medical Sciences № 3.
2006. P. 3-18. (in Russian)
Saidov A.S., Abdusalyamov I.A., Muratov R.Sh. The state population of wolf in Tajikistan //in
the book «Fauna and ecology of animals of Tajikistan» devoted to the 15 anniversary of the
State independence of Republic Tajikistan. Donish Publ. House, Dushanbe. 2006. P. 47 (in
Russian)
Sapodjnikov G. N. Rational use and protection of natural riches of Tajikistan. Dushanbe,
1967. 75 p. (in Russian)
Sapodjnikov G. N. Wild sheep (Ovis) of Tajikistan. Donish Publ. House, Dushanbe, 1976.
(in Russian)
Sapodjnikov Г.Н. Wild Ungulate of Tajikistan // in the book Rare mammals of fauna of the
USSR. Moscow, 1976. (in Russian)
Soкоv А.I. Fauna of Tajikistan. Mammals – Artiodactula, Vol. 20, Part 5. Dushanbe: Donish,
1993. 337 p. (in Russian)
Soкоv А.I. The biology and the hunting-trade value of predatory mammals in Tajikistan //
The author's abstract of the PhD, 1971. 24 p. (in Russian)
Soкоv А.I. Snow Leopard // Journal Nature. 1972. № 4. (in Russian)
Tajikistan. The nature and natural resources. Dushanbe: Donish, 1982. 601 p. (in Russian)
Buzurukov A., Muratov R. Snow leopard conservation in Tajikistan // Proceeding of the
Seventh International snow leopard symposium. P. 29-32.
Potential management and use of wildlife game species inhabiting Gorno-Badakhshan
Autonomous Oblast (GBAO) of the Republic of Tajikistan Project WWF: Sustainable
development of Pamir. Report, 2002.
Wildlife Conservation and participatory Monitoring for Pamir High Mountains Integrated
Project. Report on Mission to Murghab District July 15 - July 28 2003. Submitted to:
ACTED, Murghab.
Saidov A.S. Population structure of long-tailed marmot (Marmota caudata Geoffroy) on
Pamir // Proceedings of fifth International conference on genus Marmota. Tashkent,
Uzbekistan, 31 August to 2 September 2005. P. 104.
Schaller G.B. The Conservation Status of Marco Polo Sheep in Tajikistan // Project: Wildlife
Conservation Society and National Geographic Society. Report, September 2003.
                                           16
                                                                                 Annex 1
                                         List
                           Mammals (Mammalia) of the Park
№№            Russian name              Latin (scientific) name       English name
                            Order Ungulate - Artiodactula
1.    Памирский архар               Ovis ammon polii              Marco Polo sheep
2.    Сибирский козерог             Capra sibirica                Ibex
3.    Кабан                         Sus scrofa                    Cabane
                             Order Predatory - Carnivora
 4.   Снежный барс                  Uncia uncia                   Snow leopard
 5.   Туркестанская рысь            Felis lynx                    Lynx
 6.   Бурый медведь                 Ursus arctos                  Brown bear
 7.   Волк                          Canis lupus                   Wolf
 8.   Лисица                        Vulpes vulpes                 Fox
 9.   Cолонгой                      Mustela altaica               Mountain weasel
10.   Ласка                         Mustela nivalis               Weasel
11.   Горностай                     Mustela erminea               Stoat
12.   Каменная куница               Martes foina                  Stone marten
13.   Барсук                        Meles meles                   Badger
14.   Среднеазиатская выдра         Lutra lutra                   Otter
                                 Order Lagomorpha
15.   Большеухая пищуха             Ochotona roylei               Royle’s pika
16.   Красная пищуха                Ochotona rutila
17.   Заяц-толай                    Lepus tolai                   Tolai hare
                              Order Rodents – Rodentia
18.   Красный сурок                 Marmota caudata               Long-tailed marmot
19    Дикобраз                      Hystrix indica                Porcupine
20.   Лесная соня                   Dryomys nitedula
21.   Туркестанская крыса           Rattus turkestanicus          Turkestan rat
22.   Домовая мышь                  Мus musculus                  House mouse
23.   Лесная мышь                   Apodemus sylvaticus           Forest mouse
24.   Серый хомячок                 Cricetellus migratorius       Grey hamster
25.   Серебристая полевка           Alticola argentata            Royle’s mountain
                                                                  vole
26.   Памирская полевка             Microtus juldaschi            Pamir vole
27    Арчовая полевка               Microtus carruthersi          Junipers vole
28    Восточная слепушонка          Ellobius tancrei
                                 Order Сhiroptera
29    Нетопырь-карлик               Pipistrellus pipistrellus
30    Кожановидный нетопырь         Vespertilio savii
31    Усатая ночница                Myotis mystacinus
                          Order Insectivores – Insectivora
32    Бухарская бурозубка           Sorex buchariensis
33    Белохвостая белозубка         Crocidura perigresea
                                          17
                                                                                     Annex 2
                                       List
                              Mammals of Eastern Pamir
№№            Russian name            Latin (scientific) name               English name
 1.   Баран Марко Поло            Ovis ammon poli                      Marco Polo sheep
 2.   Сибирский козерог           Capra sibirica                       Ibex
 3.   Снежный барс                Uncia uncia                          Snow leopard
 4.   Туркестанская рысь          Felis lynx                           Lynx
 5.   Бурый медведь               Ursus arctos                         Brown bear
 6.   Волк                        Canis lupus                          Wolf
 7.   Лисица                      Vulpes vulpes                        Fox
 8.   Солонгой                    Mustela altaica                      Mountain weasel
 9.   Горностай                   Mustela erminea                      Stoat
10.   Большеухая пищуха           Ochotona roylei                      Royle’s pika
11.   Заяц-толай                  Lepus tolai                          Tolai hare
12    Красный сурок               Marmota caudata                      Long-tailed marmot
13.   Памирская полевка           Microtus juldaschi                   Pamir vole
14.   Серый хомячок               Cricetellus migratorius              Grey hamster
15.   Cеребристая полевка         Alticola argentata                   Royle’s mountain
                                                                       vole

                                                                                     Annex 3
                                         List
                 Rare and Vanishing Mammals (Mammalia) Park listed
                       in the Red Data Book of Tajikistan (1988)

№№            Russian name              Latin (scientific) name         Status of protection
 1.   Памирский архар                Ovis ammon polii                  Marco Polo sheep
 2.   Снежный барс                   Uncia uncia                       Snow leopard
 3.   Туркестанская рысь             Felis lynx                        Lynx
 4.   Бурый медведь                  Ursus arctos                      Brown bear
 5.   Cолонгой                       Mustela altaica                   Mountain weasel
 6.   Ласка                          Mustela nivalis                   Weasel
 7.   Горностай                      Mustela erminea                   Stoat
 8.   Среднеазиатская выдра          Lutra lutra                       Otter
 9.   Кожановидный нетопырь          Vespertilio savii
10.   Усатая ночница                 Myotis mystacinus
11.   Бухарская бурозубка            Sorex buchariensis
12.   Белохвостая белозубка          Crocidura perigresea



                                                                                     Annex 4
          Density of Marco Polo sheep population in a vicinity of Karakul Lake
                     (According to Georges Schaller's report, 2003)
№№          Location                   Size/km²                Number          Number
                                                            animals seen     animals/km²

1.           Karakul                     240                       3                 --
2.           Bululik                      72                      36                0,5
                                       18
                                                                           Annex 5
                 70 000

                 60 000

                 50 000

                 40 000

                 30 000

                 20 000

                 10 000

                     0
                                <60s        70-80          2002


Dynamics of number of a population of Marco Polo sheep (Ovis ammon polii) in Pamir



                                                                           Annex 6

                 THE MAIN FORMS OF THREATS ON THE
                   POPULATION MARCO POLO SHEEP



                      Human                          Natural factors
                      factors


                     Poaching                             Harsh
                                                          winter


                  Trophy hunting                    Increase in number
                                                          of wolf

                    Overgrazing
                                                         Diseases


                    Grubbing of
                      teresken
                    (Сeratoides)
                                   19
                                                                             Аnnex 7




       Habitats and ways of seasonal migration of Marco Polo sheep

                                                                             Annex 8




Horns of Marco Polo sheep in the vicinity of Karakul Lake. Photo A.Saidov.
                                  20
                                                                           Annex 9




The Badakhshan hunting firm office in Karakul Lake area. Photo A.Saidov.
                                                                           Annex 10




   Snow leopard traces (Uncia uncia). Vanch ridge, Abdukagor glacier.
                            Photo A.Saidov
                                  21
                                                                          Annex 11




Excrement of Brown bear (Ursus arctos). Vanch ridge, Abdukagor glacier.
                          Photo A.Saidov
                                                                          Annex 12




 Red marmot (Маrmota caudatа) in Karakul Lake area. Photo A.Saidov
                                  22
                                                                          Annex 13




Grubbing of teresken (Ceratoides) in vicinities of Karakul Lake. Photo A.Saidov

                                                                          Annex 14




     Trans Alai ridge. Peak October. Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) habitat
                               Photo A.Saidov

								
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