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PowerPoint Presentation - Energy Review

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 46

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									           AN ENERGY REVIEW
OVERVIEW: This guide is designed to help review the basic energy
 concepts that have been learned this quarter. It includes a question
 guide, web links, and a Jeopardy review game. As you use this for
review, PLEASE RECORD YOUR ANSWERS TO THE GIVEN
            QUESTIONS ON A PIECE OF PAPER.
   You may also write down any additional questions you have.




                                                            Created by Greg Ross
                                                                    2005
    ENERGY: A Review Guide
  BASICS      SOUND        HEAT




ELECTRICITY    LIGHT          Question
                               Guide

                       Click on the topic
                        that you wish to
                             review.
                    BASICS
                     Questions to answer:
1. What does the term energy mean?
2. What is the difference between potential and kinetic energy?
3. What is an atom? Name the three particles that make up an
atom and tell where they are located in the atom.




                                     WEB
HOME               INFO             LINKS
INFO: Basic

    Energy is the ability to do work, or cause a change in matter.
    The two main forms of energy are potential and kinetic.
    Potential energy is stored energy. It can be used to do work,
    but isn’t. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. It is the
    energy that is being used to do work.




Potential
The ball is at
rest.                                      Kinetic                    To
                                                                    ATOMS
INFO: Basic: Atoms
The atom is the smallest part of an element while still being that
element. Everything around you is made up of atoms. Atoms form solids,
liquids, and gases. The main parts of the atom that you will need to be
familiar with are: electron, proton, neutron, nucleus, and orbital. The
atom consists of a nucleus which is surrounded by orbitals. Protons
(positively charged particles) and neutrons (particles with no charge)
make up the nucleus. An orbital is an area where electrons (negatively
charged particles) can be found. These electrons “orbit” the nucleus.


 Nucleus                                                    Electron

                                                            Proton
 Orbital
                                                            Neutron

Sample of Carbon
WEB LINKS

  Basics Overview
Potential and Kinetic
Kinetic and Potential
       Atoms
 Atomic Structure
 Atoms Chem4Kids
                      SOUND
                      Questions to answer:
1. How does sound travel? What allows it to travel?

2. Name and define the four main parts of a sound wave.

3. What is the difference between frequency and pitch?
   How are they related?

4. What is a hertz?

                                    WEB
HOME             INFO              LINKS
INFO: Sound: Wave

  Sound travels in waves by moving particles back and forth. This means
   that sound needs a medium (solid, liquid, or gas) to travel through.

   Amplitude: measures the height of a wave
                                                                           Crest: the
                                                                           high point
                                                                           in a wave




                                     Wavelength: the measurement from
       Trough: the low
                                     one crest to the next or one trough
       point in a wave
                                     to the next
INFO: Sound: Frequency, Pitch, Hertz
   Frequency is the number of waves that are produced per second.
    Frequency is measured in a unit called a Hertz. The greater the
 frequency the higher the pitch. In a stringed instrument, like a guitar,
 to produce a higher pitch you shorten the distance that the string can
  vibrate. The string produces more waves per second and creates the
 higher pitch. Pitch is the highness or lowness of the sound. This is
      not to be confused with the loudness (volume) of a sound.




                            Low Frequency, lower pitch



                                          OR
                     High Frequency, higher pitch
WEB LINKS
   The Soundry
   Sound Waves
  Sound (Bethune)
      Waves
 Sound Waves Work
     Hearing
   Make A Wave
                          HEAT
                        Questions to answer:
1.   What are the three ways heat energy is transferred?
2.   What is the difference between these three methods?
3.   Name three good conductors of heat.
4.   Name three good insulators of heat.
5.   How is electromagnetic radiation related to heat?




                                       WEB
     HOME             INFO            LINKS
INFO: Heat
      Heat moves from the warmer object to the cooler object.


   Electromagnetic Radiation            Conductors and Insulators




   Conduction            Convection              Radiation
       Electromagnetic Radiation

Electromagnetic radiation is the energy that travels from the
sun to the earth. Since it travels through space, it does not need
a medium (solid, liquid, or gas). The electromagnetic radiation
not only provides light, but also heat for the earth.
        Conductors and Insulators
 Conductor: Allows for heat        Insulator: Does not allow for
 energy to be transferred from      heat energy to be transferred
 one object to another. A good       from one object to another
example of a conductor of heat         quickly, if at all. A good
would be metal. Copper is one     example of an insulator of heat
of the best conductors of heat.     would be air. Air molecules
                                      are not packed as closely
                                  together as a solid. This means
                                     it is more difficult for heat
                                      energy to be transferred.
                       Conduction
The process of conduction is the transfer
of thermal energy from one object to
another that are touching. Heat transfers
from objects that warmer to things that
are cooler.
An example of conduction would be
when a pot is on an electric burner. The
two objects are touching and thermal
energy is transferred.
                            Convection
The process of convection is the transfer of
thermal energy by the mixing of liquids or
gases. Heat transfers from objects that warmer
to things that are cooler.
An example of convection would be when a pot
is on an electric burner. If there is soup on the in
the pot, it is heated by the mixing of the liquid.
When the soup gets hot in the bottom of the pot,
it rises. The cooler liquid then sinks and is
heated. The process continues throughout the
cooking of the soup.
                             Radiation
The process of radiation is the transfer of
thermal energy by waves. Heat transfers
from objects that warmer to things that are
cooler.
An example of radiation would be when you
are standing near a fire. You are not touching
the fire, but the heat from the fire radiates to
you in the form of waves.
(Just as the heat energy from the sun does).
   WEB LINKS
Conduction, Convection, Radiation
          Heat Basics
           Conductors
       Transfer of Energy
      Heat and Temperature
            ELECTRICAL
              ENERGY
                       Questions to answer:

1. What is a circuit? What is the difference between a simple circuit,
   parallel circuit, and series circuit?
2. How do electrons flow through a circuit? What are the jobs of an
   insulator, resistor, and conductor?
3. What is the difference between AC (alternating) and DC (direct)
   currents?
4. What is the difference between a fuse and a circuit breaker?
   AND how do they work?
                                       WEB
  HOME              INFO              LINKS
INFO: Electricity




                                   FUSES AND
   BULBS            CIRCUITS       BREAKERS




     CURRENTS          RESISTORS, CONDUCTORS,
                           AND INSULATORS
INFO: Electricity: Bulbs
                            Filament

                             When electrons flow through the bulb, they
                            travel up one side, pass through the filament
                           (that resists the flow of electrons and causing
                          the bulb to glow), and then down the other side
                                       to complete the circuit.

     Incandescent
         Bulb
                                                  Fluorescent Bulb
 Electrons flow into the tube and cause the
gases inside the tube to produce light when
 it reacts to the chemical coating inside the
  tube. Produces approximately 30% light.
Activity: Electricity: Circuits
 A circuit is a pathway that allows for the flow of electrons. It is usually
                 used to power a device, or many devices.
          Create each of the following using the supplies below;
Simple Circuit, Parallel Circuit: using multiple batteries, Series Circuit:
using multiple batteries (There may be some left over parts for some of
the circuits.)




                                              Check to see how you did!
                                             Simple     Parallel     Series
          SIMPLE CIRCUIT
A basic pathway that allows for the flow of electrons. The
    electrons flow from – (negative) to + (positive).
PARALLEL CIRCUIT

                 A circuit that
                provides more
                 than one path
               for the electrons
               to flow through.
                  The flow of
                  electrons is
                     from –
                (negative) to +
                   (positive).
SERIES CIRCUIT
                 A single pathway
                    that electrons
                    flow through.
                    This pathway
                   will have more
                  than one device
                     in the same
                    pathway. The
                 flow of electrons
                       is from –
                   (negative) to +
                      (positive).
                      CURRENT

A direct current flows in   The alternating current
one direction is usually    switches directions regularly
powered by a battery.       (back and forth) and is the
                            kind typically found powering
                            your home.
   INFO: Electricity: Fuse and Circuit Breaker
  Fuses: A device with a thin wire that breaks when too many electronic devices are connected to it.
                                            An overloaded circuit can cause a fire.
                                            Fuses break when the flow of
                                            electrons is too great. A “blown fuse”
                                            needs replaced and is typically found
                                            in objects that run on batteries.
        These are the wires that melt.


 A Circuit Breaker works in the same way Circuit Breaker and Box
  as that of a fuse. The difference is that a
circuit breaker does not need to be replaced.
A metal strip heats up and causes the wire to
bend, flipping the switch to the off position.
To reset the switch, flip to the on position to
       stretch the wire back into place.
          RESISTORS, CONDUCTORS,
              AND INSULATORS
  Conductor: Allows electrons
    to flow easily through it.
The wire to the bulb allows electricity to flow quickly
                     to the bulb.

    Insulator: Does not allow
electrons to flow easily through it.
The air inside the bulb does not allow the electricity to flow
                     outside of the bulb.


Resistor: Slows the flow of electrons.
 The filament inside the bulb slows the flow of electrons. This
             causes the filament to produce light.
WEB LINKS
Science Made Simple
    Kids Korner
   Primary Science
       SMUD
Electromagnetism Tour
        PBS
   DC Explanation
   Current/Encarta
      Batteries
                      LIGHT
                      Questions to answer:
1. What is the difference between reflection and refraction?
2. What is the difference between objects that are opaque
   and translucent?
3. What are the parts of the eye? And how do they work to make
   an image appear in our brain?
4. How does light interact with lenses and mirrors? And how does
   that work with people that wear glasses?
5. What are some advances made in light (incandescent/fluorescent)?

                                     WEB
  HOME              INFO            LINKS
INFO: Light




        Parts of the Eye                  Lenses and Mirrors




                           Correcting Vision
INFO: Light: Parts of the Eye

  There are many parts to the eye. The pupil, iris, lens,
  cornea, vitreous humor, retina, and the optic nerve.
  Each of these play an important function in how the eye
  is able to see an image.
                                                     TERMS:
                                                     (Click for definitions)

                                                     pupil
                                                     iris
                                                     lens
                                                     cornea
                                                     vitreous humor
                                                     retina     optic
                                                     nerve
                   Image from KidsHelath
INFO: Light: Parts of the Eye: Terms

Pupil: The black part of the eye that allows light to enter.
Iris: The colored part of the eye that has muscles attached to it so that it
can control the amount of light that enters the eye.
Lens: Focuses the light that enters the eye onto the retina
Cornea: The clear covering over the eye that allows light in and helps
the eye to focus on the image.
Vitreous humor: The clear “jelly-like” substance that fills the middle of
the eye.
Retina: Takes the light rays and changes them to nerve impulses. Once
they have been changed, they send the new images up the optic nerve.
Optic nerve: A nerve that carries impulses from the eye to the brain.
     INFO: Light: Lenses and Mirrors
Light behaves in two ways. It is either reflected or refracted. The
reflection of light is the bouncing of light off an object, such as a mirror.
Refraction is the bending of light through an object, such as light
entering a magnifying glass. Click below to find out more.




     Convex                  Concave                       Mirrors
     Lenses                   Lenses
INFO: Light: Lenses: Convex

There are two main types of lenses. There are convex lens and concave
lens. When light enters these lenses it will be refracted. It will depend
on the type of lens as to what the light will do once it enters.


                         focal point




      A convex lens is thicker in the middle and thinner on the
     edges. The light rays are bent towards each other from the
   ends and the one directly in the middle continues in a straight
   line. The point where the lines meet is called the focal point.
INFO: Light: Lenses: Convex (Continued)

      Depending on the position of the lens, the object may
      appear upside down. This is due to where the object is
              located in relation to the focal point.
INFO: Light: Lenses: Concave

     A concave lens is thicker on the edges and thinner in the
   middle. The light rays are bent away from each other and the
    one directly in the middle continues in a straight line. The
   light rays do not intersect. At times the image appears to be
       out of focus due to the fact that it is being enlarged.
INFO: Light: Lenses: Correcting Vision

   Looking at how the two main kinds of lenses work, how do you
       think that they are used in correcting vision problems?
Farsighted: People with this type of vision can see objects far away
more clearly than ones that are close up. How can it be corrected?
 In this case, light enters the eye but the focal
 point is beyond the retina. What type of lens
 should be placed in front of the eye to move
 the focal point forward?
INFO: Light: Lenses: Correcting Vision: Continued


In order to correct this problem, a convex lens should be placed in front
  of the eye. This will start to focus the image before it enters the eye.
INFO: Light: Lenses: Correcting Vision

  Nearsighted: People with this type of vision can see close up more
    clearly than ones that are far away. How can it be corrected?

 In this case, light enters the eye but the focal
 point does not reach the retina. What type of lens
 should be placed in front of the eye to move
 the focal point back toward the retina?
INFO: Light: Lenses: Correcting Vision:
Continued


In order to correct this problem, a concave lens should be placed in front
   of the eye. This will spread the image apart before it enters the eye.
INFO: Light: Mirrors


A mirror reflects an image by bouncing the light back toward the eye. A
 flat mirror reflects the true size and shape of the object in front of it. A
 concave and convex mirror also bounce the light back, but change the
                           size/shape of an image.


                45 degrees


                                      Light ray straight at
      Flat                           mirror, comes straight
     mirror                                   back.


                45 degrees


                                              CONCAVE           CONVEX
INFO: Light: Mirrors: Concave
   The concave mirror reflects light and sends the rays back
across a focal point. This turns the image upside down and can
 enlarge it. You might find this type of mirror in a fun house.



                                Focal
                                point
INFO: Light: Mirrors: Convex
 The convex mirror reflects light and sends the rays away from each
    other. A convex mirror is able to collect more light rays from
  around an area so that there is greater visual range. A mirror in a
 department store that looks like a bubble and allows employees to
       look around corners is an example of a convex mirror.
  WEB LINKS
  Reflection and Refraction
Convex and Concave Mirrors
       Eye Refraction
      Eye Kids Health
Reflection Refraction Detailed
           LIGHT
        Light Basics
                                       Questions
Energy Review Sheet
Definitions: Know what the term means and how it applies to the different forms of energy. (Electricity, Heat, Light, and
Sound)
energy                  conduction              convection                  radiation                  kinetic
potential               chemical                protons                     retina                     pitch
electrons               neutrons                circuit                     static electricity         conductor
Insulator               ultraviolet light       visible light               focal point                refraction
wavelength              amplitude               trough                      crest                      frequency
hertz                   reflection              electrical energy           electromagnetic radiation

Questions to answer:
What is energy?
How does energy transfer?
What and where are the parts of an atom?
How does electricity flow?
How does a series circuit work? Parallel?
How is a simple, series, and parallel circuits constructed (built)?
What is the difference between a fuse and circuit breaker?
How does a fuse and circuit breaker work?
What are the 2 types of current and how do they work?
What is the difference between an incandescent bulb and a fluorescent bulb? Which is more efficient?
How does a mirror work? How does a lens work?
What is the difference between a concave and convex mirror?/ lens?
How does light enter the eye and how do people see? (including farsighted)
What are some of the advances made in light?
What are the parts of a wave?
How does sound travel? What is needed?
How does light travel?

								
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