AN ENERGY REVIEW OVERVIEW: This guide is designed to help review the basic energy concepts that have been learned this quarter. It includes a question guide, web links, and a Jeopardy review game. As you use this for review, PLEASE RECORD YOUR ANSWERS TO THE GIVEN QUESTIONS ON A PIECE OF PAPER. You may also write down any additional questions you have. Created by Greg Ross 2005 ENERGY: A Review Guide BASICS SOUND HEAT ELECTRICITY LIGHT Question Guide Click on the topic that you wish to review. BASICS Questions to answer: 1. What does the term energy mean? 2. What is the difference between potential and kinetic energy? 3. What is an atom? Name the three particles that make up an atom and tell where they are located in the atom. WEB HOME INFO LINKS INFO: Basic Energy is the ability to do work, or cause a change in matter. The two main forms of energy are potential and kinetic. Potential energy is stored energy. It can be used to do work, but isn’t. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. It is the energy that is being used to do work. Potential The ball is at rest. Kinetic To ATOMS INFO: Basic: Atoms The atom is the smallest part of an element while still being that element. Everything around you is made up of atoms. Atoms form solids, liquids, and gases. The main parts of the atom that you will need to be familiar with are: electron, proton, neutron, nucleus, and orbital. The atom consists of a nucleus which is surrounded by orbitals. Protons (positively charged particles) and neutrons (particles with no charge) make up the nucleus. An orbital is an area where electrons (negatively charged particles) can be found. These electrons “orbit” the nucleus. Nucleus Electron Proton Orbital Neutron Sample of Carbon WEB LINKS Basics Overview Potential and Kinetic Kinetic and Potential Atoms Atomic Structure Atoms Chem4Kids SOUND Questions to answer: 1. How does sound travel? What allows it to travel? 2. Name and define the four main parts of a sound wave. 3. What is the difference between frequency and pitch? How are they related? 4. What is a hertz? WEB HOME INFO LINKS INFO: Sound: Wave Sound travels in waves by moving particles back and forth. This means that sound needs a medium (solid, liquid, or gas) to travel through. Amplitude: measures the height of a wave Crest: the high point in a wave Wavelength: the measurement from Trough: the low one crest to the next or one trough point in a wave to the next INFO: Sound: Frequency, Pitch, Hertz Frequency is the number of waves that are produced per second. Frequency is measured in a unit called a Hertz. The greater the frequency the higher the pitch. In a stringed instrument, like a guitar, to produce a higher pitch you shorten the distance that the string can vibrate. The string produces more waves per second and creates the higher pitch. Pitch is the highness or lowness of the sound. This is not to be confused with the loudness (volume) of a sound. Low Frequency, lower pitch OR High Frequency, higher pitch WEB LINKS The Soundry Sound Waves Sound (Bethune) Waves Sound Waves Work Hearing Make A Wave HEAT Questions to answer: 1. What are the three ways heat energy is transferred? 2. What is the difference between these three methods? 3. Name three good conductors of heat. 4. Name three good insulators of heat. 5. How is electromagnetic radiation related to heat? WEB HOME INFO LINKS INFO: Heat Heat moves from the warmer object to the cooler object. Electromagnetic Radiation Conductors and Insulators Conduction Convection Radiation Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic radiation is the energy that travels from the sun to the earth. Since it travels through space, it does not need a medium (solid, liquid, or gas). The electromagnetic radiation not only provides light, but also heat for the earth. Conductors and Insulators Conductor: Allows for heat Insulator: Does not allow for energy to be transferred from heat energy to be transferred one object to another. A good from one object to another example of a conductor of heat quickly, if at all. A good would be metal. Copper is one example of an insulator of heat of the best conductors of heat. would be air. Air molecules are not packed as closely together as a solid. This means it is more difficult for heat energy to be transferred. Conduction The process of conduction is the transfer of thermal energy from one object to another that are touching. Heat transfers from objects that warmer to things that are cooler. An example of conduction would be when a pot is on an electric burner. The two objects are touching and thermal energy is transferred. Convection The process of convection is the transfer of thermal energy by the mixing of liquids or gases. Heat transfers from objects that warmer to things that are cooler. An example of convection would be when a pot is on an electric burner. If there is soup on the in the pot, it is heated by the mixing of the liquid. When the soup gets hot in the bottom of the pot, it rises. The cooler liquid then sinks and is heated. The process continues throughout the cooking of the soup. Radiation The process of radiation is the transfer of thermal energy by waves. Heat transfers from objects that warmer to things that are cooler. An example of radiation would be when you are standing near a fire. You are not touching the fire, but the heat from the fire radiates to you in the form of waves. (Just as the heat energy from the sun does). WEB LINKS Conduction, Convection, Radiation Heat Basics Conductors Transfer of Energy Heat and Temperature ELECTRICAL ENERGY Questions to answer: 1. What is a circuit? What is the difference between a simple circuit, parallel circuit, and series circuit? 2. How do electrons flow through a circuit? What are the jobs of an insulator, resistor, and conductor? 3. What is the difference between AC (alternating) and DC (direct) currents? 4. What is the difference between a fuse and a circuit breaker? AND how do they work? WEB HOME INFO LINKS INFO: Electricity FUSES AND BULBS CIRCUITS BREAKERS CURRENTS RESISTORS, CONDUCTORS, AND INSULATORS INFO: Electricity: Bulbs Filament When electrons flow through the bulb, they travel up one side, pass through the filament (that resists the flow of electrons and causing the bulb to glow), and then down the other side to complete the circuit. Incandescent Bulb Fluorescent Bulb Electrons flow into the tube and cause the gases inside the tube to produce light when it reacts to the chemical coating inside the tube. Produces approximately 30% light. Activity: Electricity: Circuits A circuit is a pathway that allows for the flow of electrons. It is usually used to power a device, or many devices. Create each of the following using the supplies below; Simple Circuit, Parallel Circuit: using multiple batteries, Series Circuit: using multiple batteries (There may be some left over parts for some of the circuits.) Check to see how you did! Simple Parallel Series SIMPLE CIRCUIT A basic pathway that allows for the flow of electrons. The electrons flow from – (negative) to + (positive). PARALLEL CIRCUIT A circuit that provides more than one path for the electrons to flow through. The flow of electrons is from – (negative) to + (positive). SERIES CIRCUIT A single pathway that electrons flow through. This pathway will have more than one device in the same pathway. The flow of electrons is from – (negative) to + (positive). CURRENT A direct current flows in The alternating current one direction is usually switches directions regularly powered by a battery. (back and forth) and is the kind typically found powering your home. INFO: Electricity: Fuse and Circuit Breaker Fuses: A device with a thin wire that breaks when too many electronic devices are connected to it. An overloaded circuit can cause a fire. Fuses break when the flow of electrons is too great. A “blown fuse” needs replaced and is typically found in objects that run on batteries. These are the wires that melt. A Circuit Breaker works in the same way Circuit Breaker and Box as that of a fuse. The difference is that a circuit breaker does not need to be replaced. A metal strip heats up and causes the wire to bend, flipping the switch to the off position. To reset the switch, flip to the on position to stretch the wire back into place. RESISTORS, CONDUCTORS, AND INSULATORS Conductor: Allows electrons to flow easily through it. The wire to the bulb allows electricity to flow quickly to the bulb. Insulator: Does not allow electrons to flow easily through it. The air inside the bulb does not allow the electricity to flow outside of the bulb. Resistor: Slows the flow of electrons. The filament inside the bulb slows the flow of electrons. This causes the filament to produce light. WEB LINKS Science Made Simple Kids Korner Primary Science SMUD Electromagnetism Tour PBS DC Explanation Current/Encarta Batteries LIGHT Questions to answer: 1. What is the difference between reflection and refraction? 2. What is the difference between objects that are opaque and translucent? 3. What are the parts of the eye? And how do they work to make an image appear in our brain? 4. How does light interact with lenses and mirrors? And how does that work with people that wear glasses? 5. What are some advances made in light (incandescent/fluorescent)? WEB HOME INFO LINKS INFO: Light Parts of the Eye Lenses and Mirrors Correcting Vision INFO: Light: Parts of the Eye There are many parts to the eye. The pupil, iris, lens, cornea, vitreous humor, retina, and the optic nerve. Each of these play an important function in how the eye is able to see an image. TERMS: (Click for definitions) pupil iris lens cornea vitreous humor retina optic nerve Image from KidsHelath INFO: Light: Parts of the Eye: Terms Pupil: The black part of the eye that allows light to enter. Iris: The colored part of the eye that has muscles attached to it so that it can control the amount of light that enters the eye. Lens: Focuses the light that enters the eye onto the retina Cornea: The clear covering over the eye that allows light in and helps the eye to focus on the image. Vitreous humor: The clear “jelly-like” substance that fills the middle of the eye. Retina: Takes the light rays and changes them to nerve impulses. Once they have been changed, they send the new images up the optic nerve. Optic nerve: A nerve that carries impulses from the eye to the brain. INFO: Light: Lenses and Mirrors Light behaves in two ways. It is either reflected or refracted. The reflection of light is the bouncing of light off an object, such as a mirror. Refraction is the bending of light through an object, such as light entering a magnifying glass. Click below to find out more. Convex Concave Mirrors Lenses Lenses INFO: Light: Lenses: Convex There are two main types of lenses. There are convex lens and concave lens. When light enters these lenses it will be refracted. It will depend on the type of lens as to what the light will do once it enters. focal point A convex lens is thicker in the middle and thinner on the edges. The light rays are bent towards each other from the ends and the one directly in the middle continues in a straight line. The point where the lines meet is called the focal point. INFO: Light: Lenses: Convex (Continued) Depending on the position of the lens, the object may appear upside down. This is due to where the object is located in relation to the focal point. INFO: Light: Lenses: Concave A concave lens is thicker on the edges and thinner in the middle. The light rays are bent away from each other and the one directly in the middle continues in a straight line. The light rays do not intersect. At times the image appears to be out of focus due to the fact that it is being enlarged. INFO: Light: Lenses: Correcting Vision Looking at how the two main kinds of lenses work, how do you think that they are used in correcting vision problems? Farsighted: People with this type of vision can see objects far away more clearly than ones that are close up. How can it be corrected? In this case, light enters the eye but the focal point is beyond the retina. What type of lens should be placed in front of the eye to move the focal point forward? INFO: Light: Lenses: Correcting Vision: Continued In order to correct this problem, a convex lens should be placed in front of the eye. This will start to focus the image before it enters the eye. INFO: Light: Lenses: Correcting Vision Nearsighted: People with this type of vision can see close up more clearly than ones that are far away. How can it be corrected? In this case, light enters the eye but the focal point does not reach the retina. What type of lens should be placed in front of the eye to move the focal point back toward the retina? INFO: Light: Lenses: Correcting Vision: Continued In order to correct this problem, a concave lens should be placed in front of the eye. This will spread the image apart before it enters the eye. INFO: Light: Mirrors A mirror reflects an image by bouncing the light back toward the eye. A flat mirror reflects the true size and shape of the object in front of it. A concave and convex mirror also bounce the light back, but change the size/shape of an image. 45 degrees Light ray straight at Flat mirror, comes straight mirror back. 45 degrees CONCAVE CONVEX INFO: Light: Mirrors: Concave The concave mirror reflects light and sends the rays back across a focal point. This turns the image upside down and can enlarge it. You might find this type of mirror in a fun house. Focal point INFO: Light: Mirrors: Convex The convex mirror reflects light and sends the rays away from each other. A convex mirror is able to collect more light rays from around an area so that there is greater visual range. A mirror in a department store that looks like a bubble and allows employees to look around corners is an example of a convex mirror. WEB LINKS Reflection and Refraction Convex and Concave Mirrors Eye Refraction Eye Kids Health Reflection Refraction Detailed LIGHT Light Basics Questions Energy Review Sheet Definitions: Know what the term means and how it applies to the different forms of energy. (Electricity, Heat, Light, and Sound) energy conduction convection radiation kinetic potential chemical protons retina pitch electrons neutrons circuit static electricity conductor Insulator ultraviolet light visible light focal point refraction wavelength amplitude trough crest frequency hertz reflection electrical energy electromagnetic radiation Questions to answer: What is energy? How does energy transfer? What and where are the parts of an atom? How does electricity flow? How does a series circuit work? Parallel? How is a simple, series, and parallel circuits constructed (built)? What is the difference between a fuse and circuit breaker? How does a fuse and circuit breaker work? What are the 2 types of current and how do they work? What is the difference between an incandescent bulb and a fluorescent bulb? Which is more efficient? How does a mirror work? How does a lens work? What is the difference between a concave and convex mirror?/ lens? How does light enter the eye and how do people see? (including farsighted) What are some of the advances made in light? What are the parts of a wave? How does sound travel? What is needed? How does light travel?
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