Essentials of Interaction Design - Understanding Users

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Essentials of Interaction Design - Understanding Users Powered By Docstoc
					Understanding users
Qualitative Research
From: About Face 3: Essentials of Interaction Design
How do we gather info?
 Interviews
 Focus Groups (not covered)
 User Observation
 Literature Review/Market Research
 Product and Competitive Audits
Who do we interview?
Subject Matter Experts
 Who else do we interview?
  Customers
                                       What are their goals?


What frustrates them?




              What is the decision process for purchasing/using?
What do we ask?
   Goal-oriented questions
    ◦ What activities currently waste your time?
    ◦ What is most important to you?
    ◦ What helps you make decisions?
   System-oriented questions
    ◦ What are the most common things you do with
      the product?
    ◦ What parts of the product do you use most?
    ◦ What are your favorite aspects of the product?
    ◦ How do you work around problems?
    ◦ What shortcuts do you employ?
How do we interview?
 Interview where the interaction happens
 Avoid a fixed set of questions
 Focus on goals first, tasks second
 Ask for show and tell




         I want to collect money owed me.
                 I want a list of people with open balances.
More interview tips
 Avoid making the user a designer.
 Avoid discussion of technology
 Guide the interviewee towards examining
  problems and away from expressing
  solutions (e.g., not “Would this feature be
  useful…”)
 Encourage storytelling about experiences
  with a product.
 Encourage both typical cases and
  exceptional ones.
Example Interview Questions:
MCS Website
   Why do you come to the website?
   What do you primarily use the site for?
   Is there anything on the site that prevents you from
    doing what you need to do quickly and efficiently?
   Is what you need present?
   What sort of information do you expect when
    searching for a school?
   Did anything on our MACS website convince you to do
    your graduate work here?
   Is the current color theme of the MACS page appealing?
Identifying Users to Interview
   Persona Hypothesis.
    ◦ What different sorts of people might use the
      product?
    ◦ How might their needs and behaviors vary?
    ◦ What ranges of behaviors and environments
      need to be explored?
   May also identify behavioral and
    demographic variables.
Example Persona Hypothesis:
MCS Website
   Students                     Parents
    ◦ Potential Students           ◦ Potential students
        High School students      ◦ Existing students
        Transfer                Faculty
        International             ◦ CSM Faculty
        Continuing Education      ◦ Collaborators
        Graduate                Job Candidates
    ◦ Current Undergraduate      Prospective Employers
      Students
        Non-MACS
        MACS
    ◦ Current Graduate
      Students
        MACS
Example Behavioral Variables:
MCS Website
   education level (high school, undergrad, grad,
    faculty, etc)
   aesthetic preference (simple-> pictures ->
    flash/more dynamic)
   level of interest (quick browsing, casual search,
    focused search, detailed reading)
   persistence (easily frustrated, tolerant)
   skills (basic website navigation, comfortable,
    expert navigator)
   familiarity with department (no knowledge,
    alumni, current major, current non-major, parent)
   frequency of use (never, seldom, occasional,
    frequent)
User Observation
 Most people are incapable of accurately
  assessing their own behaviors.
 You can talk to users about how they
  think they behave, or you can observe it
  first-hand.
 The latter route provides superior
  results.
 Technological aids such as audio or video
  recorders may be used, but should not be
  too obtrusive.
Example Ethnography/Usability:
MCS Website
   Task: Find out what classes are
    going to be offered next semester.

   Observation: First went to course home
    pages but couldn't find the info there.
    Then went to course descriptions and
    found it, but took two minutes or so of
    looking around the page to find the
    information. It is hidden at the bottom of
    the page kind of out of the way.
Example Ethnography:
Programming IDE
   Lots of sitting and staring at screen.
   Frequent switch to explanation of assignment
    ◦ Looking for specific details as opposed to rereading
      assignment
    ◦ Lot of time reading lab description for insight.
 Frequent switching between .h and .cpp without
  adding code to either. Lot of confusion about what
  goes in each section.
 No textbooks in sight
 Lots of warnings, errors that won’t go away. Compile,
  receive error, remove line, recompile, still have error.
  Rely on error messages from IDE, but often don’t
  understand the message.
 Lots of looking at neighbor’s code.
Continued Observations
 No one googled errors
 Students not making much use of resources
  like chapter notes.
 Many students have difficult time typing,
  which slows them down significantly
 Users seem to spend more time navigating
  around code that actually writing code.
 Some students who appeared to be lost
  spent time messing around with Visual
  Studio interface.
Market Research*
 Identify and analyze the market need,
  market size and competition
 Not Marketing Research (how to market
  a product effectively)




                      * from Wikipedia
Competitor Analysis – Why?
“Competitor analysis is an essential component of
  corporate strategy. It is argued that most firms do
  not conduct this type of analysis systematically
  enough. Instead, many enterprises operate on
  what is called “informal impressions, conjectures,
  and intuition gained through the tidbits of
  information about competitors every manager
  continually receives.” As a result, traditional
  environmental scanning places many firms at risk
  of dangerous competitive blindspots due to a lack
  of robust competitor analysis.”*

                             * Fleisher & Bensoussan, 2007
How? Competitor Array
   Define your industry - scope and nature of the industry
   Determine who your competitors are
   Determine who your customers are and what benefits they
    expect
   Determine what are the key success factors in your
    industry
   Rank the key success factors by giving each one a
    weighting - The sum of all the weightings must add up to
    one.
   Rate each competitor on each of the key success factors
   Multiply each cell in the matrix by the factor weighting.
    Example
Key Industry
                         Competitor   Competitor    Competitor   Competitor
Success      Weighting
                         #1 rating    #1 weighted   #2 rating    #2 weighted
Factors


1 - Extensive
                .4       6            2.4           3            1.2
distribution



2 - Customer
                .3       4            1.2           5            1.5
focus


3 - Economies
                .2       3            .6            3            .6
of scale


4 - Product
                .1       7            .7            4            .4
innovation

Totals          1.0      20           4.9           15           3.7
Literature Review
 White papers
 Journal articles
 Web searches
Product & Competitive Audits
 Examine competitor products
 Usability analysis (more later….)
 Useful features
 What’s missing
Example Literature Review:
CONNECT
   Poken
   Poken is used for social networking, personal identification
    communication. It uses Near Field Communication (NFC) to
    exchange social data between two keychains. An individual is
    identified with a ‘poken’, a keychain. The primary data exchanged is
    a ‘social business card’. Which the digital mirror of your business
    card. Contact information on a ‘poken’ their website.

   Crowd Vine
   This product creates profiles for people that contain their contact
    information. There doesn’t seem to be a way to exchange contact
    information with people other than sharing your email address or
    profile name. A profile contains the user’s social networking profile
    information. The site is like a social business card for finding ways
    to interact with people. The basic functionality is very similar to
    LinkedIn.
Handling the Interview Data
 Identify expectations
 Map behavioral variables to interview
  subjects
 Create personas
Example Expectations:
MCS Website
Primary persona (current undergraduate) expectations:
 I expect that the website will:
 Help me plan my schedule for next semester
 Help me contact my professor(s)
 Help me decide whether to continue for a master’s degree
 Help me find job opportunities in CS/in the department


Secondary persona (prospective student) expectations:
 I expect that the website will:
 Help me decide whether to attend CSM
 Help me figure out how much it will cost
 Help me determine if the research relates to my interests
                 Example: Map Subjects to BV
                 MCS Website
                                                                         Frustration Tolerance Level
 Low frustration tolerance                                                                                                            High frustration tolerance



                                    User1            User2                                                             User3          User5

                                            User4



     Exploring/bored                                                                                                                       Specific task
                                                             Reason for visiting site



                       User2    User5                                        User3                                         User1    User4



                                                                     Amount of time spent on site
Barely any time spent on site                                                                                                      Spent lots of time on site



                                                    User3            User2           User4             User1                       User5




        K-12                                                      Student Status                                                      Non-student (or graduate)


                                             User3                       User4                             User1   User2                      User5
Personas
 Based on real interview subjects (not
  stereotypes) – but not one exact subject
 Given a name for reference, easier for
  designers to relate to
 Resolve 3 user-centered design issues:
    ◦ Elastic user - generic “user” bends and stretches
      the design
    ◦ Self-referential - developers project their own
      goals, motivations, skills and mental models onto
      a product’s design.
    ◦ Design edge cases must be programmed for, but
      they should never be the design focus.
Example Persona:
MCS Website
Persona: Alex (Non-Macs major)
 Doesn't want to spend a lot of time on the site -- in and out
  mentality
 Not very experienced with the site -- infrequent visits
 Wants to find either course home page and bookmark it or
  professor contact info -- probably won't come back till next
  semester
 Would like an easy to navigate site, overcomplicated is bad.
 Familiar with mines, knows that MCS classes generally have
  course home pages.
 Not particularly interested in non class or professor related
  information.
Example Persona:
MCS Website
Persona: Laura (transfer student)
 New to Mines, in need of MCS related information
 Visited the site just a couple times, not sure where
  everything is yet
 Critically needs MCS degree information to decide
  on a major at mines
 Needs info like flowcharts and course descriptions
 Would like to see current and up-to-date information
  on the site so she can get a feel for the department
 Hopes to be able to find the desired information
  without issue.
Example Persona:
MCS Website
Persona: Robert (Computer Science Major)
  (Primary Persona)
 Familiar with the site -- visits it once or twice a
  month
 Wants easy access to course homepages and
  professor contact information
 Would like to see frequent updates on upcoming
  important events (such as group advising for
  registration)
 Needs course flowcharts, course descriptions
 Needs graduate school info
Persona Expectations
 Expectations for a product and its
  context of use are informed by the
  persona’s mental model of the product.
 Identify behaviors expected or desired
  from the product
 Think about: what do subjects mention
  first, what action words do they use, and
  what intermediate tasks they don’t
  mention.
Persona Expectation: MCS Website
 Website will help me plan my schedule
 Website will allow me to contact my
  instructor
 Website will tell me what I need to know
  to become a CS major at Mines
 Website will help me be part of the Mines
  CS community

				
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