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Lecture 27b Native Specialist _Oligolectic_ Bees of the Vernal Pool

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Lecture 27b Native Specialist _Oligolectic_ Bees of the Vernal Pool Powered By Docstoc
					Biology & Habitats of Native Bees
 Natural Resources Conservation Service, 20 August 2009
                Robbin Thorp, UC Davis
A “Not-A” Bee
     Another “Not-A” Bee
A Sphecid Wasp (“You are what you eat”)
               A Bee
The European Honey Bee, Apis mellifera




              Honey bee on almond
     What are Bees (Apoidea)?
• Derived wasps that use pollen (not animal)
  protein to feed their young
• They use nectar as flight fuel
• They have branched hairs, and other
  adaptations for obtaining food from flowers
• They provide an important ecological
  service to flowering plants: Pollination
• Many are pollen specialists (oligoleges)
     What are Bees (Apoidea)?
• There are over 19,500 species (ca 20-30K)
   – More diversity than all Mammals + Birds +Reptiles +
     Amphibians summed together.
• Greatest diversity is in warm dry areas not wet
  tropics
• About 75% are solitary
• About 15% are cuckoos
• About 10% are social
You Are What You Eat
  Food gathering devices
Bee Tongues
 Forked (Bifid)
        • Plasterer bees have
          bifid tongue like wasp
          relatives

        • Adaptation for brood
          cell construction used
          to spread cellophane-
          like polymer lining
Bee Tongues
Short Tongued Bee
         • Mining bee
         • Short pointed glossa
Bee Tongues
Long Tongued


      • Orchid bee
         – Elongate tongue
           longer than body
Pollen Transport Structures
     Scopa (Brush of hairs)
                 • Mining Bee
                   – Most of hind leg plus
                     sides of thorax



                 • Digger Bee
                   – Only outer hind leg
Pollen Transport Structures
       Pollen Moistened
               • Mining bee
                  – Scopa sparse




               • Bumble bee
                  – Corbiculum (concave
                    plate on hind leg)
Pollen Transport Structures
      Scopa: Abdominal


              • Leafcutting bee
                 – Bum-up position
Bee Diversity
 Mining Bees
       • Mining Bees
         – Female




         – Male
         – Sexual dimorphism
         – Haplodiploidy
Bee Diversity
 Mining Bees
       • Mining Bee
         – Female

         – Specialist on Sky Blue
           (Oligolege)

         – Unnamed species
Bee Diversity
  Sweat Bees
       • Sweat Bee
         – Female




       • Sweat Bee
         – Male
Bee Diversity
  Sweat Bees
       • Green Sweat Bee
         – Female




       • Green Sweat Bee
         – Male
    Bee Diversity
Leafcutting & Mason Bees
            • Leafcutting Bee
               – Female collecting
                 pollen



            • Leafcutting Bee
               – Female cutting leaf
    Bee Diversity
Leafcutting & Mason Bees
            • Mason Bee
               – Female




            • Cotton Bee
               – Male
         Bee Diversity
Digger, Cuckoo, & Corbiculate Bees
                 • Cuckoo Bee
                    – Female




                 • Cuckoo Bee
                    – Female
         Bee Diversity
Digger, Cuckoo, & Corbiculate Bees
                 • Sunflower Bee
                    – Female (Specialist)



                 • Squash Bee
                    – Female (Specialist)
         Bee Diversity
Digger, Cuckoo, & Corbiculate Bees
                 • Carpenter Bee
                    – Female




                 • Small Carpenter Bee
                    – Female
         Bee Diversity
Digger, Cuckoo, & Corbiculate Bees
                 • Yellow Face Bumble
                   Bee
                    – Queen




                 • Orchid Bee
                    – Male
                    – with orchid pollinia
         Bee Diversity
Digger, Cuckoo, & Corbiculate Bees
                 • European Honey Bee
                    – Worker




                 • Stingless Bee
                    – Worker
          Habitat Requirements
• In addition to food from flowers, bees need
  habitats for their nests
• Most are solitary soil nesters
   – Sand, clay, sandstone, rock
   – Flat ground, birms, vertical cliffs
   – Many have specialized habitat requirements
• Many are tubular cavity nesters
   – E. g., beetle tunnels, hollow stems
• Some excavate their own burrows in wood or pith
• Some social bees use large cavities
Life Cycle of Solitary Bees

              • Female Mining Bee on
                Goldfields flower head
                in spring

              • This bee specializes on
                Goldfields for pollen
                (Oligolecty)
Life Cycle of Solitary Bees
              • Nest entrance:
                 – open with tumulus
                   (excavated soil)
                   surrounding it.


              • Nest architecture:
                 –   Vertical entry shaft
                 –   Lateral tunnels
                 –   Brood cells:
                 –   1) Completed with egg
                 –   2) Under construction
Life Cycle of Solitary Bees
              • Brood cell with food
                mass being formed



              • Brood cell with food
                mass completed and
                egg laid on surface
Life Cycle of Solitary Bees
              • Cap of brood cell
                (inner view)



              • Early larva ready to
                initiate feeding on
                pollen provisions
Life Cycle of Solitary Bees
              • Post-feeding larva
                (summer phase)



              • Pupa
                (autumnal phase)
Life Cycle of Solitary Bees
              • Early spring bloom of
                Goldfields and Yellow
                Carpet at Jepson
                Prairie Reserve

              • Female Mining bee on
                pollen host, Goldfields
              • Synchronized annual
                cycles
              • www.vernalpools.org/Thorp/
Other Bees Managed for Crop Pollination
Bee Nests
     • Alkali Bee
       – Female on alfalfa



       – Aggregated nest site
       – Tumuli
Bee Nests
     • Alkali Bee
       – Brood cell



       – Pollen provisions with
         egg on top
Bee Nests
     • Alkali Bee
       – Post feeding larvae



       – Pupa
Bee Nests
     • Alkali Bee
       – Artificial bee bed



       – Road sign to protect
         bees from becoming
         road kill
Bee Nests
     • Alfalfa Leafcutting
       Bee
        – Female collecting
          pollen from alfalfa

        – Female cutting leaf
Bee Nests
     • Alfalfa Leafcutting
       Bee
        – Cavity nester
        – Field domicile with bee
          boards


     • Female into nest with
       leaf piece
Bee Nests
     • Alfalfa Leafcutting
       Bee
        – Female in with pollen



     • Female laying egg on
       pollen provision
Bee Nests
     • Alfalfa Leafcutting
       Bee
        – Brood cells with pollen
          provisions, egg, larvae



     • Fully developed larvae
       in cocoons
Bee Nests
Mason Bee
     • Blue Orchard Bee
       (BOB) female on
       almond flower

     • Drilled hole with
       mud partitions,
       pollen, and larvae
Bee Nests
     • Bumble Bee
        – Corbiculate Bees
        – Annual societies
        – Queen emerging from
          hibernation
     • Incipient nest
        – Honey pot
        – Initial brood
        – Incubated by queen
Bee Nests
     • Bumble Bees
       – Nest with eggs, pupa,
         cocoons

     • Nest overview
       – Egg cups, cocoons
       – Eggs, larvae, pupae
       – Nectar storage in old
         cocoons
Bee Nests
     • Bumble Bees
        – Mating male/queen



     • Queens entering into
       hibernation
             Conclusions
• Other bees may be suited for management
• Unmanaged populations provide valuable
  services for crop and wildland plants.
• Knowledge about biology and habitat needs
  of native bees provides keys to managing
  them and their habitats.

				
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