buddhism by dandanhuanghuang

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									religious and medieval philosophy
GOD & THE PHILOSOPHERS
PHILOSOPHY & RELIGION

   philosophy of religion: evaluation and
    explanation of religious thought, belief, and
    practice.

   phenomenology of religion: a description,
    rather than an explanation, of religious thought,
    belief, and practice.
THREE CENTRAL THEMES


   other beings
     levels   of existence
   a sense of justice
     divine   and human law
   persistence of the person/self
     something    or nothing
THE SACRED & THE PROFANE


 people
 places

 space

 time
the middle way

BUDDHISM
THE THREE JEWELS

   The Buddha
     "I   teach about suffering and the way to end it”
   The Dharma
     the   teaching
   The Sangha
     the   community
THE STORY OF SIDDHARTA GUATAMA


   The Awakened One

                   for a wave in the ocean, is the
     "Enlightenment,
     moment the wave realizes it is water."
            Thich Nhat Hanh
THE DHARMA

 The Four Reliances
 The Kalama Discourse

 The Four Noble Truths

 The Eightfold Path

 Three Characteristics of Existence

 Hindrances
THE FOUR RELIANCES


 Rely on the teaching, not on the person;
 Rely on the meaning, not on the words;

 Rely on the definitive meaning, not on the
  provisional;
 Rely on your wisdom mind, not on your ordinary
  mind.
THE KALAMA DISCOURSE
   Do not believe a spiritual teaching just because:
     1. it is repeatedly recited,
     2. it is written in a scripture,
     3. it was handed from guru to disciple,
     4. everyone around you believes it,
     5. it has supernatural qualities,
     6. it fits my beliefs anyway,
     7. it sounds rational to me,
     8. it is taught by a respectable person,
     9. it was said to be the truth by the teacher,
     10. one must defend it or fight for it.
…
 However, only when it agrees with your experience
  and reason, and when it is conducive to the good
  and gain of oneself and all others, then one
  should accept the teachings, and live up to them.
 "If you were to follow the Dharma purely out of love
  for me or because you respect me, I would not
  accept you as disciple. But if you follow the
  Dharma because you have yourself experienced its
  truth, because you understand and act accordingly
  - only under these conditions have you the right to
  call yourself a disciple of the Exalted One.” (TNH)
THREE CHARACTERISTICS OF EXISTENCE



 1. Transiency (anicca)
 2. Sorrow (dukkha)

 3. Selflessness (anatta)
THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS

                        release through
                          the eightfold
                              path


                         freedom from
                         attachment is
                            possible



                         suffering comes
                        from attachment




                        to live is to suffer
THREE QUALITIES      EIGHTFOLD PATH

   Wisdom              Right View
       panna           Right Thought
   Morality            Right Speech
       sila
                        Right Action
   Meditation          Right Livelihood
       samadhi
                        Right Effort
                        Right Mindfulness
                        Right Contemplation



THE EIGHTFOLD PATH
THE SANGHA


 includes all practitioners
 the community of
  ordained monks and
  nuns
 those who have realized
  emptiness
THE THREE VEHICLES


 Hinayana
 Mahayana

 Theravada


     Zen

     Tibetan
HINAYANA

 “the smaller vehicle”
 the most one can attain in this aeon is Arhat--a
  perfected person, one who has gained insight
  into the true nature of existence and has
  achieved nirvana (spiritual enlightenment),
  freedom from the bonds of desire; an arhat will
  not be reborn.
MAHAYANA

 “the greater vehicle”
 every sentient being can become a Buddha
THERAVADA

 “teaching of the elders”
 from the Third Council (308 bce)

 constituted the Pali canon

 focuses on the teachings on the Four Noble
  Truths and meditation
ZEN

   I possess the true Dharma eye, the marvelous
    mind of Nirvana, the true form of the formless,
    the subtle dharma gate that does not rest on
    words or letters but is a special transmission
    outside of the scriptures. This I entrust to
    Mahākāśyapa.
ANOTHER CENTRAL BELIEF OF BUDDHISM
   Karma
       "Countless rebirths lie ahead, both good and bad. The
        effects of karma (actions) are inevitable, and in
        previous lifetimes we have accumulated negative
        karma which will inevitably have its fruition in this or
        future lives. Just as someone witnessed by police in a
        criminal act will eventually be caught and punished, so
        we too must face the consequences of faulty actions we
        have committed in the past, there is no way to be at
        ease; those actions are irreversible; we must eventually
        undergo their effects.” (the Dali Lama)
…



   priority of the mind

         things are preceded by the mind, led by the
     "All
      mind, created by the mind." (the Dali Lama)
…
   the Four Immeasurables (Brahma Viharas)

      May all sentient beings have happiness and its
      causes,
     May all sentient beings be free of suffering and its
      causes,
     May all sentient beings never be separated from
      bliss without suffering,
     May all sentient beings be in equanimity, free of
      bias, attachment and anger.
THE THREE BASKETS



   Tripitaka (the Pali canon)

     Vinaya Pitaka (Discipline Basket)
     Sutra Pitaka (Discourse Basket)

     Abhidhama Pitaka (Higher Knowledge or Special
      Teachings Basket)

								
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