World War I and
Technology Changes the
face of Warfare
Invention Description Use/Effect in battle
Automatic Machine Gun
Chapter 29 Pgs 838-858
Some of the battles may not be in your book so you will have to use outside resources
BATTLE DATE VICTOR (if any) MAJOR EVENTS OR SIGNIFICANCE
June Allies – including Allies stopped last major German offensive here
Chateau - 1918 the U.S.
Sept Allies (large # of Final push by Allies – forced German armies back
St. Mihiel 1918 Americans) to the borders of Germany
Peace soon followed
Archduke Francis Ferdinand is Assassinated
On the morning of June 28, 1914, while traveling in a motorcade through Sarajevo, the
capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie
were assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. The Archduke had ignored warnings of a
possible assassination plot and decided to tour the capital on the anniversary of the 1389
battle of Kosovo. This battle was a humiliating collective memory for all Serbs, in which
Serbia was defeated by the Turks, ending Serbia's independence as a nation.
The Archduke was chosen as a target because Serbians feared that after his ascension to
the throne, he would continue and even heighten the persecution of Serbs living within the
Austro-Hungarian empire. Serbia had gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in
1878. At that time, Serbia laid claim to several regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina which
were inhabited primarily by Serbs. However, the Congress of Berlin granted permission to
Austria-Hungary to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina, including the disputed Serbian areas.
In 1908, Austria-Hungary officially annexed all of occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina, adding
additional fuel to the fires of Serbian nationalism.
The Serbian terrorist organization, the Black Hand, had trained a small group of teenage
operatives to infiltrate Bosnia and carry out the assassination of the Archduke. It is unclear
how officially active the Serbian government was in the plot. However, it was uncovered
years later that the leader of the Black Hand, Colonel Dragutin Dimitrijevic, was also the
head of Serbian military intelligence.
As Francis Ferdinand and his party proceeded through Sarajevo, the first of the Black Hand
operatives tossed a bomb at the Archduke's automobile. The chauffeur saw the explosive
and accelerated to avoid the impact. Sophie ducked, and Francis Ferdinand deflected the
bomb with his arm, causing it to bounce off the back of the car and explode behind them,
demolishing the next car and seriously injuring several aides. To avoid capture and
interrogation, the unsuccessful assassin, nineteen-year-old Nedjelko Cabrinovic, swallowed
a cyanide pill and jumped into the river. However, he was hauled out of the river and
As the Archduke's entourage resumed its tour of Sarajevo, the Archduke's chauffeur took a
wrong turn and drove within ten feet of another Black Hand agent, Gavrilo Princip. Princip
stepped up to the car and fired two pistol shots. One bullet hit Sophie, killing her instantly.
The other hit Francis Ferdinand, who died within minutes. Like Carbinovic, Princip
attempted suicide, but was captured before succeeding.
Austrian reaction to the assassination was swift, as the Sarajevo crisis was seen as the
Empire's last chance to assert its supremacy in the Balkans. Austrian foreign minister Count
Leopold von Berchtold was determined to make use of the assassinations to crush once
and for all the Serbian nationalist movement. Berchtold sent an envoy to Berlin, who was
assured by Emperor William II on July 5th that Germany would fully support any action
which the Dual Monarchy might take against Serbia. On July 6th, German chancellor
Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg issued the blank check of unconditional German support.
On July 23, 1914, Austria-Hungary presented Serbia with a lengthy list of demands, with a
48 hour period in which to comply. These demands included abolishing all Pan-Serb
propaganda, expelling from office any persons thought to have nationalist sympathies,
taking legal action against certain officials designated by Austria-Hungary, and allowing
agents of the Dual Monarchy to control all investigations and proceedings concerning the
Sarajevo murders. Minutes before the July 25th deadline, Serbia issued a conciliatory reply
to Berchtold's demands, stating that Serbia wished the dispute to be submitted to the
International Tribunal at the Hague. This conciliation was rejected. On July 28, 1914,
Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. World War I had begun.
1. What country was the Arch Duke from?
2. What was the purpose of his visit to Serbia?
3. What was the assassin’s name?
4. Why did he want to kill the Arch Duke?
5. What was Austria’s reaction to the assassination?
6. What did Serbia do about Austria’s threat?
7. Was there anything that could be done to stop this incident from causing World War I?
The Schlieffen Plan
Overview: In 1914, Germany believed war with Russia was extremely likely. If war broke out, Germany
assumed France would also attack as she was both an ally of Russia and keen for revenge for her
defeat in the Franco-Prussian war. If this happened, Germany would face a war on two fronts.
Germany wanted to avoid this at all costs.Germany planned to defeat France rapidly and then turn to
the eastern front for a major offensive on Russia. This was the basis for the Schlieffen Plan.
BackgroundThe Germany Army Chief of Staff, Alfred von Schlieffen was asked to plan a way of
preventing a war on two fronts. His initial plan was produced late in 1905. He believed that it was a
priority to defeat France quickly, forcing them to surrender before Russia had a chance to mobilize her
In full knowledge of French defences, Schlieffen proposed attacking France through Holland, Belgium
and Luxembourg – the Benelux countries. Schlieffen planned to use 90% of German military forces to
deliver a knock out blow to France. The remaining 10% would defend the eastern border of Germany
against Russian attack.
Molkte replaced Von Schlieffen in 1906, and made some alterations to the plan. His
version avoided invading Holland, instead concentrating attack through Belgium. According to Von
Molke, the Belgium army would be unable to resist a powerful German military, and German forces
would rapidly enter France.
Russia would take at least 6 weeks to mobilize.
France would be easily defeated in 6 weeks.
Belgium would not resist any German attack.
Britain would remain neutral.
On 2nd August 1914, the German army invaded Luxembourg and Belgium according to the Schlieffen
The Germans were held up by the Belgium army, backed up by the BEF (British Expeditionary Force)
which arrived extremely quickly.
Russia mobilised in just 10 days and Germany was forced to withdraw troops from the Schlieffen Plan
to defend her eastern border.
Germany did not take the chance to take Paris, instead decided to attack east of the capital. They were
met by French at the battle of the Marne (5-11 Sept) which halted the German advance.
Answer the following questions neatly in complete sentences:
1.The German army was mobilized and the trucks and trains were set in motion to attack France first.
This fact made the war unstoppable. Why do you think that was true? (hint* Think of railway tracks)
2.What factors had the German not planned on that made the Schleiffen Plan a failure from the start?
3.Faced with the alliance of France, Britain, Belgium, Serbia and Russia, what plan might have worked
to give the German’s a fast victory?
4. The British, French, Serbians and Russians knew the war was coming and did not have a unified plan
to stop the Germans and Austrians. What plan might have worked to defeat the Germans and Austrians
and keep the war from getting bogged down in a long trench war?
THE ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM
(sent to the German Ambassador to Mexico)
“We intend to begin on the first of February, unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall
endeavor, in spite of this, to keep the United States of America neutral. In the event of this
not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal of alliance on the following basis: make war
together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part
that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The
settlement in detail is left to you. You will inform the President of the above most secretly as
soon as the outbreak of war with the United States of America is certain and add the
suggestion that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence and at
the same time mediate between Japan and ourselves. Please call the President’s attention to
the fact that the ruthless employment of our submarines now offers the prospect of
compelling England in a few months to make peace.”
Answer the following questions about the Zimmerman Telegram:
1. What did Zimmerman fear might cause the United States to enter the war?
2. What country is being offered an alliance in this telegram?
3. What United States Territory was Germany (Zimmerman) willing to guarantee Germany’s ally in the
event that the U.S. entered the war?
4. Who was Germany (Zimmerman) trying to get to the “peace table” by taking action identified in #1?
5. What other country at war with Germany was mentioned in the telegram? Why would Germany want
that country to either join them or stay out of the war?
6. Why do you think many historians believe this telegram was a fake made up by the British?
After World War I
The Treaty of Versailles
Issue Treaty Settlement Problems
Fear of German strength
Colonies and other Non-European
League of Nations
Analyzing A Political Cartoon
1. Identify the cartoon caption or title
2. List the objects or people you see in the cartoon
3. Which of the objects on your list are symbols
4. What do you think each symbol means
5. Which words or phrases in the cartoon appear to be the most significant? Why do you think so
6. List adjectives that describe the emotions portrayed in the cartoon
7. Describe the action taking place in the cartoon
8. Explain how the words in the cartoon clarify the symbols
9. Explain the message of the cartoon
THE INFLUENZA PANDEMIC OF 1918
Questions: Please answer in complete sentences.
1. What year did the epidemic begin
2. Where did the epidemic begin
3. How did WW I contribute to the spreading of the flu
4. Describe how the “Spanish” flu differed from other flu outbreaks.
5. What circumstances allowed for the flu to spread quickly through out America and the world
6. How well did the medical community deal with the flu outbreak in America? What problems did they
have in dealing with this epidemic
7. How did the flu outbreak affect daily life and activities in America
8. What was the global reaction to the Spanish pandemic
The Russian Revolution
1. What was Lenin’s view of dissent?
2. What must a revolutionary movement have in order to succeed?
3. Why does Lenin argue that revolutionary activity must be centralized?
How does this reflect his own interests?
4. Is this pamphlet a good blueprint for revolutionaries? Explain your answer