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					Attitudes and Interests
                 Attitudes
• Attitudes are often defined as learned
  predispositions, positive or negative,
  towards some object (person, institution).
• Social attitudes generally refer to
  predispositions towards socially relevant
  policies (abortion) institutions (the Federal
  Government), types of people (Blacks,
  Democrats, Communists), etc.
The Structure of Social Attitudes
• There is no widely agreed upon core set of
  variables, instruments or approaches in the
  social attitudes field
• The major dimensions typically studied are:
  – Authoritarianism
  – Conservatism
  – Religiousness
            Authoritarianism
• Originally attempts to understand a “pre-
  fascist” personality
• Authoritarianism may be a trait related to
  “tribalism” (in-group bias) and/or fear of
  novelty
• Persons high in Authoritarianism
  – Neo-nazis (“skin-heads”)
  – Military
  – Religious fundamentalists (e.g., Christian or
    Islamic)
 Right Wing Authoritarianism #1

• The way things are going in this country,
  it’s going to take a lot of “strong medicine”
  to straighten out the troublemakers,
  criminals and perverts
• It is wonderful that young people today
  have greater freedom to protest against
  things they don’t like and to “do their own
  thing”. (R)
 Right Wing Authoritarianism #2

• It is always better to trust the judgment of
  the proper authorities in government and
  religion than to listen to the noisy rabble-
  rousers in our society who are trying to
  create doubt in people’s minds
• The real keys to the “good life” are
  obedience, discipline, and sticking to the
  straight and narrow.
 Right Wing Authoritarianism #3
• There is nothing immoral or sick in
  somebody’s being a homosexual. (R)
• It may be considered old-fashioned by
  some, but having a descent respectable
  appearance is still the mark of a gentleman
  and especially, a lady.
• It is important to protect fully the rights of
  radicals and deviants. (R)
 Right Wing Authoritarianism #4
• The facts on crime, sexual immorality, and
  the recent public disorders all show we have
  to crack down harder on deviant groups and
  troublemakers if we are going to same our
  moral standards and preserve law and order.
• It would be best for everyone if the proper
  authorities censored magazines and movies
  to keep trashy material away from the
  youth.
           Authoritarianism
• Persons high in Authoritarianism are
  – Relatively submissive to those they consider
    established authorities
  – Aggressive when they believe authorities
    sanction the aggression
  – Conventional in social attitudes
  – Prefer conservative economic policies and
    right-wing political parties
  – Hold prejudice beliefs:
    racial/ethnic/gender/sexual orientation
 Correlations Between RWA, Education,
  Socioeconomic Status, and General
   Cognitive Ability in Two Samples
Variable                    MTR    MISTRA

Education                   -.37    -.36

Socioeconomic Status        -.30    -.40

General Cognitive Ability    --     -.37
        Intraclass Correlations and 95% Confidence
         Intervals for RWA Without Controlling for
        General Cognitive Ability and the MZA and
         DZA Correlations with GCA Partialed out.

                                 Kinship Group

                    MZA        DZA           MZT         DZT

RWA                   .69        .00         .63          .43
                  (.48—.82) (-.31—.33)    (.57—.68    (.34—.49)

RWA partialling       .59       -.09             --      --
out GCA           (.34—.76) (-.39—.23)
                 Traditionalism
• Personality scale developed by Auke Tellegen as
  part of the Multidimensional Personality
  Questionnaire (MPQ)
• Developed a scale related to tendencies toward
  attitudes of:
   –   Conformity
   –   Conventionality
   –   Morality
   –   Authoritarianism
     MPQ Traditionalism Items
• The surest way to a peaceful world is to improve people’s morals.


• I am always disgusted with the law when a criminal is freed through
  the argument of a smart lawyer.


• As young people grow up they ought to try to carry out some of their
  rebellious ideas instead of just settling down. (F)

• I am very religious (more than most people).

• What this country needs most are higher standards of conduct.
     MPQ Traditionalism Items
• I consider it very important to have a good reputation in my
  community.

• I very much dislike it when someone breaks rules of good conduct.

• People who think primarily of their own happiness are very selfish.

• The church has outgrown its usefulness and should be radically
  reformed or done away with. (F)

• My parents’ ideas of right and wrong have always proved to be best.
Mean Standardized Traditionalism
    Score by Age and Sex
   Heritability Estimates Based on 12 Kinships (4300
pairs), MZA Twins (74 pairs) and MZT Twins (626 pairs)

                              N=4300     N=74     N=626
                                     2
       MPQ Scal e             Mea n h    r MZ A    r MZ T
       Wel l -Be in g           .40       .50       .40
       So ci al p otency        .54       .54       .53
       Achi eve ment            .35       .33       .35
       So ci al clo sen ess     .46       .44       .46
       Stress re acti on        .44       .47       .44
       Al i enati on            .50       .35       .48
       Ag gre ssi on            .37       .40       .37
       Co ntrol                 .40       .46       .40
       Ha rm avoi dance         .46       .45       .45
       Traditiona lism          .54      .52       .54
       Ab sop ti on             .35       .56       .33

       Mea n                    .44      .46       .46
Traditionalism from age 17 to 24
• Rank-order stability: r = .56
• Mean-level change: d = .17
• Reliable change:
  – 86.5% stayed the same
  – 5.3% decreased
  – 8.2% increased
• Heritability is stable (h2 = .50)
              Conservatism
• Tendency to preserve what is established
  and resist change
• Conservatism scales tend to focus on
  specific political/social/economic policies
 Conservatism Questionnaire
• Here is a list of various topics. Please
  indicate whether or not you agree with each
  topic by circling Yes or No as appropriate.
  If you are uncertain please circle?. Again
  the best answer is usually the one which
  comes to mind first, so just give us your
  first reaction and don’t spend too long on
  any one topic.
•   (1) Death penalty        Yes   ?   No
•   (2) Astrology            Yes   ?   No
•   (3) X-rated movies       Yes   ?   No
•   (4) Modern art           Yes   ?   No
•   (5) Women's liberation   Yes   ?   No
•   (6) Foreign aid          Yes   ?   No
•   (7) Federal housing      Yes   ?   No
•   (8) Democrats            Yes   ?   No
•   (9) Military drill       Yes   ?   No
•   (10) The draft           Yes   ?   No
•   (11) Abortion            Yes   ?   No
•   (12) Property tax        Yes   ?   No
•   (13) Gay rights          Yes   ?   No
•   (14) Liberals            Yes   ?   No
•   (15) Immigrants        Yes   ?   No
•   (16) Capitalism        Yes   ?   No
•   (17) Segregation       Yes   ?   No
•   (18) Moral majority    Yes   ?   No
•   (19) Pacifism          Yes   ?   No
•   (20) Censorship        Yes   ?   No
•   (21) Nuclear power     Yes   ?   No
•   (22) Living together   Yes   ?   No
•   (23) Republicans       Yes   ?   No
•   (24) Divorce           Yes   ?   No
•   (25) School prayer     Yes   ?   No
•   (26) Unions            Yes   ?   No
•   (27) Socialism         Yes   ?   No
•   (28) Busing            Yes   ?   No
Division of the U.S. into regions of
 common political and historical
              heritage
Mean Conservatism scores by level of education
Factor Analysis of the Conservatism Items
                     Sexual        Social      Militarism
                   Conservatism Conservatism

 Democrats             .18          .61           .13
 Pacifism              -.00         -.56          -.07
 Unions                -.08         .54           -.00
 Liberals              .38          .53           .06
 Socialism             .25          .51           -.22
 Foreign Aid           -.02         .51           .06
 Immigration           -.02         .42           -.01
 Death Penalty         .10          -.41          .40
 Federal Housing       .04          .39           .03
 Busing                .05          .24           -.01
     Factor Analysis of the Conservatism Items
                   Sexual        Social      Militarism
                 Conservatism Conservatism
Military Drill       -.19         -.04          .73
The Military         -.12         -.11          .69
Draft
Republicans           .12         .04           .58
School Prayer        -.38         -.05          .46
Nuclear Power         .13         -.31          .44
Moral Majority       -.23         .08           .43
Property Tax          .08         .06           .17
Segregation           .05         .02           .16

% Variance          14.6          8.3           7.9
Accounted for
      Correlations Between Personality and
              Conservatism Scales

MPQ Scales         Conservatism     Sexual          Social      Militarism
                                  Conservatism   Conservatism

Well-Being             -.04           -.07           -.07          .08
Social Potency         -.04           -.14           .07           .05
Achievement            .04            -.02           .08           .08
Social Closeness       -.03           .03            -.09          -.03
Stress Reaction        .04            .02            .10           -.01
Alienation             .14            .07            .16           .08
Aggression             -.03           -.19           .18           -.04
Control                .14            .17            .02           .08
Harm Avoidance         .07            .17            -.06          -.01
Traditionalism         .60            .54            .34           .38
Absorption             -.13           -.12           -.06          -.08
Correlations Between RWA, IQ, and
       Conservatism Scales

                                  Sexual        Social
                   Conservatism Conservatism Conservatism   Militarism


Right Wing             .73          .62          .42          .51
Authoritarianism

WAIS Full             -.21         -.16         -.14          -.18
Scale IQ
MZA, DZA and Spouse Correlations for
   MISTRA Conservatism Scales

                MZA      DZA     Spouses
               (N=54)   (N=46)    (N=93)

Conservatism     .62      .29     .61
Sexual C         .51     .13      .37
Social C        .52      .35      .50
Militarism       .55     -.05     .56
               Religiousity
• Tendency to endorse a set of beliefs
  concerning the cause, nature, and purpose
  of the universe, esp. the worship of God
• Includes both beliefs and behaviors
• Usually refers to an organized set of beliefs
  and behaviors
MMPI Religious Fundamentalism Items -1

• Everything is turning out just like the prophets of the Bible
  said it would.
• I go to church almost every week.
• I believe in the second coming of Christ.
• I believe in a life hereafter.
• I am very religious (more than most people).
• I believe there is a Devil and a Hell in afterlife.
• I believe there is a God.
• I feel sure there is only one true religion.
             Religiousness Scale
• Rate frequency from “never”, “>1 week”, “daily”,
  “always”:
   –   Attend religious services
   –   Seek guidance, help, or forgiveness through prayer
   –   Read scripture or other religious material
   –   Review/discuss religious teachings w/family
   –   Decide moral “do’s” or “don’ts” for religious reasons
   –   Observe religious holidays
   –   Membership in religious youth or study groups
   –   Have friends with similar beliefs
   –   Importance of religious faith in daily life
 Intraclass Correlations and Sample Sizes
  for the Various Religiousness Measures

                                                   Twin Typ e
Scale
                                        MZA   MZT           DZA       DZT
Wiggins Religious Fundamentalism (10)   .55   .56           .01       .23
                                        78    95                56    78


Religious Occupational Interests (4)    .55   .43               .09   .23
                                        65    51 1              50    39 3


Religious Leisure Time Inte rests (6)   .50   .58               .12   .28
                                        64    51 9              49    40 3


Weighte d Me an                         .53   .51               .07   .25
        Alternate models, standardized variance
         estimates for Religiousness Measures
Scale                          Model          a2           c2             e2

Wiggins Religious           ACE model        .54          .00           .46
Fundamentalism                 95% CI     (.36- .64)   (.00- .17)    (.36- .57)


                             AE model        .54          ---           .46
                               95% CI     (.43- .64)                (.364- .571)


Religious Occupational      ACE model        .44          .00           .57
Interests                      95% CI      (3 0—.50)                 (.51— .62)


                             AE model        .44          ---           .56
                               95% CI     (.38— .50)                 (.51— .62)


Religious Leisure Time      ACE model        .55          .02           .44
Interests                      95% CI     (.40- .61)   (.00- .15)    (.39- .49)


                             AE model        .57                        .44
                               95% CI     (.51- .61)        --       (.39- .49)


a2=additive genetic variance,c2=shared environmental variance
e2=specific environmental variance + error
       Heritability of Frequency of
  Church Attendance - US and Australia
     (N=over 20,000 in each study)

                 Males        Females
Australia         .42           .25

U.S.              .38           .40
Age and Heritability of Religiousity
• Heritability of Religiousity increases with
  age
• Study of adult twins (age 33) about
  religious practices:
• Retrospective religiousity
  – a2 = .12, c2 = .56, e2 = .32
• Current religiousity
  – a2 = .44, c2 = .18, e2 = .38
   Internal Religiousness - Representative
         Items and Factor Loadings
My religion is important because it answers many questions about the       .77
  meaning of life. (IR)

I enjoy reading about my religion. (IR)                                    .75

It is important to me to spend time in private thought and prayer. (IR)    .74

I would prefer to go to my place of worship.* (IR)                         .74

I have often had a strong sense of God's presence. (IR)                    .73

I try hard to live all my lif e according to my religious beliefs. (IR)    .72

*Response format for this item. a) a few times a year or less, b) once every month
or two, c) two or three times a month, d) about once a week, e) more often than
once a week, f) about once a day.
  External Religiousness - Representative
        Items and Factor Loadings
I go to my (Church, Synagogue, Temple) to spend time with my             .80
    friends. (ER)

I go to my (Church, Synagogue, Temple) mainly because I enjoy seeing     .79
    people that I know there. (ER)

I go to my place of worship (Church, Synagogue, Temple) because it       .66
    helps me to make friends. (ER)

I pray mainly to gain relief and protection. (ER)                        .56

I pray mainly because I have been taught to pray. (ER)                   .50

Sometimes I have to ignore my religious beliefs because of what people   .42
   might think of me. (ER)
Correlations Between IR and ER and
          Personality Scales
 MPQ Scales         IR     ER


 Well-Being         -.03   .01

 Social Potency     -.11   -.09

 Achievement        .05    -.13

 Social Closeness   .06    -.02

 Stress Reaction    .08    .05

 Alienation         -.04   .06
Correlations Between IR and ER and the
           Scales of the MPQ
    MPQ Scales        IR      ER


    Aggression       -.30**   -.03

    Control           .17     .06

    Harm Avoidance    .09     .14

    Traditionalism   .37**    .04

    Absorption        .02     .03
                  Interests
• Activities or stimuli that arouse feelings of
  engagement, concern, and curiosity
• “A response of liking.”
• Preference for certain activities or objects
• Related more to satisfaction than
  performance, i.e., independent of ability or
  aptitude
                     Interests
• Probably originate from individual differences in
  emotionality and attention
• Emotion theory:
   – Emotions are psychophysiological behavior patterns to
     specific situations and stimuli
   – Attention is focused on emotionally relevant stimuli
• People differ in what types of stimuli captures
  their attention and produces positive emotions of
  engagement, curiosity, and liking
         Structure of Interests
• How are WORK and PLAY alike?
• Occupational Interests
  – what types of activities does a person do to
    obtain necessities of life?
• Leisure Time Interests
  – what types of activities does a person do when
    they can do whatever they want?
          Interest Inventories
• Early interest inventories followed a
  criterion group approach
• Examined the likes and dislikes of persons
  already in a given profession
• Professional groups had a different pattern
  of interests, both leisure and occupational
     Characteristics of Interests
• Develop long before one has experience
  with occupations
• Begin to stabilize around 9th grade
• Longitudinal studies spanning 20 years
  show fair stability after late teens (Strong,
  1955)
• Still, interests can change even in adulthood
Personality and Interests are not
        the same thing.
 Validity Issues in Measuring Interests

• Faking – express interest in desirable jobs
• Response sets – Acquiescence, social
  desirablility, avoidance/preference for
  extremes
• Socioeconomic status – interest inventories
  predict occupational choice better for
  middle- and upper-classes than lower-class
Primary Uses of Interest Inventories


•   Counseling and Occupational Exploration
•   Selection and Placement of Employees
•   Study of Occupations
•   The Study of Human Lives
 Campbell Interest and Skills
Survey (same style as Strong)
Campbell Interest and Skills
       Survey -1
Campbell Interest and Skills
       Survey -2
Two Basic Interest Dimensions
CISS Orientation and Basic
        Scales - 1
CISS Orientation and Basic
        Scales - 2
CISS Orientation and Basic
        Scales - 3
     Strong and Holland Inventories –
      General Occupational Themes
• Realistic – Agriculture, Nature, Military, Athletics,
  Mechanical
• Investigative – Science, Mathematics, Medicine, Detective
  work
• Artistic – Music/Drama, Art, Applied Art, Writing,
  Culinary Arts
• Social – Teaching, Social Service, Medical Service,
  Religious Activities
• Enterprising – Law/Politics, Merchandising, Sales,
  Organizational Management
• Conventional – Data Management, Computer Activities,
  Office Services
 Interests don’t necessarily
correlate well with abilities
Meta-Analysis of Twin Correlations
Minnesota Occupational Interests
          Instructions
As you consider each of the ways of making a living
that are listed below, pretend that they each would
provide you with the same income and the same
respect in the community. Then rate each activity

            Like---Indifferent---Dislike

Strictly according to how much you would enjoy that
type of work and those working conditions.
Minnesota Occupational Interests
          100 - Items
Performing artist: actor, singer, dancer, etc.
Coach of a team sport like football or hockey.
Musician: any instrument.
Novelist, script writer, playwright.
Professional gambler (legal): horses, card
games etc.
Bookkeeper, accountant, auditor
   Minnesota Occupational Interest
   Inventory - Standard Scales #1

MN Occupational             Intraclass Correlations
Interest Inventory
Standard Scales
                     MZA      DZA           MZT        DZT
                     N=41     N=38         N=511      N=393


Adventure (5)       .27        .33           .41       .19
Agriculture (4)     .41        .11           .41       .24
Art (6)             .44        .11           .47       .31
                    .31
Business Management (3)       -.16           .32       .11
Maintenance (2)     .21       -.18           .36       .21
Computer Skills (2) .57        .10           .32       .17
Driver (4)          .56       -.04           .37       .13
Law (3)             .18        .04           .39       .09
  Minnesota Occupational Interest
  Inventory - Standard Scales #2

MN Occupational              Intraclass Correlations
Interest Inventory
Scales
                      MZA      DZA          MZT         DZT
                      N=41     N=38         N=511      N=393


Medical Service (6)    .38      .14          .42         .19
Music/Drama (4)        .51      .26          .48         .25
Nature (3)             .28      .33          .47         .21
Office Practice (3)    .50     -.23          .41         .29
Personal Care (3)      .40      .31          .36         .18
Politics (4)           .46      .16          .41         .18
Police/Military (4)    .18     -.11          .33         .10
Religion (4)          .58      .27           .43        .22
Minnesota Occupational Interest
Inventory - Standard Scales #3

MN Occupational             Intraclass Correlations
Interest Scales

                     MZA      DZA           MZT        DZT
                     N=41     N=38         N=511      N=393


Sales (5)            .40      -.26           .39       .19
Science (4)          .48       .10           .42       .18
Skill Trades (4)     .54      -.07           .40       .21
Small Business (4)   .42       .04           .29       .20
Sports (5)           .35      -.09           .47       .19
Teaching (5)         .42       .15           .48       .23
Television (3)       .12      -.07           .39       .22
Veteranarian (3)     .43       .03           .48       .17
Writer (3)           .09       .31           .47       .26

Mean of 25 Scales    .38       .06          .41        .20
Minnesota Occupational Interest
   Inventory - Super Factors

MN Occupational           Intraclass Correlations
Interest Scales
Super Factors
                   MZA      DZA          MZT         DZT
                   N=41     N=38         N=511      N=393


Influencing (12)   .49       .28           .49       .22
Organizing (15)    .52      -.19           .37       .27
Adventuring (14)   .36       .14           .43       .19
Analyzing (6)      .51       .19           .39       .17
Creating (16)      .29       .29           .51       .28
Helping (13)       .53       .38           .38       .22
Producing (20)     .56       .06           .50       .23

Mean               .47       .17          .44        .22
Family Environment Scales
  Cohesiveness
  Expressiveness
  Conflict
  Independence
  Active Recreational Orientation
  Achievement Orientation
  Intellectual Cultural Orientation
  Moral Religious Emphasis
  Organization
  Control
Correlation of Interest Factor with Family Environment
          Scale Factors for Adoptees (N=120)

                  Cohesion vs.   Positive Constraint Encoragement of
Interest factor     Conflict                         Individual Growth


Enterprising           .02              -.05               -.02
Academic Orientation   .15              .04                -.10
Artistic               .09              .11                -.23
Investigative          -.06             .05                 .05
Work Style             -.03             .16                -.01
Realistic              -.04             .02                 .08
Social                 .05              -.01               -.05
Adventure              .15              .00                -.07
Medical                .09              .03                -.16
Conventional           -.05             -.04               -.05
  Examples of Items on Physical
  Facilities Questionnaire Factors

    Material              Culture               Scientific/            Mechanical
   Possessions                                  Technical               Outdoors


TV Set             Famous Paintings (re p) Chemical Lab. Equip,   Fishing/Hunting Equip.
FM Radio           World Atlas            Telescope              Carpentry Tools
Movie Projector    Art Supplies           Photograph ic Dark RoomAutomative Tools
Two or more Cars   Books in Foreign Lan g Stop Watch             Motor or Sailboat
        Correlation of Interest Factor with Physical
        Possessions Factors for Adoptees (N=120)
                            Environment Factor
Interest factor

                    Material     Culture         Scientific/   Mechanical
                  Possessions                    Technical      Outdoors


Enterprising        .13            .03              -.08           .05
Academic Orientation-.10           .07              -.03          -.06
Artistic            -.07           .34              .08           -.17
Investigative       -.08           -.09             .02            .19
Work Style          .03            -.01             -.10          -.11
Realistic           .06            .09              .20            .04
Social              .06            -.05             .01           -.03
Adventure           -.02           -.12             -.15           .10
Medical             .20            .05              .07           -.06
Conventional        .04            -.07             -.06           .02

				
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