; constitution
Learning Center
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out


VIEWS: 14 PAGES: 107

  • pg 1
									                          To be an informed citizen of the United States Government
                          and History who consistently contributes to our diverse

                          What are the principles of our Constitution?
After School Schedule:
Before school Tues-Fri;   Jumpstart: Name a law that is decided upon
No after school time      by each state? What is a law that is uniform
                          amongst all 50 states? Why do you think we
Today’s skill assessment: have this system?

Tonight’s homework for      Agenda For Your Planner 4/12/10
your planner:             Turn in practice work for Unit 2: Study guide
Read Ch. 5 section 1 –    and Road to Rev. chart
Complete study guide      Go over Constitution of the UDOGS
                          Divide into states
Next Due Date for your    Report from our Prez
1.    Kyla - Senator
2.    Kurtis – Head of the Secret Service
3.    Jessika I. - Representative
1.    Reid
2.    Gabi - President
3.    Sami - Representative
4.    Rachel
5.    Dylan R. - Representative
6.    Xavier
7.    Lizzie - Senator
8.    Nicki - Representative
9.    Megan
10. Cameron
11. Annie - Representative
12. Jessica H.
13. Skylar
14. Alyssa P.
15. Karen - Representative
 Dylan L. - Representative
 August – Sec’t of Defense
 Adam - Senator
 Brennan - Senator
 Katie B. - Representative
 Alyssa S. – Attorney General
 Isabella - Representative
 Kayla H. - Senator
 Audra – Vice Prez
1. Mikaela – Sec’t of State
2. Emilee - Representative
3. Sophia - Senator
                          To be an informed citizen of the United States Government
                          and History who consistently contributes to our diverse

                          How does a bill become a law?
After School Schedule:
Before school Tues-Fri;   Jumpstart: How does a bill become a law?
No after school time
                           Agenda For Your Planner 4/13/10
Today’s skill assessment: Ch. 5 section 1 Quiz
Note-taking               Elect our representatives/senators
                          Discuss how a bill becomes a law
Tonight’s homework for President addresses class
your planner:             Appointments
Read Ch. 5 section 1 – Report from our Prez
Complete study guide

Next Due Date for your
Quiz on Ch. 5 Section 1

1. What was the governing document called
   before the Constitution?
2. How did the national gov’t collect taxes?
3. A government in which citizens rule
   through their elected representatives is a
                          To be an informed citizen of the United States Government
                          and History who consistently contributes to our diverse

                          How does a bill become a law?
After School Schedule:
Before school Tues-Fri;   Jumpstart: If you could create a law for this
No after school time      class what would it be? Why?

Today’s skill assessment: Agenda For Your Planner 4/14/10
Note-taking              Report from our Prez
                         Swear in the Prez
Tonight’s homework for Elect Speaker of the House and President
your planner:            Pro Tem
Read Ch. 5 section 2 – Create committees and then pass laws
Complete study guide

Next Due Date for your
                          To be an informed citizen of the United States Government
                          and History who consistently contributes to our diverse

                          How does a bill become a law?
After School Schedule:
Before school Tues-Fri;   Jumpstart: What were the weaknesses of the
No after school time      Articles of Confederation?

Today’s skill assessment: Agenda For Your Planner 4/15/10
Note-taking              Lecture: Articles of Confederation
                         Time to work on study guides
Tonight’s homework for
your planner:
Read Ch. 5 section 3 –
Complete study guide

Next Due Date for your
Major changes after the war

New land
                HUGE debt

     New government/leaders
How were new states governed?

 The Articles of
  Confederation: 1st
  governing document of the
     An association or joining of
      several sovereign states.
      Has a central government with
      limited power.
     States have power to decide
      their own taxes.
Articles of Confederation

Created for the states Nov. 15, 1777
Adopted by the 2nd Continental Congress
 after a year of debate
Gave Congress a power to unify all states
 during war
Could make wartime decisions together
Articles of Confederation
                                   *1 vote for
                                   every state
                        Congress   *To make
                                   changes to
                                   Articles every
                                   state had to

    RI        VA    GA       NY    MD        NJ      DE

         PA        NC     NH       MA      SC       CT
Articles of Confederation

Confederation: Alliance;
   2 levels of government
   (1) States (2) National
First American President

Complete the reading of “John Hanson,
 American Patriot and First President of the
 United States”

Why do you believe John Hanson is never
 mentioned in your History book?
Who was the
first president?
1. Who was America’s first president?
2. Why do you think you never hear about the real first
   president? Is that a good thing or bad thing?
Paragraph Write

Answer the following question in 5

Are stories of failure important in our
 history? Why or why not?

Owed $190 million at end
 of war
Asked for each state’s
 approval to impose tax on
 imported goods
  RI rejected it
Debtors vs. Creditors
 Debtors: Borrowers of money
 Creditors: Lenders of money
  Wanted high state taxes so they
   could get repaid
 High taxes sent farmers into
  They lost land, it went to creditors
Shay’s Rebellion Video

1.   What led to the rebellion?
2.   Why did it lead to rebellion?
3.   Was justice served?
4.   Who was involved?
5.   Why didn’t Congress stop it?
6.   What did Shay’s Rebellion tell
     us about the Gov’t?
                          To be an informed citizen of the United States Government
                          and History who consistently contributes to our diverse

                          How does a bill become a law?
After School Schedule:
Before school Tues-Fri;   Jumpstart: How did Shay’s Rebellion lead to
No after school time      the Constitution?

Today’s skill assessment: Agenda For Your Planner 4/15/10
Note-taking              Discuss Shay’s Rebellion
                         Lecture: Constitutional Convention
Tonight’s homework for Time to work on study guides
your planner:
Read Ch. 5 section 3 –
Complete study guide

Next Due Date for your
Major changes after the war

New land
                HUGE debt

     New government/leaders
Shay’s Rebellion

How might this have looked to other
  “What a triumph for our enemies…to find that
   we are incapable of governing ourselves” –
   George Washington
What did this mean?
“Those who would give up liberty for
  temporary safety deserve neither liberty
  nor safety” – Ben Franklin

 -How did this quote fit
 the Revolutionary time

     1775                1777               1783          1787

 Lexington &
   Concord     Declaration of              End of Rev. Convention
               Independence                   War

                       Articles of
                  Confederation put into
Constitutional Convention

May 25, 1787 – Sept. 1787
Meet in Penn. State House
 (Independence Hall)
Constitutional Convention

12 states send rep.
  Rhode Island did not
George Washington voted to
 lead it
  Patient & Fair
Goal: Revise the Articles of
Goal of the Convention
 Articles of Conf. Were not working, let’s change
 The goal changed almost immediately
  Rewrite an entire constitution!

Kept doors locked and windows
 middle of summer
Script of meeting kept secret til
 1840 (57 yrs)
Men at the Convention

  55 men sent from 12
  8 signed Dec of Indep.
  George Washington,
   James Madison, Ben
   Franklin key figures
    The features of the members were
•   Government of Great Britain
•   Political writings of people like Locke and others
•   Articles of Confederation
•   State governments
•   Many had attended the Second Continental Congress
•   Many had experience in politics
•   Many were college educated
•   Many had fought in the Revolutionary War
•   Many were lawyers
•   19/55 owned slaves
•   No one from the poor groups

Balancing power between a national and
 state government

Representation at the National Level

Having trouble decide how many
 representatives each state should get
Had already decided it needed to be a
Fear of true democracy – why?
Virginia Plan

 What were the main ideas?
1. Three Branches for national government
   Legislative, Executive, Judicial
2. 2 houses in national legislature
   House of Rep. & Senate
   Proportional Representation???
Reactions to the Virginia Plan

Why would large states create this plan?
 What were the benefits to them?
Was it fair to all states? Why or why not?
How might smaller states react to this?
New Jersey Plan

Legislative Branch would only have one
 house (like Articles of Confederation)
  Increase powers:
    Levy taxes
     regulate trade
    create supreme laws over states
     several ‘presidents’ chosen by Congress
    Supreme court chosen by ‘presidents’
Reactions to NJ Plan

Why would NJ create it?
What were the benefits to them?
Was it fair to all states? Why or why not?
The Great Compromise

Read page 69 – 70 “What was the Great
Fill out the scroll on your graphic organizer
  What does the plan offer
  1 house or 2 houses
Bicameral legislature (Congress)
   2 houses
1. House of Representatives
  Proportional representation according to state
2. Senate
  Equal representation
  Chosen by state legislatures (law makers)

Made up of two houses (1) Senate         (2)
 House of Representatives

                     House of
      Senate     +   Representatives   = Congress
Legislative Branch

Article I – Legislative Branch
Believed the Legislative Branch would
 have the most important role
   making laws
6 Basic Principles of the
1. Popular Sovereignty
All Power is held by the People
The power to govern is given through the
Amendments protecting sovereignty:
  15th – African Americans
  17th – Senators elected directly
  19th – Women
  24th – Outlawed poll tax
  26th – Voting age lowered to 18
2. Limited Government

Government can only do what the people
 give it the power to do
Constitutionalism - Those who govern
 must also obey the law; also called rule of
3. Separation of Powers
Legislative Branch – make the laws
  Represents a district or state
  Serves 2 or 6 years
Executive Branch – enforces the laws
  Represents the whole country
  Serves 4 years
Judicial Branch – interprets the laws
  Represents the Constitution
  Serves for life
4. Checks and Balances

Each Branch is checked by the other
Ensures one branch does not have all the
Chart – page 68
5. Judicial Review

Power of the court to determine the
 constitutionality of a government
Supremacy Clause – US Constitution is
 the supreme law of the land
6. Federalism

Some powers are delegated to the
 national gov’t and some are reserved for
 the states
States have their own laws, courts,
 constitutions, and elected officials
                      Feared a strong central
                      Wrote anonymous
                       pamphlets against ratifying
                       Constitution as it was
     Patrick Henry
                      Wanted…
                       Bill of Rights
                       No standing army during peace
                       Prez. Had too much power


   Wanted a strong                   James Madison
    central government
   Responded to Anti-
    Federalists by…
     Too many rights,
      cannot list them all so
      don’t list any             Alexander Hamilton
     Separation of Powers
      stops any individual in
      gov’t from gaining too
      much power
                           John Jay
The Bill of Rights
The First 10 Amendments to the Constitution

 Take notes on the
  slides as they appear.
 Draw pictures to
  represent at least five
  of the amendments.
1st Amendment

 The 1st Amendment guarantees freedom of
  religion, speech, the press, assembly, and petition.

   This means that we all have the right to:
   practice any religion we want to
    to speak freely
   to assemble (meet)
   to address the government (petition)
   to publish newspapers, TV, radio, Internet (press)
         QuickTime™ an d a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
   are need ed to see this p icture .
2nd Amendment

 The 2nd
  protects the right
  to bear arms, which
  means the right to
  own a gun.
3rd Amendment

The 3rd Amendment says “No soldier
 shall, in time of peace be quartered in any
 house, without the consent of the owner,
 nor in time of war, but in a manner to be
 prescribed by law.”
This means that we cannot be forced to
 house or quarter soldiers.
4th Amendment

 The 4th Amendment protects the people from
  unreasonable searches and seizures.
 This means that the police must have a
  warrant to enter our homes. It also means
  the government cannot take our property,
  papers, or us, without a valid warrant based
  on probable cause (good reason).
5th Amendment

 The 5th Amendment protects people from
  being held for committing a crime unless they
  are properly indicted, (accused)
 You may not be tried twice for the same
  crime (double jeopardy)
 You don’t have to testify against yourself in
  court. (Self-incrimination)
6th Amendment

 The 6th Amendment
  guarantees a speedy trial
  (you can’t be kept in jail for
  over a year without a trial)
 an impartial jury (doesn’t
  already think you are guilty)
 that the accused can
  confront witnesses against
 the accused must be allowed
  to have a lawyer
7th Amendment

The 7th Amendment guarantees the right
 to a speedy civil trial.
A civil trial differs from a criminal trial. A
 civil trial is when someone sues someone
 else. A criminal trial is when the state tries
 to convict someone of a crime.
8th Amendment
 The 8th Amendment
  guarantees that
  punishments will be
  fair and not cruel,
  and that
  extraordinarily large
  fines will not be set.
  Alaska (1957)
   Hawaii (1948)
   Iowa (1965)
   Maine (1887)
   Massachusetts (1984)
   Michigan (1846) Minnesota (1911)
   North Dakota (1973)
   New Jersey (2007)
   New Mexico* (2009)
   New York (2007)#
   Rhode Island (1984)**
   Vermont (1964)
   West Virginia (1965)
   Wisconsin (1853)
   - Dist. of Columbia (1981)
What about Washington
   Number of Executions Since 1976 – 4
   Number of Executions before 1976 – 105
   Current Death Row Population – 9
   Women on Death Row – 0
   Date Death Penalty Re-enacted - 11/04/1975
   1st Execution After Re-enactment – 1993
   Murder Rate (per 100,000) - 2.9
   Is Life Without Parole an Option? Yes
   Can a defendant get death for a felony in which s/he was not responsible for
    the murder? No
   Number of Innocent Persons Freed From Death Row – 1
   Number of Clemencies Granted – 0
   Method - Choice of Injection or Hanging
   How is the Sentence Determined? Jury
   Location of Death Row(s) - Walla Walla
   Clemency Process - Governor has sole authority to grant clemency
9th Amendment

 All rights not stated in the Constitution and
  not forbidden by the Constitution belong to
  the people.
 This means that the states can do what they
  want if the Constitution does not forbid it.
10th Amendment

The 10th Amendment states that any
 power not granted to the federal
 government belongs to the states or to
 the people.
Ch. 6 section 1 & 2 Quiz

1. The most prominent leader of the
   Federalist Party was….
2. The second president of the U.S. was….
3. The XYZ Affair brought the US to the
   brink of war with….
4. One individual who went to talk to XYZ
History of the UDOGS
 Colonized New Slatopia aka Clayton’s
 The UDS threatens us because of our take-over
  of New Slatopia
 Voted Gabi Phelps in as Prez
 Formed “The Gabinet”
 Congress is formed and creates bills
 Prez Phelps is assassinated
 Prez Lewis is sworn in
 The House and Senate are extremely divided
Washington Becomes President
                               Main Idea
 President Washington and other leaders tried to solve the new
   nation’s economic problems. This led to the rise of political

                            Reading Focus
• What steps did Congress and the president take to organize the new
• What was Alexander Hamilton’s plan to settle the nation’s debts?
• What was the debate over the national bank?
• How did the first political parties form?
Organizing the Government
• February 1789—Washington was elected president; John
  Adams became vice president.
• Congress created the first executive department: state,
  treasury, and war. The department leaders became
  known as the president’s cabinet.

• Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson
• Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton
• Secretary of War: Henry Knox

• Federalists: led by Hamilton, wanted a strong central
• Jeffersonian Republicans: led by Jefferson and Madison,
  wanted a smaller central government, more rural than
  urban, with powerful states
Organizing the Government
The first Congress
 Only 10 states had joined the government; presided
  over by Vice President Adams
 Sent proposed amendments to the states (Bill of
 The Judiciary Act of 1789 organized the judicial
  branch. It had a six-person Supreme Court with one
  chief justice and five associates.
 John Jay named as first chief justice
Settling the Nation’s Debts
Hamilton’s Plan to Pay Debt
• Federal government should take on all the debt from the war
• Find ways to bring revenue to government
• Establish national bank to control credit and make loans to

New taxes
• Tariff of 1789 taxed imported goods
• Excise tax, 1791, taxed the production or sale of liquor, sugar,
  snuff, and carriages

• Hamilton compromised with Jefferson and James Madison, who
  led the opposition to his economic plan.
• The capital would be moved to the South by 1800. In return,
  the southerners would allow Hamilton’s debt bill to pass.
• Washington chose the area; Pierre L’Enfant planned the city.
Debating a National Bank
 Most controversial part of Hamilton’s plan was the national
 Two views of the Constitution:
    Strict construction: the government should do only what
      the Constitution specifically states it can do
    Loose construction: the government can take
      reasonable actions that are not outlined in the
      Constitution—as long as those actions are not specifically
 Hamilton pointed to the “necessary and proper” clause of the
  Constitution when he proposed a national bank.
 That was a prime example of loose construction.
Debating a National Bank

 Jefferson was only lukewarm to the Constitution in its final
 A strict constructionist, he felt that Hamilton’s interpretation
  of the “necessary and proper” clause was going beyond
  the powers that the Constitution specifically allowed.
 Jefferson opposed a national bank.
 Congress passed the bill, and Washington signed it to
  charter the first Bank of the United States in February
First Political Parties Form
• The excise tax led to a violent clash between supporters and
  opponents of strong government.

• Settlers in the western frontier felt their interests were ignored
  by the government.
• In 1794 farmers on the western Pennsylvania frontier objected
  to the excise tax on whiskey. Their livelihoods depended on
  turning surplus grain into rye whiskey.

• Uprising known as the Whiskey Rebellion
• Farmers attacked tax collectors and burned barns of people
  who gave away the locations of their whiskey stills.

• A crowd of more than 2,000 angry farmers threatened
• There was talk of setting up an independent nation.
First Political Parties Form
• After the farmers ignored Washington’s orders to stop the
  rebellion, Washington and Hamilton led a force of some 13,000
  or more men into Pennsylvania.

• The farmers scattered in all directions instead of resisting the
• They were caught and arrested; two were convicted of treason,
  but Washington eventually pardoned them.

• Federalists established local associations, gave political offices
  and other favors to their supporters.
• Jeffersonian Republicans influenced elections in various states
  by working together.
• A two-party system was on its way.
• Jeffersonian Republicans became Democratic Republicans.
Challenges of the 1790s
                         Main Idea
 The United States faced many challenges during the 1790s.
   It tried to remain neutral in European wars while dealing
     with conflicts with Native Americans in the Northwest

                       Reading Focus
• Why did Washington want to remain neutral in response to
  events in Europe?
• What conflicts took place in the Northwest Territory?
• What challenges did John Adams face as president, and
  what was the XYZ Affair?
Remaining Neutral
• In 1789 the French monarchy was overthrown. Austria,
  Prussia, Great Britain, and Spain declared war on the new
  French government.
• Democratic-Republicans feared that if the French Revolution
  failed, republican governments everywhere would fail.
• Federalists had respect for French monarchy.

• France and Britain tried to draw the United States into their war
  and force it to take sides.
• Washington wanted to remain neutral. He issued the
  Neutrality Proclamation in April 1793.
• Edmund Genet, the new French ambassador to the United
  States, enlisted an American crew to fight on a French ship
  against the British.
• Washington demanded that Genet be replaced.
Remaining Neutral
• In early 1794 the British began seizing American merchant
    – British claimed the ships carried French goods or were
      sailing to a French port.
    – American sailors were thrown into British prisons.
• The British were stirring up trouble among the Native
  Americans in the Northwest Territory.

• John Jay negotiated Jay’s Treaty with the British.
    – British would pay for damages to American ships.
    – British would leave their forts in the Northwest Territory.
    – The United States would pay debts owed to Britain.
• Thomas Pinckney negotiated Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain
  and settled many border disputes between the United States
  and Spain.
Conflicts in the Northwest Territory
 In 1790s violence broke out     Battle of Fallen Timbers in
  when Native American             1794: American forces won
  nations resisted white           over the Miamis
  settlement.                     Treaty of Greenville: the
 Little Turtle led Miamis,        Miamis gave up large
  Shawnees, and Delawares          territories in Ohio and parts
  against St. Clair’s army and     of Indiana, Illinois, and
  won.                             Michigan
 American army returned in           The treaty also
  force and built forts and            recognized the Miamis’
  brought in supplies.                 claim to the land they still
President Adams and the XYZ Affair
Presidential election of 1796
• Washington retired after two terms.
• Thomas Jefferson was the Democratic-Republican
• John Adams was the Federalist candidate.

• Thomas Jefferson came in second with 68 votes to
  Adams’s 71 votes.
• Jefferson became vice president.
President Adams and the XYZ Affair
XYZ Affair                     As a result, Congress:
 France had attacked           Cut off trade with France
  American merchant ships.      Canceled wartime treaties
 French agents (referred to     it had made with France
  as X, Y, and Z) demanded      Authorized building
  bribes of the American         warships
  diplomats who went to         Allowed the U.S. navy to
  France to negotiate an end     capture French vessels at
  to the ship seizure.           sea

The XYZ Affair brought a general resentment of foreigners,
which led to passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts.
President Adams and the XYZ Affair
• Alien Acts: three laws that allowed the president to order
  foreigners considered to be a threat to national security to be
  jailed or deported.
    – Targeted French and Irish refugees, most of whom
       supported the French
    – Increased the period of residency required for citizenship
       from 5 years to 14
    – Required foreigners to register with the government
    – Allowed the president to jail or expel any foreigner thought
       to be “dangerous to the peace and safety” of the country

• The Sedition Act outlawed any opposition to government
  policies by actions or by “false, scandalous, or malicious
    – Targeted the Democratic-Republicans, who historically
       supported the French
President Adams and the XYZ Affair
• Nine Democratic-Republican newspaper editors and a
  member of Congress were convicted under the Sedition

• Jefferson and Madison drafted the Virginia and
  Kentucky Resolutions, where they argued that the
  Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional.
• They hoped states would nullify the laws.
• Only Virginia and Kentucky passed the resolutions.

• In the end, there was a deeper and more bitter political
  divide in Congress and the country.
Jefferson’s Presidency
                           Main Idea
 The rise of political parties influenced the election of 1800,
    bringing Thomas Jefferson and a new outlook to the

                       Reading Focus
• Why was the transfer of power in the election of 1800
• What changes did Jefferson make when he took office?
• What was the impact of the Louisiana Purchase?
• How did the role of the Supreme Court change?
The Election of 1800

• This contest marked the first time that power passed
  from one American political party to another.
• Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson against
  Federalist John Adams

• The campaign was vicious.
• Supporters of each side made their arguments in letters
  and newspaper editorials, which often made wild
  accusations and spread scandalous stories.
The Election of 1800
Federalists claimed that
• Jefferson was dangerously pro-French.
• Jefferson wanted to destroy organized religion because
  of his interest in science and philosophy.

Democratic-Republicans claimed that
• Adams wanted to crown himself king.
• The Federalists would try to limit Americans’ rights (using
  the Alien and Sedition Acts as proof of their claims).
The Election of 1800
• The election ended in a tie between Jefferson and Burr.
• Political parties did not specify who was the party’s preferred
  candidate for president.
• The House of Representatives was deadlocked for 35 votes.
• Hamilton urged Federalists to vote for Jefferson. On the 36th
  vote, Jefferson was chosen president.

• Burr held a grudge against Hamilton for supporting Jefferson
  and for preventing him from winning the governor’s race in
  New York in later years. In 1804, Burr killed Hamilton in a duel.
Jefferson Makes Changes
Succeeded in reducing          Succeeded in reducing size
 government                     of military

 Only customs duties and       Reduced the size of the
  the sale of lands produced     army and navy
  revenue for the
  government.                   However, built up navy to
                                 help merchant ships when
 Reduced the size of the        attacked by pirates
  executive department staff
The Louisiana Purchase
 General Napoleon                In 1800 Spain returned
  Bonaparte wanted to build a      Louisiana to France.
  French empire.

 Bonaparte to regain             Spanish officials closed the
  France’s former lands            lower Mississippi and New
  called the Louisiana             Orleans to American
 Those lands had gone to
  Spain in the Treaty of Paris    Spain turned over control of
  in 1763.                         the area to France.
The Louisiana Purchase
• Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to try to purchase New
  Orleans and West Florida.
• At the meeting, France offered to sell the United States all of
  the vast Louisiana Territory.

• On April 30, 1803, they signed an agreement with France to
  buy the land—final price about 80 million francs, or $15 million
• Almost doubled the territory of the United States

• The Constitution did not directly give Jefferson the authority to
  buy new territory for the nation.

• Jefferson and his fellow strict constructionists decided that the
  right to acquire territory was implicit in the president’s
  constitutional power to make treaties.
The Louisiana Purchase
• Jefferson sent the Corps of Discovery, usually called the Lewis
  and Clark expedition, to explore the land of the Louisiana
• Led by Meriwether Lewis, Jefferson’s secretary, and William
  Clark, an experienced frontiersman

• Their ultimate goal was to reach the Pacific Ocean.
• They mapped the country and surveyed its natural history,
  including plants, animals, and landforms.
• Were helped by their guide, a Shoshone woman, Sacagawea
The Role of the Supreme Court
 Federalist legislators in Congress passed the Judiciary Act of
  1801, which created new positions in the judicial branch.
 Departing President John Adams hurried to fill them with
 Adams’s signed documents had to be delivered to each man to
  make the appointments official.
 Not all were delivered before Jefferson took office the next day.
 James Madison, the new secretary of state, refused to deliver
  the remaining commissions.
The Role of the Supreme Court
• William Marbury, one of the men who did not receive his
  commission, brought suit in the Supreme Court.
• He claimed that the Judiciary Act of 1789 gave the Court the
  power to force Madison to deliver the commission.

• The Court ruled that the Constitution gave the Supreme Court
  the power to hear only certain kinds of cases.
• The Constitution did not give the Court the power to force
  Madison to deliver Marbury’s commission.
• It ruled the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional.
• Marbury v. Madison established the Supreme Court’s power of
  judicial review, to declare that a law violates the
The War of 1812
                        Main Idea
In the early 1800s, Americans unified to face Great Britain in
     war once again and to battle resistance from Native
         Americans over attempts to seize their lands.

                       Reading Focus
• What violations of American neutrality led to the
  War of 1812?
• How did Tecumseh resist American settlers?
• How did the War of 1812 begin? How did the war affect the
  new nation?
Violating Neutrality
• Unresolved tensions between the United States and
  Britain, on the northwest frontier and on the seas,
  caused the nations to war again.

• Napoleonic Wars affected American merchant shipping.
• France and Britain tried to cut off each other’s access to
  European ports.
• Both nations ignored American neutrality.
• The British were more of a threat because they would
  impress American sailors, forcing them to serve in the
  British navy.
Violating Neutrality
• In 1807 the British ship Leopard stopped the American
  frigate Chesapeake and seized four Americans.

• Congress passed the Embargo Act, which prohibited
  exports to foreign countries.
• This ban was a disaster to the economy.
• Goods piled up in warehouses, shops sat in the harbors,
  people lost their jobs, and businesses failed.

• In 1808 James Madison was elected president.
• A new law reopened all trade except that with Britain and
The War of 1812 Begins
 The Chesapeake and              The war was fought on land
  Leopard neutrality incident      and sea, from Canada to
  had some American                Louisiana.
  politicians calling for war.
                                  Much of the war took place
 They were known as War           along the U.S.-Canadian
  Hawks.                           border.

 The United States declared      The British staged a
  war on Great Britain in          massive blockade of the
  1812.                            American coast and New
The War of 1812 Begins
• In August 1812 the USS Constitution sank the British Guerriére.
• The naval war moved into the Great Lakes; the United States
  won the Battle of Lake Erie.

• The Americans made several unsuccessful invasions of Canada.
• Tecumseh joined the British in a campaign to capture Detroit
  and invade Ohio.

• Battle of the Thames: Harrison’s army met British and Indian
  forces and was victorious
• Tecumseh was killed in the battle, ending the British-Native
  American alliance.
• Tennessee militia leader Andrew Jackson led a force against
  the Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend where women,
  children, and warriors were massacred.
The War of 1812 Begins
• In August 1814 the British fleet sailed into Chesapeake Bay.
• Their soldiers marched to Washington, where they burned
  several major buildings, including the White House.
• Then they bombarded Fort McHenry at Baltimore Harbor. After
  an overnight battle, the American flag was still flying. The sight
  inspired Francis Scott Key to write the lyrics to “The Star-
  Spangled Banner.”

• A British force landed near New Orleans in December 1814.
• Andrew Jackson and a militia were waiting for them. He
  became the hero of the Battle of New Orleans.

• Treaty of Ghent: peace treaty between the United States and
  Great Britain, signed in December 1814 in Ghent, Belgium

To top