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Nationalism in Europe

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					Nationalism in Europe
         Nationalism’s Transformation: From Liberal
                Idea to Conservative Reality
      How to make sense of Nationalism in the 19th               Terms:
       century                                                    Benedict Anderson
                                                                  “Imagined Community”
      National Identity as a Social Construct
                                                                  Giuseppe Mazzini
      Italian Unification                                        Victor Emmanuel II
        – From Liberal Idea to the Conservative                   Count Camillio di Cavour
           Achievement of Piedmont-Sardinia                       Giuseppe Garibaldi
                                                                  Otto von Bismarck
           (1860)
                                                                  Realpolitik
      German Unification:                                        Franco-Prussian War
       – From Liberal Idea to the Conservative
         Achievement of Germany (1871)
                                                                            German Unification
       – Role of War
                                                Italian Unification
                                                                      Fr-Prussian War
                                                                      3rd French Republic
Series of Liberal Bourgeois Revolutions
                                          Crimean War    Austro-Prussian War

1789        1830        1848              1854-1856     1860   1866         1870    1871    1914
  LIBERAL CHALLENGE                                       CONSERVATIVE REALITY
    Making Sense of Nationalism:
    The Creation of Nation States
•Greece (1830)         •Lithuania (1989/1991)
•Belgium (1830)        •Estonia (1991)
•Serbia (1830)         •Latvia (1991)
•Italy (1861)          •Ukraine (1991)
•Romania (1862)        •Belarus (1991)
•Hungary (1867/1920)   •Croatia (1991)
•Germany (1871)        •Slovenia (1991)
•Bulgaria (1878)       •Macedonia (1992)
•Finland (1917)        •Czech Republic (1993)
•Poland (1920)         •Slovakia (1993)
•Ireland (1921)        •Bosnia (1995)
       Conservative Achievement of Italian Unification
   Led by Kingdom of Piedmont-
    Sardinia under leadership of
    Victor Emmanuel II (1849-1878)
    and his conservative Prime
    Minister Count Camillo di
    Cavour (1810-1861)
   Unification as Means to
    Strengthen Kingdom and Expand
    Power
   1859—War with Austria
   Help of Democratic Republic
    Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-
    1882)
     – Allured by unification and
        seeming parliamentary
        reforms in Piedmont Sardinia
        (1848 brings “constitutional”
        government)
                                        Piedmont-Sardinia    Piedmont-Sardinia
     – Rallying Cry of “Italy and       Congress of Vienna       By 1860
        Victor Emmanuel!” VERDI         Settlement (1815)
   March 1861: Victor Emmanuel
    declared himself King of Italy
                              Italian Unification
Garibaldi leading his “Red Shirts” to Victory over Neapolitan
Army, May 1860




                                                                     Italy by 1870

         •Unification of Italy by 1861 but not the Democratization of Italy
         •1848 Constitution of Piedmont Sardinia now Constitution of Italy
         •Resentment of Garibaldi and Republicans
         •Conservative Monarchical Regime with weak framework of
         constitutional government
         •Problem of Regional Divisions (language in particular)
Germany in 1860
             Otto von Bismarck
   Minister-President of
    Prussia 1859
   Directs Prussian drive to
    control German states
   Instigates war with
    Denmark (1864), Austria
    (1866), and France (1870)
   Works closely with
    military leadership:
    Helmut von Moltke
   Policy of realpolitik
German Unification 1871
    Louis Napoleon, Emperor of the French,
                 1852-1870
   February 1848: Attempt to set
    up Second Republic
   Influence of Louis Blanc’s
    ideas
   April elections brought more
    conservative elements into
    gov’t
   Gen. Cavignac puts down
    government
   Louis-Napoleon runs as
    “Bonaparte”
   Early career as dreamer and
    schemer
   Dec. 1848 elected President
   1852 declared Emperor
   Use of referendum
       Wars Leading to Unification
 1870: Franco-Prussian War
 A war over words: The Ems Telegram
 19 July 1871: French declare War
 Battle of Sedan (French defeated by 1 Sept)
   – 348,000 Prussians vs. 270,000 Frenchmen
 Napoleon III
   – Prisoner of war in September
   – Abdicates and goes into exile in England
 Final capitulation on 28 January 1871
 May 1871: Treaty of Frankfurt
   – Germany gains Alsace and Lorraine
   – French pay war debt of 5 billion francs
 France: Establishment of Third Republic
       German Unification
•18 January 1871: Declaration of German
Empire at Palace of Versailles
•Wilhelm I becomes German emperor
•Germany now an imperial federation of states
•Similar limits to representational government
as earlier Northern Confedertion
•Real power in hands of emperor
•Chancellor responsible to emperor not
legislature
•Federal Bundesrat and Reichstag elected by
universal malehood suffrage
Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles
      Nationalism and the Nation-State
•Central feature of
modernity
•Connections between
economy, and military
power
•Nation-state as most
efficient form of
government
    •North German
    Confederation in
    1867 mirrors
    economic alliance of
    Zollverein
•Continuing problem of
Klein Deutschland vs.
Gross Deutschland

				
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