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					Table of Contents
    Executive Summary ...................................................................................... ES-1

    Section 1 – Why is a New Border Crossing Needed?..................................1-1
          1.1   The Project’s Purpose...................................................................1-3
                1.1.1    Overview .........................................................................1-5
                1.1.2    The Economy ..................................................................1-5
                1.1.3    Civil and National Defense and Homeland Security ........1-6
          1.2   Specific Needs for a New Crossing...............................................1-8
                1.2.1    Provide Safe, Efficient and Secure Movement
                         of People and Goods Across the U.S.-Canadian Border
                         in the Detroit River Area to Support the Economies
                         of Michigan, Ontario, Canada and the U.S. .....................1-8
          1.3   Redundancy ...............................................................................1-13

    Section 2 – Alternatives..................................................................................2-1
          2.1   Illustrative Alternatives ..................................................................2-1
          2.2   Additional Screening of Alternatives............................................2-14
                2.2.1      Impact Assessment .......................................................2-14
                2.2.2      Value Analysis (VA)/Value Planning (VP) Results.........2-33
                2.2.3      Plaza Analysis ...............................................................2-33
                2.2.4      Practical Alternatives .....................................................2-36
                2.2.5      What Rules Guide Project Engineering? .......................2-37

    Section 3 – The Environment: What’s There Now
                and What are the Impacts? ........................................................3-1
          3.1   Social/Community Characteristics and Impacts ............................3-1
                3.1.1   Historic Trends of Region and Study Area ......................3-2
                3.1.2   Community/Neighborhood Characteristics ......................3-6
                3.1.3   Community Services, Facilities and Major Employers ...3-16
                3.1.4   Who Will Have to Move and When? ..............................3-21
                3.1.5   Characteristics of EJ/Title VI Population Groups...........3-25
          3.2   Jobs and the Economy................................................................3-32
                3.2.1   Expected Future Development ......................................3-32
                3.2.2   State and Regional Job Impacts....................................3-37
                3.2.3   Construction Jobs Created ............................................3-39
                3.2.4   Bridge and Plaza Operations.........................................3-41
                3.2.5   Tax Base Impacts..........................................................3-41
                3.2.6   Summary of Job/Economic Impacts ..............................3-41
          3.3   Do the Practical Alternatives Follow Planning
                and Zoning Requirements?.........................................................3-42
                3.3.1   Existing Land Use and Zoning.......................................3-42
                3.3.2   Summary of Land Use Impacts .....................................3-44
                3.3.3   Community Vision..........................................................3-48


              Detroit River International Crossing Study Draft Environmental Impact Statement
                                                      i
3.4    Protected Farmland and Forests.................................................3-48
3.5    Traffic ..........................................................................................3-49
       3.5.1      Travel Demand Model and Results ...............................3-49
       3.5.2      Microsimulation Model and Results ...............................3-61
       3.5.3      What Will Happen to Local Traffic? ...............................3-62
       3.5.4      How Will Traffic Work During Construction?..................3-69
       3.5.5      Summary of Vehicular Traffic Impacts...........................3-69
       3.5.6      How Will Pedestrians, Bicyclists
                  and Transit Users be Affected .......................................3-71
3.6    Air Quality ...................................................................................3-77
       3.6.1      Analysis Approach.........................................................3-78
       3.6.2      NAAQS, Recent EPA Actions and Pollutant Trends......3-79
       3.6.3      Air Quality Analysis Findings .........................................3-83
       3.6.4      Conformity Requirements under the Clean Air Act ........3-89
       3.6.5      Summary of Air Quality Impacts ....................................3-93
3.7    Will There be Noise Impacts? Where?
       Can They be Mitigated? ..............................................................3-95
       3.7.1      How was the Analysis Done? ........................................3-95
       3.7.2      Existing Noise Levels ....................................................3-98
       3.7.3      Future Noise Levels at Crossings and Plazas ...............3-98
       3.7.4      I-75 and Interchange Future Noise Levels...................3-100
       3.7.5      Noise Mitigation Considerations ..................................3-102
       3.7.6      Summary of Noise Impacts .........................................3-103
3.8    Effects on Wildlife and Wetlands...............................................3-105
       3.8.1      Analysis Approach.......................................................3-105
       3.8.2      Summary of Wetland and Related Impacts .................3-108
3.9    Historic and Archaeological Resources.....................................3-110
       3.9.1      Archaeological Resources Impacts .............................3-111
       3.9.2      Aboveground Resources Impacts ...............................3-116
       3.9.3      Traditional Cultural Properties .....................................3-118
       3.9.4      Summary of Cultural Resources Impacts ....................3-119
3.10   Parkland and Public Recreation Land .......................................3-123
       3.10.1 Existing Parks and Recreation Resources ..................3-123
       3.10.2 Summary of Parkland Impacts ....................................3-125
3.11   Visual Conditions ......................................................................3-126
       3.11.1 Analysis Approach.......................................................3-126
       3.11.2 Summary of Visual Impacts.........................................3-133
3.12   Lighting .....................................................................................3-133
       3.12.1 Lighting Considerations ...............................................3-134
       3.12.2 Summary of Lighting Impacts ......................................3-136
3.13   Contaminated Sites...................................................................3-137
       3.13.1 Background .................................................................3-137
       3.13.2 Summary of Impacts Related to Contaminated Sites ..3-138




Detroit River International Crossing Study Draft Environmental Impact Statement
                                        ii
         3.14     Indirect and Cumulative Impacts – U.S. and Transboundary ....3-142
                  3.14.1 Methodology................................................................3-142
                  3.14.2 Indirect Impacts – U.S. and Transboundary ................3-148
                  3.14.3 Cumulative Effects – U.S. and Transboundary............3-179
                  3.14.4 Summary of Indirect and Cumulative Impacts –
                           U.S. and Transboundary .............................................3-191
         3.15     Safety and Security ...................................................................3-192
                  3.15.1 Summary of Safety and Security Impacts....................3-193
         3.16     Soils/Geological Resources Impacts.........................................3-194
                  3.16.1 Soil/Geotechnical Conditions.......................................3-194
                  3.16.2 Geological Resources .................................................3-195
                  3.16.3 Summary of Soils/Geological Resources Impacts.......3-199
         3.17     Permits......................................................................................3-203
         3.18     Energy.......................................................................................3-203
                  3.18.1 Summary of Energy Impacts .......................................3-205
         3.19     Costs.........................................................................................3-205
         3.20     Governance ..............................................................................3-206
         3.21     The Relationship between Local Short-term Uses of
                  the Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement
                  of Long-term Productivity ..........................................................3-209
         3.22     Irreversible and Irretrievable Commitments of Resources ........3-210
         3.23     Community Enhancements .......................................................3-210

Section 4 – What Are Mitigation and the Proposed
            Measures to Reduce Harm? .......................................................4-1
      4.1   Rules that Guide Right-of-way Acquisition and Relocation ...........4-1
      4.2   Environmental Justice/Title VI .......................................................4-3
      4.3   What Will the Mitigation be Around the Plaza? .............................4-3
      4.4   Noise Walls .................................................................................4-3
      4.5   Construction Noise and Vibration Impacts ....................................4-4
      4.6   Control of Air Pollution during Construction ..................................4-4
      4.7   Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Control........................................4-5
      4.8   Surface Water Quality ...................................................................4-6
      4.9   Groundwater Quality .....................................................................4-7
      4.10 Wetland Mitigation.........................................................................4-8
      4.11 Migratory Birds ..............................................................................4-9
      4.12 What Happens to Existing Vegetation?.........................................4-9
      4.13 Parks.............................................................................................4-9
      4.14 Cultural Resources........................................................................4-9
      4.15 Contamination .............................................................................4-10
      4.16 Disposal of Surplus or Unsuitable Material .................................4-10
      4.17 Maintaining Traffic during Construction.......................................4-11
      4.18 Continuance of Public Utility Service...........................................4-12
      4.19 National Geodetic Survey Monuments........................................4-12
      4.20 Environmental Permits ................................................................4-12
      4.21 Additional Mitigation or Modifications ..........................................4-14
Green Sheet
          Detroit River International Crossing Study Draft Environmental Impact Statement
                                                  iii
Section 5 – Draft Section 4(f) Evaluation ......................................................5-1
      5.1   Introduction ...................................................................................5-1
      5.2   Proposed Action and Need for Project ..........................................5-3
            5.2.1    The Economy ..................................................................5-3
            5.2.2    Civil and National Defense and Homeland Security ........5-4
            5.2.3    Capacity and Connectivity ...............................................5-4
      5.3   Description of Resources ..............................................................5-6
            5.3.1    Historic Resources ..........................................................5-6
            5.3.2    Recreational Resources ................................................5-16
      5.4   Impacts on the Section 4(f) Properties ........................................5-18
            5.4.1    Historic Resources ........................................................5-18
            5.4.2    Recreational Resources ................................................5-19
      5.5   Avoidance Alternatives................................................................5-19
            5.5.1    Historic Properties .........................................................5-20
            5.5.2    Recreational Properties .................................................5-23
      5.6   Measures to Minimize Harm .......................................................5-24
      5.7   Coordination................................................................................5-24

Section 6 – How Were Local, State and Federal Agencies
            and the Public Involved?............................................................6-1
      6.1   Agency Coordination.....................................................................6-1
            6.1.1   Early Coordination ...........................................................6-1
            6.1.2   Cooperating Agencies .....................................................6-1
            6.1.3   Agency Meetings .............................................................6-2
      6.2   Public Workshops and Meetings ...................................................6-3
            6.2.1   U.S. Public Workshops....................................................6-4
            6.2.2   U.S. Formal Public Meetings ...........................................6-5
      6.3   U.S. Local Advisory Council (LAC)
            and Local Agency Group (LAG) ....................................................6-7
      6.4   Other Meetings and Public Involvement........................................6-8
            6.4.1   MDOT Real Estate Meetings with Property
                    Owners in the DRIC Study Area ......................................6-8
            6.4.2   Joint Transportation Committee Meetings .......................6-8
            6.4.3   Other Public Involvement ................................................6-8
            6.4.4   Boat and Bus Tours.........................................................6-9

Section 7 – List of Preparers..........................................................................7-1
      Consultant Disclosure Statement.............................................................7-7

Section 8 – Distribution List...........................................................................8-1

Section 9 – List of Acronyms.........................................................................9-1




          Detroit River International Crossing Study Draft Environmental Impact Statement
                                                  iv
              Appendices
                   Appendix A                                Conceptual-Stage Relocation Plan................................. A-1
                   Appendix B                                Partnership Framework, Charter,
                                                             and Memorandum of Cooperation .................................. B-1
                            Appendix C                       Concurrence by Federal Highway Administration
                                                             of Illustrative Alternatives Analysis and Results ............. C-1
                            Appendix D                       Environmental Justice Analysis Approach...................... D-1
                            Appendix E                       State Historic Preservation Officer Letters
                                                             and Draft Memorandum of Agreement Among
                                                             the Michigan Department of Transportation,
                                                             the Federal Highway Administration
                                                             and the Michigan State Historic Preservation Officer ..... E-1
                            Appendix F                       Responses to Comments Made During Scoping
                                                             and Other Agency Correspondence ................................F-1
                            Appendix G                       Summary of Geotechnical Advisory Group Activities...... G-1
                            Appendix H                       Local Advisory Council
                                                             and Local Agency Group Members ................................ H-1


                            Technical Reports (Under Separate Cover and Listed Alphabetically). These
                            can be viewed on the project Web site (www.partnershipborderstudy.com) or
                            at the locations listed in the Preface to this DEIS.
                                • Air Quality Impact Analysis Technical Report
                                • Brine Well Cavity Investigation Program Technical Report
                                • Community Inventory Technical Report
                                • Conceptual Engineering Technical Report
                                • Cultural Analysis – Aboveground Investigations Technical Report
                                • Cultural Analysis – Archaeological Investigations Technical Report
                                • Evaluation of Illustrative Alternatives
                                • Indirect and Cumulative Impact Analysis Technical Report
                                • Induced Demand Analysis Technical Report
                                • Initial Site Assessment and Preliminary Site Investigation Technical
                                    Report
                                • Level 1 Traffic Analysis Technical Report
                                • Level 2 Traffic Analysis Technical Report – Part 1: Travel Demand
                                    Model and Results
                                • Level 2 Traffic Analysis Technical Report – Part 2: Microsimulation
                                    Model and Results
                                • Noise Study Technical Report
                                • Wetland, Threatened and Endangered Species and Coastal Zone
                                    Management Technical Report


i:\projects\3600\wp\reports\deis\sections\draft 6 - restructured 2-10-08\final - double sided\toc.doc




                              Detroit River International Crossing Study Draft Environmental Impact Statement
                                                                      v
List of Figures
     Figure 1-1     Existing Detroit River International Crossings ..............................1-1
     Figure 1-2     U.S. Area of Analysis for Crossing System ..................................1-4
     Figure 1-3     Travel Demand vs. Capacity:
                    Combined Detroit River Crossings .............................................1-10

     Figure 2-1     Area of Focus for Detroit River International Crossing Study
                    Based on Planning/Needs and Feasibility Study..........................2-1
     Figure 2-2     Preliminary End-to-End Illustrative Alternatives ...........................2-3
     Figure 2-3     Alternatives Evaluation Process...................................................2-7
     Figure 2-4     Area of Focus Based on Weighted Performance Analysis ...........2-8
     Figure 2-5     Area of Continued Analyses.......................................................2-13
     Figure 2-6     Area of Continued Analysis – Plaza Zone ..................................2-15
     Figure 2-7A    Crossing X-10 Preliminary Practical Alternative #1 ....................2-16
     Figure 2-7B    Crossing X-10 Preliminary Practical Alternative #2 ....................2-17
     Figure 2-7C    Crossing X-10 Preliminary Practical Alternative #3 ....................2-18
     Figure 2-7D    Crossing X-10 Preliminary Practical Alternative #4 ....................2-19
     Figure 2-7E    Crossing X-10 Preliminary Practical Alternative #5 ....................2-20
     Figure 2-8A    Crossing X-11 Preliminary Practical Alternative #6 ....................2-21
     Figure 2-8B    Crossing X-11 Preliminary Practical Alternative #7 ....................2-22
     Figure 2-8C    Crossing X-11 Preliminary Practical Alternative #8 ....................2-23
     Figure 2-8D    Crossing X-11 Preliminary Practical Alternative #9 ....................2-24
     Figure 2-8E    Crossing X-11 Preliminary Practical Alternative #10 ..................2-25
     Figure 2-8F    Crossing X-11 Preliminary Practical Alternative #11 ..................2-26
     Figure 2-8G    Crossing X-11 Preliminary Practical Alternative #12 ..................2-27
     Figure 2-8H    Crossing X-11 Preliminary Practical Alternative #13 ..................2-28
     Figure 2-9A    Preliminary Alternative Plaza Layout P-a ...................................2-29
     Figure 2-9B    Preliminary Alternative Plaza Layout P-b ...................................2-30
     Figure 2-9C    Preliminary Alternative Plaza Layout P-c ...................................2-31
     Figure 2-9D    Preliminary Alternative Plaza Layout P-d ...................................2-32
     Figure 2-10    Alternative #14 – Interchange Concept G Developed
                    Through Value Planning.............................................................2-34
     Figure 2-10A   Alternative #15 – Interchange Concept H Developed
                    Through Value Planning.............................................................3-34
     Figure 2-11A   Crossing X-10 Practical Alternative #1.......................................2-38
     Figure 2-11B   Crossing X-10 Practical Alternative #2.......................................2-39
     Figure 2-11C   Crossing X-10 Practical Alternative #3.......................................2-40
     Figure 2-11D   Crossing X-10 Practical Alternative #5.......................................2-41
     Figure 2-11E   Crossing X-10 Practical Alternative #14 .....................................2-42
     Figure 2-11F   Crossing X-10 Practical Alternative #16 .....................................2-43
     Figure 2-12A   Crossing X-11 Practical Alternative #7.......................................2-44
     Figure 2-12B   Crossing X-11 Practical Alternative #9.......................................2-45
     Figure 2-12C   Crossing X-11 Practical Alternative #11 .....................................2-46
     Figure 2-13    Proposed Bridge Typical Cross Section .....................................2-48
     Figure 2-14    Bridge Type Study – Final Bridge Options .................................2-50

            Detroit River International Crossing Study Draft Environmental Impact Statement
                                                    vi
Figure 3-1   Population Trends in Southeast Michigan ....................................3-2
Figure 3-2   Peak Growth by Community in Southeast Michigan, 1900-2000 .3-3
Figure 3-3   Study Area ...................................................................................3-5
Figure 3-4   Neighborhoods/Communities in the Study Area...........................3-6
Figure 3-5   Vacant Parcels in the Delray Study Area .....................................3-8
Figure 3-6   Occupied Dwelling Units in the Delray Study Area.......................3-9
Figure 3-6A  Delray Neighborhood in Southwest Detroit ...............................3-10
Figure 3-6B  Springwells Village Neighborhood in Southwest Detroit.............3-13
Figure 3-6C  Vernor-Junction Neighborhood in Southwest Detroit .................3-15
Figure 3-7   Community Facilities in Study Area............................................3-17
Figure 3-8   Major Employers in Study Area..................................................3-20
Figure 3-9   Crossing System Footprint .........................................................3-23
Figure 3-10  Total Employment, Southeast Michigan, 2001-2035..................3-35
Figure 3-11  Total Population, Southeast Michigan, 2001-2035.....................3-35
Figure 3-12  Employment Redistribution Net Impact
             by Traffic Analysis Zone .............................................................3-38
Figure 3-13 Changes in Accessibility Indices
             2005-2035 Build Scenario ..........................................................3-40
Figure 3-14 Relation of Detroit Master Plan of Policies and the Study Area..3-43
Figure 3-15 Continuing-Trends Land Use Pattern
             without a New River Crossing ....................................................3-45
Figure 3-16 Community-based Delray Land Use Pattern
             without a New River Crossing ....................................................3-45
Figure 3-17A Community-based Delray Land Use Pattern
             with a New DRIC Crossing.........................................................3-47
Figure 3-17B Conceptual Depiction of Community-based Delray
             Land Use Pattern with a New DRIC Crossing ............................3-47
Figure 3-18 Model Network for Alternatives #1, #2, #3, #14 and #16............3-50
Figure 3-19 Model Network for Alternatives #7, #9 and #11..........................3-50
Figure 3-20 Direction of Traffic Flows to/from I-75 ........................................3-54
Figure 3-21 VMT/VHT Analysis Area.............................................................3-57
Figure 3-22 VISSIM Model ............................................................................3-61
Figure 3-23 Using Highway Capacity Manual Analyses – I-75 between
             Dearborn Avenue and the Ambassador Gateway Ramps..........3-63
Figure 3-24 Local Road and Ramp Closures and Additions..........................3-65
Figure 3-25 Pedestrian Crossings .................................................................3-73
Figure 3-26 Bus Routes and Pedestrian Links ..............................................3-76
Figure 3-27 MOBILE6.2 Emission Factor Trends..........................................3-82
Figure 3-28 Sensitive Air Quality Receptors..................................................3-86
Figure 3-29 CO Hot-spots .............................................................................3-91
Figure 3-30 Project Area and Noise Sensitive Receivers ..............................3-97
Figure 3-31 Existing Noise in Plaza Area ......................................................3-98
Figure 3-32 Existing Noise along I-75............................................................3-99
Figure 3-33 Why Noise Walls Are Not Always Feasible ..............................3-103
Figure 3-34 Wetland Delineation – Crossing X-11 ......................................3-109

          Detroit River International Crossing Study Draft Environmental Impact Statement
                                                  vii
Figure 3-35    Aboveground Resources on or Recommended Eligible
               for Listing in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) .3-113
Figure 3-36    Affected Parks..........................................................................3-124
Figure 3-37    Cable-stay Bridge Concept Developed through Stakeholder
               Engagement Workshop – Views from U.S.
               Looking Towards Detroit River .................................................3-127
Figure 3-38    Suspension Bridge Concept Developed through Stakeholder
               Engagement Workshop – Views from U.S.
               Looking Towards Detroit River .................................................3-128
Figure 3-39    Urban Design Treatments along Fort Street
               near Southwestern High School...............................................3-129
Figure 3-40    Urban Design Treatments along the Proposed Gateway
               Boulevard South of Fort Street.................................................3-130
Figure 3-41    Urban Design Treatments along Junction near
               the Delray Rail Line..................................................................3-131
Figure 3-42    Urban Design Treatments along Melville
               near Westend Street ................................................................3-132
Figure 3-43    Medium- and High-rated Sites for Contamination
               Initial Site Assessment .............................................................3-140
Figure 3-44    Canadian Crossings and Plazas ..............................................3-152
Figure 3-45A   Armanda Street Area of Windsor –
               Plaza A and Access Roads ......................................................3-153
Figure 3-45B   Armanda Street Area of Windsor –
               Plaza B, B1 and Access Roads................................................3-154
Figure 3-45C   Armanda Street Area of Windsor –
               Plaza C and Access Roads......................................................3-155
Figure 3-46    Natural Features Impacts of Plaza C/
               Crossing X-11 in Canada .........................................................3-161
Figure 3-47A   Natural Features Impacts of Plaza B1/Crossing X-10B
               in Canada.................................................................................3-163
Figure 3-47B   Natural Features Impacts of Plaza B/Crossing X-11
               in Canada.................................................................................3-165
Figure 3-47C   Natural Features Impacts of Plaza A/Crossing X-11
               via Ojibway Parkway in Canada...............................................3-167
Figure 3-48A   Natural Features Impacts of Plaza A/Crossing X-11
               via Brighton Beach in Canada..................................................3-169
Figure 3-48B   Natural Features Impacts of Plaza A/Crossing X-11
               in Canada.................................................................................3-171
Figure 3-48C   Natural Features Impacts of Plaza A/Crossing X-10A
               in Canada.................................................................................3-173
Figure 3-49A   Natural Features Impacts of Plaza A/Crossing X-11
               via Ojibway Parkway in Canada...............................................3-175
Figure 3-49B   Natural Features Impacts of Plaza A/Crossing X-11
               via Brighton Beach in Canada..................................................3-177
Figure 3-50    Canadian Sinkhole ...................................................................3-195
Figure 3-51A   Test Boring Location Plan – Site X-10 .....................................3-197
Figure 3-51B   Test Boring Location Plan – Site X-11 .....................................3-197
       Detroit River International Crossing Study Draft Environmental Impact Statement
                                               viii
Figure 3-52    Example Rock Strata in Drilled Holes ......................................3-198
Figure 3-53    Crosswell Concept ...................................................................3-198
Figure 3-54    Apparent Anomalies.................................................................3-200
Figure 3-55    Extent of Solution Mining Influences in Canada .......................3-202

Figure 5-1A    Berwalt Manor Apartment Building,
               760 South Campbell Street ..........................................................5-7
Figure 5-1B    Aerial View of Berwalt Manor Apartment Building ........................5-7
Figure 5-2A    Kovacs Bar, 6982 West Jefferson Avenue ...................................5-9
Figure 5-2B    Aerial View of Kovacs Bar ............................................................5-9
Figure 5-3A    St. Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church,
               579 South Rademacher Street...................................................5-11
Figure 5-3B    Aerial View of St. Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church ......5-11
Figure 5-4A    Frank H. Beard School, 8840 North Waterman Street ...............5-13
Figure 5-4B    Aerial View of Frank H. Beard School ........................................5-13
Figure 5-5A    Detroit Savings Bank/George International Building,
               5705 West Fort Street ................................................................5-14
Figure 5-5B    Aerial View of Detroit Savings Bank/
               George International Building.....................................................5-15
Figure 5-6     Affected Parks............................................................................5-17
Figure 5-7     Use of Beard School Property....................................................5-22




       Detroit River International Crossing Study Draft Environmental Impact Statement
                                               ix
List of Tables
     Table 1-1        Costs in 2035 of Not Addressing Congestion
                      at the Detroit River Border ............................................................1-6
     Table 1-2        2004 Daily International Traffic (Two-way) Crossing
                      at Windsor-Detroit By Vehicle and Trip Type ................................1-9

     Table 2-1        Evaluation of DRTP Proposal Regional Mobility Characteristics
                      2035 PM Peak Hour Traffic...........................................................2-9
     Table 2-2        International Traffic Volume and Maximum
                      Volume-over-Capacity Ratios (V/C) for Key Regional Links
                      2035 PM Peak Hour Traffic...........................................................2-9
     Table 2-3A       Analysis of DRTP with Downriver Crossing X-2 + Ambassador
                      Bridge + Detroit-Windsor Tunnel + Blue Water Bridge
                      2035 PM Peak Hour Traffic.........................................................2-10
     Table 2-3B       Analysis of DRTP with Downriver Crossing X-4 + Ambassador
                      Bridge + Detroit-Windsor Tunnel + Blue Water Bridge
                      2035 PM Peak Hour Traffic.........................................................2-10
     Table 2-3C       Analysis of DRTP with Central Crossing X-11 + Ambassador
                      Bridge + Detroit-Windsor Tunnel + Blue Water Bridge
                      2035 PM Peak Hour Traffic.........................................................2-11
     Table 2-4        Preliminary Practical Alternatives Labeling System ....................2-14
     Table 2-5        Crossing System Alternatives Included in DRIC DEIS ................2-37

     Table 3-1   Population Peaks – Wayne County
                 and Study Area Communities .......................................................3-4
     Table 3-2   Employment Trends in Wayne County
                 and Study Area Communities .......................................................3-4
     Table 3-2A Demographics – Delray Neighborhood .......................................3-11
     Table 3-2B Demographics – Springwells Village Neighborhood....................3-12
     Table 3-2C Demographics – Vernor-Junction Neighborhood ........................3-16
     Table 3-3   Potential Relocations ..................................................................3-22
     Table 3-4   2000 Population and Total Households for Groups
                 Covered by Environmental Justice Regulations ..........................3-27
     Table 3-5   2000 Population for Groups
                 Covered by Title VI Federal Regulations.....................................3-27
     Table 3-6   Delray Study Area Demographics ...............................................3-28
     Table 3-6A Delray Neighborhood Demographics Compared
                 to SEMCOG Region....................................................................3-29
     Table 3-7   Expected Developments in Study Area.......................................3-34
     Table 3-8   2030 Revised Population Forecast by SEMCOG........................3-36
     Table 3-9   2030 Revised Employment Forecast by SEMCOG.....................3-37
     Table 3-10 Impact of DRIC on Redistribution
                 of 2005-2035 Employment Forecasts .........................................3-39
     Table 3-11A Maximum Two-way Crossing Volumes:
                 Proposed DRIC Crossing............................................................3-51

              Detroit River International Crossing Study Draft Environmental Impact Statement
                                                      x
Table 3-11B PM 2035 Peak Hour Volumes .....................................................3-52
Table 3-12A Maximum Two-way Crossing Volumes
            Proposed DRIC Crossing and Ambassador Bridge.....................3-53
Table 3-12B 2035 PM Peak Hour Directional Comparison..............................3-55
Table 3-13 2035 PM Peak Hour Vehicle Miles Traveled
            and Vehicle Hours Traveled – International Traffic Only .............3-58
Table 3-14 Revised Total Trips by Vehicle Class..........................................3-59
Table 3-15 Original and Revised Trip Tables ................................................3-60
Table 3-16 Local Access Considerations ......................................................3-67
Table 3-17 Pedestrian Crossings, Use and Impacts .....................................3-72
Table 3-18 National Ambient Air Quality Standards ......................................3-79
Table 3-19 Vehicle Miles and Hours of Travel (VMT and VHT)
            Comparison – 2013.....................................................................3-85
Table 3-20 MSAT Alternative Comparison 2013 and 2030
            Daily Pollutant Burden Emissions ...............................................3-88
Table 3-21 CAL3QHC CO Analysis Results..................................................3-90
Table 3-22 FHWA – Noise Abatement Criteria..............................................3-96
Table 3-23 Plaza Area Noise Levels (Leq(1h)) ...........................................3-100
Table 3-24 Existing and Future (2035) Alternative Noise Conditions –
            No Mitigation (Leq(1h)) Noise Levels ........................................3-101
Table 3-25 Practical Alternatives –
            Feasible and Reasonable Noise Walls......................................3-105
Table 3-26 Summary of Project Effects on Recommended
            National Register Eligible Cultural Resources...........................3-121
Table 3-27 Contamination Summary – Medium- and High-rated Sites .......3-141
Table 3-28 Summary of U.S. Indirect Impacts – The No Build Condition
            Versus the Build Condition........................................................3-145
Table 3-29 Analysis of DRTP Truck-only Tunnel with DRIC X-10
            Crossing + Ambassador Bridge + Detroit-Windsor Tunnel
            2035 PM Peak Hour Traffic .......................................................3-181
Table 3-30 Analysis of DRIC Crossing Traffic with Ambassador
            Bridge at Four Lanes and Six Lanes
            2035 PM Peak Hour Traffic .......................................................3-182
Table 3-31A Summary of U.S. Cumulative Impacts
            The No Build Condition Versus the Build Condition ..................3-183
Table 3-31B Summary of U.S. Transboundary/Canadian Impacts
            The No Build Condition Versus the Build Condition ..................3-185
Table 3-32 Permitting and Other Major Agency Actions .............................3-204
Table 3-33 Estimate of Construction and Related Costs.............................3-206

Table 5-1       Use of Potential National Register Eligible Cultural
                Resources and Recreational Resources.......................................5-2

Table 6-1       Agency Meetings...........................................................................6-2




         Detroit River International Crossing Study Draft Environmental Impact Statement
                                                 xi
List of Sidebars
     What is a Practical Alternative? ..........................................................................1-4
     What does Military/Industrial Logistics Mean?....................................................1-7
     What is NEXUS? ..............................................................................................1-11
     What is FAST? .................................................................................................1-11
     What is Redundancy? ......................................................................................1-13

     Illustrative Alternatives........................................................................................2-3
     What is Value Analysis/Value Planning? ..........................................................2-33
     What is a Plaza? What Occurs There?............................................................2-33
     What are Engineering Criteria? ........................................................................2-37

     What are Potential Effects? ................................................................................3-1
     What is a Technical Report?...............................................................................3-1
     What is a Dwelling Unit?...................................................................................3-21
     What is a Renaissance Zone?..........................................................................3-24
     What is an Empowerment Zone? .....................................................................3-24
     What is a Conceptual Stage Relocation Plan? .................................................3-24
     Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act: .................................................................3-25
     What does Executive Order 12898 Cover? ......................................................3-25
     Low-income Populations Are: ...........................................................................3-25
     What is a Brownfield?.......................................................................................3-33
     What are Ripple Effects? ..................................................................................3-39
     What is a Foreign Trade Zone? ........................................................................3-44
     What is a Travel Demand Model? ....................................................................3-49
     What is a Peak Hour?.......................................................................................3-50
     What is Traffic Microsimulation?.......................................................................3-61
     What is Level of Service (LOS)?.......................................................................3-62
     What is the Highway Capacity Manual? ...........................................................3-62
     What is a Diamond Interchange? .....................................................................3-62
     What does Intermodal Mean?...........................................................................3-68
     What is the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Supposed to do? ...............3-71
     What is the Rouge River Gateway?..................................................................3-75
     What is the West Riverfront Walkway?.............................................................3-75
     What is Transportation Conformity? .................................................................3-78
     What is a TIP? ..................................................................................................3-78
     What is NOx? Where does It Come From? .....................................................3-80
     What are VOCs? ..............................................................................................3-80
     What is MOBILE6.2? ........................................................................................3-81
     Where are the Nearest Monitors that Measure Air Pollution?...........................3-83
     What is a Sensitive Receptor?..........................................................................3-86
     Which Air Toxics Coming from Vehicles are of Most Concern?........................3-87
     What are Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses?.............................................3-90
     What is the Clean Air Interstate Rule?..............................................................3-92
     What is TNM2.5?..............................................................................................3-95

               Detroit River International Crossing Study Draft Environmental Impact Statement
                                                       xii
What is a Decibel?............................................................................................3-96
What is a Bird Strike? .....................................................................................3-107
What is the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA)? ................................3-110
What is the Area of Potential Effect (APE)? ...................................................3-110
What is the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP)? .............................3-110
What is Section 4(f)? ......................................................................................3-115
What are Prehistoric Archaeology and Historic Archaeology?........................3-115
What is Use of a Section 4(f) Property? .........................................................3-116
What is Lighting and Light Pollution?..............................................................3-133
What is an 80-degree Cutoff?.........................................................................3-134
What Does Lighting Have to do with Bird Migration?......................................3-135
What is an Initial Site Assessment (ISA)? ......................................................3-137
What is a Preliminary Site Investigation (PSI)? ..............................................3-137
What is a LUST site?......................................................................................3-138
What is a Brownfield?.....................................................................................3-138
What is Remediation? ....................................................................................3-139
What is a Transboundary Impact?..................................................................3-179
What is an Anomaly?......................................................................................3-199

What is Just Compensation? ..............................................................................4-2
What is Fair Market Value? ................................................................................4-2
What are Bituminous and Concrete Plants? .......................................................4-5
What are Soil Erosion and Sedimentation? ........................................................4-5
What is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)? ..........4-7
What is Groundwater?........................................................................................4-7

What is a Protected Resource? ..........................................................................5-1
What is Use of a Section 4(f) Property? .............................................................5-1




          Detroit River International Crossing Study Draft Environmental Impact Statement
                                                  xiii
Detroit River International Crossing Study Draft Environmental Impact Statement
                                        xiv

				
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